%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140901091421+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140901091421+01'00') /Title (Transforming Museums: Mounting Queen Victoria in a Democratic South Africa) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3945 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Transforming Museums: Mounting Queen Victoria in a Democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(South Africa)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The museums and historic sites of South Africa are a highly significant and revealing source of evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating how the country?s various communities have come to terms with their complex history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have chosen to project it publicly. Having been perceived by the vast majority of the population as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mouthpiece for the apartheid government?s interpretation of history and culture, South Africa?s museums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and galleries have faced a significant challenge to establish and justify their role in the democratic era.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.572 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.572 207.777 m 539.564 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a useful time to reflect on the wide-ranging developments in these institutions over the last 14 years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both those with lengthy histories who have adapted themselves to the post-apartheid era and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established since 1994.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museums are valuable case studies for the historian. Through their interpretations and narratives they can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used as a historiographical source. Their displays reflect both curators? ideas and also attempt to reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society at large, although they also have the power to shape social memory and public understanding. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are, however, subject to pressures outside of their scientific, cultural or historical sphere, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental interference, the need to attract audiences both local and from overseas and their local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(720)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Dubin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403974112)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(360pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Longair)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.5717 208.0915 539.5637 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7898 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven C. Dubin has followed his various analyses of museums in the United States with )] TJ ET BT 463.328 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museums: Mounting Queen Victoria in a Democratic South Africa)] TJ ET BT 353.984 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The title refers to an episode in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tatham Art Gallery whose collection included a large-size painting of Queen Victoria. It was decided to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep the painting on display, but in order to create a sense of balance, a competition was set up to select an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artist to paint a portrait of similar dimensions of King Cetshwayo kaMpande, a successor of Shaka Zulu. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some controversy arose when the panel, comprising both white and black judges, selected an all white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortlist, in spite of it being a blind decision \(p. 28\). This example goes some way to demonstrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly sensitive and emotionally-charged challenge of transforming South Africa?s museums into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions that satisfy the needs of their diverse communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his introduction, Dubin opens with the damning assessment of South Africa?s museums in 1997 by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson Mandela where the President publicly criticised their collections and displays \(p. 2\). Dubin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention is to assess the various degrees to which ?transformation? can be said to have taken place across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the museum and gallery sector. Two important publications are precursors to this study. Firstly, Sarah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuttall and Carli Coetzee?s )] TJ ET BT 169.328 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negotiating the Past: The Making of Memory in South Africa)] TJ ET BT 463.652 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 1998 which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included an assessment of the transition of certain historic sites in the early years of the democratic period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.924 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.924 571.491 m 559.916 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2004, Annie Coombes? )] TJ ET BT 163.004 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History After Apartheid)] TJ ET BT 277.004 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focused on museums, monuments and contemporary art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to analyse how they both represented the past and were simultaneously contributing to the concurrent social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.672 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.672 528.723 m 121.664 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.664 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dubin?s book takes a different approach to these studies, in part through the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material he uses as his principal sources. Over six visits in two-and-a-half years, prompted by his first visit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 2000, he undertook over a hundred interviews with artists, curators, politicians, cultural commentators and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum staff. As such, the book has a conversational and informal style which brings the opinions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various cultural agents to the fore. His other principal sources are newspapers, public debates and academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of who has the right to represent culture is interrogated in many of Dubin?s examples. Prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994, South Africa?s black communities had been presented for decades in museums as objects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropological curiosity. Ownership of representation is therefore a highly contentious issue where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities seek to reclaim control of their cultural identities. In Chapter 3, Dubin discusses such struggles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his examination of the depiction of the Khoisan where he highlights the contrasting experiences of art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(galleries and history museums. He uses the much-studied example of the )] TJ ET BT 386.636 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Miscast )] TJ ET BT 426.968 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition of 1995?6 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where artist Pippa Skotnes reinterpreted the famous Bushmen casts from the South African Museum in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(installation piece in the South African National Gallery. Working within the sphere of the fine art allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her the freedom to challenge the audience in ways which a history museum would not have been able. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, with installation art as a relatively recent form of modern art in South Africa, Dubin suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the majority of audiences, not familiar with the different museological strategies or artistic genres, may not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have viewed this as an individual?s interpretation \(p. 65\). The ensuing controversy provoked debate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection, but also provided an important platform for interaction between communities and museums over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership of representation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dubin uses the example of Sarah Bartmann, both her life and the subsequent use of her body, in Chapter 4. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a means to explore how one person?s body became intertwined with different aspects of display over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two centuries. By using this example, he is also able to touch on issues such as repatriation of objects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that even once this is achieved, communities themselves become divided about how to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent or use these highly symbolic relics. In the case of Bartmann?s body, her burial site was contested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by different communities although years later this event has had no legacy and plans to establish a museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the burial site remain as unrealised ideas \(p. 109\). He also mentions the work of modern artists who refer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Bartmann?s life and recognisable image in their work \(p. 86\). It would have been interesting to investigate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further the fact that the artists he mentions are all women from diverse races and backgrounds. They all in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways seek to empower women, in a way Bartmann was never able to, by controlling their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image. Prejudice against women and gender imbalances are highly significant areas of debate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary South Africa, prejudices which cross racial and cultural boundaries.