%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818062224+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818062224+01'00') /Title (The African American Woman Golfer: Her Legacy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4169 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The African American Woman Golfer: Her Legacy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Mikell Johnson has produced a groundbreaking work in sports history, which focuses on the exploits and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of black women in golf. JoAnn Gregory-Overstreet notes in the foreword that Johnson?s book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?represents the first complete body of work dedicated to the love of the game of golf exhibited by pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women of color? \(p. ix\). These pioneers ?were seemingly far removed from the white, male, privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of the country club? \(p. ix\). Not only is it a history that was far removed from the white, male world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of golf, but it is one also removed from the historiography of golf and sport histories, even works on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of blacks in sport. This work, therefore, is valuable because no monograph exists on this topic, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson adds to our understanding of golf, blacks in golf, and female sport histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since sport historically has for the most part been considered a male domain, the history of sport has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally highlighted male achievements, and many scholars who write about blacks in sport have also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on black male athletes in an effort to elevate them to recognizable and equal levels in sports history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as their white counterparts. Johnson shows that the black woman golfer not only suffered from racism but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has also had the burden of sexism to contend with. She writes that ?[t]he purpose of this endeavor is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the sport and document the existence of any African American women associated with golf on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amateur or professional level? \(p. 3\). Since only three black women, Althea Gibson, Renee Powell, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LaRee Pearl Sugg, have had notable success on the professional golf tour, it has been assumed that black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(721)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 February, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Mikell Johnson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780313349041)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Praeger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westport, CN)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sundiata Djata)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7204 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women have not played golf \(just as the absence of blacks from other so-called ?white? sports has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken for granted\). This historical work takes issue with that assumption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson identifies over 300 black women golfers, although very little is known about the bulk of the women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned. Nevertheless, Johnson highlights players like Althea Gibson, who broke the Ladies Professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gold Association \(LPGA\) colour line; Ann Gregory, who broke the United States Golf Association \(USGA\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colour line, and Helen Webb Harris, who helped create the first club for black women golfers. Black women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(golfers emerged in a period of racially segregated sport; like black athletes in other sports, they formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregated organisations to allow an expanded arena of competition between players. This was crucial, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these organisations allowed for women to compete with each other locally and nationally. Meanwhile, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black women worked to break those color barriers as well as find a niche in the golf world for women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(golfers. Four women transformed the world of black golf: Marie Thompson \(Jones\) of the Pioneer Club in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, Lucy William \(Mitchell\) of the Douglas Park Course in Indianapolis, Ella C. Abel of the Douglas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Park Course, and Geneva Wilson playing out of Chicago. Johnson was able to acquire more information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about these women than about many black women golfers, whom she calls ?rare birds?. For them, she was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced to tease out whatever biographic information she could find in various sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike the white female golfers, black male golfers rarely had major country clubs, where their wives could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also create women?s groups at the clubs. Even so, many black women learned to play golf from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands, fathers or some other male acquaintance. However, it is important to note that some of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneer women players worked to introduce the sport to black girls. Furthermore, the major efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote the game among black women players were made by black women themselves through their clubs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tournaments, and instruction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a part of an extensive literature review, Johnson lists the black women golfers mentioned in sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference works which specifically focused on blacks in sports, including encyclopedias, almanacs, etc. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of these works mention few black women athletes in general, let alone black women golfers. Gibson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears more than any other black female golfer, but mainly for her exploits in tennis. In addition, Johnson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides ?content analysis? of any reference to black women golfers in ?ethnic? golf books. These books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also mainly focus on black male golfers. Similarly, she analyses two black-owned newspapers, )] TJ ET BT 492.608 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Afro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 80.672 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 104.000 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chicago Defender)] TJ ET BT 213.320 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. They proved to be her most valuable sources in that they include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many photos of black women golfers, identifying many women golfers missing from monographs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references, even if little information is given about them. Often, these black women received notice due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public status of their husbands, and often the captions or articles refer to the husbands, taking space that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been used to give more information about the women. Other times, the only biographical data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented is references to their hometowns or club affiliations. Nevertheless, this information provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major starting place for tracking down many black women golfers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another important aspect in this discussion is the question of gender in sports, and how Title IX of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Educational Amendment of 1972 opened avenues for more participation in sports by women. Although this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amendment was a watershed for women and girls who wanted to participate in sport, many black girls have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still lagged in pursuing it. Many black girls who have played sports have typically selected team sports. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson argues that black women have been pressured to participate in team sports like track and field or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basketball, the traditional ?black? sports. Therefore, few black girls have taken advantage of opportunities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual sports like tennis, swimming, fencing, and golf, for example. Johnson offers as a reason that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been a notion that ?minorities can only function in a team component with a designated role? \(p. 35?36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most valuable parts of the work, however, is the chapter on organisations formed by black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. There were black women clubs in Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and other cities. Moreover, Johnson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that, beginning in the 1930s, black women golfers traveled all over the country to participate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tournaments, bringing many of the top golfers together in high level competitions. The discovery of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black women who played and worked to introduce golf to young black girls shows that more black women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have participated in the sport than previously believed.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6744 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, she shows how some of these women fought to open doors, closed by racism, so that black male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(golfers could participate on all levels of golf, and that rarely, if ever, have these women received recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this work. For example, the women of the Wake Robin Golf Club worked with the men of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golf Club to desegregate the golf courses in Washington, D. C., Maryland, and Virginia. Similarly, others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked to open doors for their fellow women players. For instance, the Chicago Women?s Gold Club )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to the USGA for membership so that Ann Gregory could play in USGA-sanctioned events. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such efforts of these women, the historiography of blacks in golf focuses on those pioneer black male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players as the sole reason for breaking down the walls of segregation in the sport.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As already mentioned, Johnson explains that her research endeavor was hampered by the scant information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given on most of the women. Therefore, it remains unknown how many of the early women golfers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced to golf and what personal struggles they faced in trying to play the game. Unfortunately, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads to logically assuming that these women faced racial and sexual obstacles, but with very little evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to show exactly what those obstacles were, how they manifested in black communities, and how or if these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women overcame them. The fact that so few black women are on the professional tour today strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that many of these barriers still exist. The attitude toward the sport in various black communities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which also affects whether young black girls are introduced to the sport, could also help answer this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question, but it is one that remains unexplored. For instance, Title IX legally opened doors for girls to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in sports, but what other environmental barriers have historically kept black girls from a sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like golf? In addition, the cost to play the sport is also a major consideration. Therefore, race, class, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender have formed triple oppressive possibilities to explore in discussing various issues of black women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport, and in golf in particular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since Gibson wrote two autobiographies, she explained the challenges she faced on the professional tour, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this type of personal information is lacking for most of the golfers. Gibson was unable to sustain herself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financially on the tour. Without major sponsorship, and the inability to land major endorsements, she had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave it. She argued, ?I am not being utilized in the commercial field because I am black.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.256 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.256 416.931 m 480.248 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.248 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If money was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major factor for a player of Gibson?s calibre, not to mention the fact that her recognised achievements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tennis failed to land her endorsements, how much more difficult was it for other aspiring black women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over several chapters, Johnson pulls together whatever information she found on the golfers, and lists each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them in biographical sketches. She includes major figures like Elizabeth W. Brabble, the president of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wake Robin Club; Thelma Cowans, United Golfers Association \(UGA\) National Open Champion; Ethel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Funches, UGA National Open Champion; and Maggie Hathaway, golf civil rights activist. Moreover, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author includes noteworthy information in appendices. For instance, she lists all the photos she found of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black women golfers in the two newspapers she examined. She lists the achievements of the UGA Junior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Girls Program, and the UGA National Open Women?s