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.9237 571.8055 559.9157 583.6855 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.6717 529.0375 121.6637 540.9175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7481 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5 discusses the renowned District Six Museum through which Dubin approaches another important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic in South African cultural life ? the role of memory. Nuttall and Coetzee assessed this across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural sector in 1998 and highlighted the complex relationships that South Africans have with memory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Public memory was manipulated throughout the apartheid era, in particular through written texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, by extension, museums were treated with suspicion by the black population. Personal memory was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore a vital means of retaining elements of historical truth. Many of the museum and gallery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformations took place concurrently with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission from 1995?8 which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made memory recall a public process and prioritised articulated memories over official texts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of past events. The District Six Museum ?aims to construct a space where memory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community can be reactivated, confronted and explored. ? It prioritizes human interaction, therapy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catharsis over amassing an enviable collection of rarified objects? \(p. 119\). Through its attempt to revive the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of a famously vibrant and multicultural community, razed by the apartheid government, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heritage site grew from a local community project into a world-renowned museum. Though much has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written on the District Six Museum, Dubin?s analysis brings these studies up to date by highlighting some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dangers of its success. By 2004, tourists outnumbered the original constituency. The need for a larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staff has created a more hierarchical structure and, as an independent institution, fundraising has become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central part of its daily routine. The trustees are determined to retain the core values of the museum in spite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these developments. The community remains their priority, but the museum must continue to address the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community?s contemporary needs. Whilst the museum has provided a focus for healing many of the scars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the forced removals, it needs to engage with contemporary economic and social challenges of former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residents if they are still to find a place for the museum in their lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 6 addresses the question of reinvention of existing historic sites, such as the Voortrekker Monument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the prisons on Constitution Hill and Robben Island. In Robben Island, for example, the role of the tour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides has been an interesting case in point ? initially these were all former prisoners who recounted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience from their own perspective. This was an extremely powerful experience for visitors but also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially contentious one. Dubin cites his own experience of a guide who had a highly aggressive approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which did not permit questioning and removed certain aspects of the tour, including a visit to Mandela?s cell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 158\). The variability of experiences, rendered through the personal perspectives of the tour guides, again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompts the question as to who has the right of cultural ownership and representation, and how the museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controls the narrative projected to visitors. A comparison can be made with the exhibition in the Number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four prison in Johannesburg, adjacent to the new Constitutional Court. Here the memories of prisoners again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictate the interpretation of the site, this time through large video screens in the cells of former inmates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounting their harrowing experiences. This prison differs from Robben Island in that it housed not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political prisoners, but also criminal inmates. The issues it openly addresses include not just the oppressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison regime, but also gang culture in the cells and rape between prisoners. Using videos as a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional allowed inmates to describe violence they saw and participated in.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is worth examining the effect of this beyond Dubin?s discussion to compare the way these sites deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their prisoners? memories. The key contrast is where the selection of the narrative takes place. The videos at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Number Four were edited by the museum designers in consultation with the interviewees, whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories revived by Robben Island?s former inmates are immediate but have also been honed over years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice and in general conform to the heroic political prisoner narrative. These two sites represent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing nature of the use of memory in museums ? Robben Island was opened in 1997, Number Four in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006. The latter is an equally visceral experience and deliberately resists a comforting resolution which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflective of current interpretations of the democratic era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new museums established since 1994 are examined in Chapter 7. Dubin describes these institutions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to fill what he calls ?memory holes? in particular the Apartheid Museum and the Hector Pietersen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum \(p. 186\). An interesting area which Dubin touches upon but could be investigated further is how far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these museums are in fact dictated by architects rather than museum experts as government tenders are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issued to architects for the building, prior to collection of contents or consideration of the museum?s story. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the case of the Apartheid Museum, the museum designers were presented with a building which they had )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7617 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to fill with a display. Chapter 8 analyses the nature of museum staffing, as they attempt to become more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative, and their administrative structures. Dubin is particularly critical of the ?flagship museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system? as created in Cape Town and the Johannesburg/Pretoria area \(p. 217\). With funding a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging issue, it is yet to be seen how this will affect the museums in the long term.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter brings to the fore one of Dubin?s main arguments which considers how art galleries have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to confront the challenges encountered through the legacy of colonialism, whereas museums of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, natural science and natural history were more affected by apartheid ideologies. He cites examples of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums across South Africa to demonstrate that ?the call for transformation with superficial additions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes hardly connotes a basic transformation in attitude, and does not significantly expand the scope of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum or its appeal to a broader audience? \(p. 235\). Although superficial changes do not connote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation in his eyes, the criticism here is levelled at two smaller historic house museums that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely to have been given sufficient funding or support to create a fundamental change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, Dubin uses many comparisons, in particular with museums, exhibitions and contexts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in North America. These comparisons seem to be designed principally for an American audience familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the arts heritage literature of his previous work. One interesting comparison was that of the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban centres during the mid-20th century in the US and South Africa \(p. 127\). The comparisons are less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating when, due to the very particular nature of apartheid policy and its legacy, the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references do not help the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the South African context. However, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely important to widen the range of examples to which arts and museums studies? analyses take place, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus this volume holds an important place in bringing South African museums to a wider audience. Dubin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could praise further the response of these museums and their highly original, inventive and dynamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displays. He might also give more detail of the success stories, such as the Talana museum. This has had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient funding for its ambitious and successful building programme, but we do not find out where this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support came from.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The number of images within the book is quite limited, used mainly as illustrations at the start of chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When discussing such a visual subject, the reader relies on Dubin?s brief descriptions of the exhibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displays, urban spaces and artworks. When discussing displays, which themselves are already a selective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision created by the curating and design team, the reader sees only the parts of the exhibition which Dubin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chooses to describe to us. The author did not personally see several of the central exhibitions examples, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the controversial )] TJ ET BT 130.328 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Miscast )] TJ ET BT 170.660 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and one relies upon his description gleaned from the catalogue and the views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the artist and curator. Naturally, in the field of museums studies, one should not limit oneself only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples one has seen or experienced. However, as a reader, one feels at several degrees of separation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the actual installation, with no visual support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Freedom Park project, which he mentions in passing as a legacy project for Thabo Mbeki, is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important example of where politics and cultural display coincide. The site has had various proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarnations, one of which Coombes described, which had Mandela?s fist bursting from the mountain top.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 543.620 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 543.620 248.115 m 557.612 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The current building display is an original attempt to incorporate indigenous knowledge systems into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural display in a coherent manner.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.312 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.312 219.603 m 229.304 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 229.304 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Clive van den Berg, one of Dubin?s interviewees, is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designers involved in this project. Van den Berg is responsible for the design of the Constitution Hill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Number Four exhibit as well as the interior design for the WISER institute in Wits University, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading social science academic institutes. The impact of this network of designers, whose visions are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deemed appropriate to represent contemporary South Africa, and their links to the academic world, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another area worthy of analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a historian, one is forced to question the implication of the dominance of memory across South African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and heritage. The nature of memory, particularly from episodes of pain and conflict, means that it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragile source which has to be used carefully. When displayed in museums and heritage sites, it brings a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal voice which at this moment in South Africa is of primary importance, whereas original or historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artefacts are, especially in new museums, considered secondary. It will be fascinating to observe how these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends develop over the coming years. Dubin has collected a vital series of interviews which, in full, are a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 543.6197 248.4295 557.6117 260.3095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3117 219.9175 229.3037 231.7975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 3367 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly significant archive of historical and museological thinking in this transitionary period of 2003?4. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Already some of the stories are being re-interpreted and the next generation, who will have no direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the apartheid era, will have to choose how to re-negotiate and revisit these histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Davison, ?Museums and the reshaping of memory?, in )] TJ ET BT 368.972 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negotiating the past: the making of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(memory in South Africa,)] TJ ET BT 181.340 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. S. Nuttall and C. Coetzee \(Oxford, 1998\), p. 148. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.308 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.308 686.787 m 495.296 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.348 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.348 672.531 m 140.336 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annie Coombes, )] TJ ET BT 147.680 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History After Apartheid: Visual Culture and Public Memory in a democratic South )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa)] TJ ET BT 94.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.340 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.340 644.019 m 232.328 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 22.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 629.763 m 170.336 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.344 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.344 615.507 m 138.332 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum Anthropology Review Weblog)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://museumanthropology.net/2007/05/28/mar-2007-1-23/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 560.739 m 322.352 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.352 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 557.407 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 539.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 539.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/720)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 538.233 m 322.316 538.233 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 513.256 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3697)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://museumanthropology.net/2007/05/28/mar-2007-1-23/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.3077 687.1015 495.2957 698.9815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3477 672.8455 140.3357 684.7255 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.3397 644.3335 232.3277 656.2135 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.3477 630.0775 170.3357 641.9575 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.3437 615.8215 138.3317 627.7015 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 561.0535 322.3517 572.9335 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://museumanthropology.net/2007/05/28/mar-2007-1-23/) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 538.5475 322.3157 550.4275 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/720) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000004670 00000 n 0000004779 00000 n 0000004889 00000 n 0000004998 00000 n 0000008559 00000 n 0000008687 00000 n 0000008771 00000 n 0000008800 00000 n 0000008928 00000 n 0000008964 00000 n 0000009055 00000 n 0000017006 00000 n 0000017036 00000 n 0000017164 00000 n 0000017200 00000 n 0000017230 00000 n 0000017358 00000 n 0000017394 00000 n 0000017459 00000 n 0000024993 00000 n 0000025084 00000 n 0000032754 00000 n 0000032784 00000 n 0000032912 00000 n 0000032948 00000 n 0000032978 00000 n 0000033106 00000 n 0000033142 00000 n 0000033268 00000 n 0000036688 00000 n 0000036816 00000 n 0000036871 00000 n 0000036998 00000 n 0000037053 00000 n 0000037181 00000 n 0000037236 00000 n 0000037364 00000 n 0000037419 00000 n 0000037546 00000 n 0000037601 00000 n 0000037728 00000 n 0000037835 00000 n 0000037963 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38058 %%EOF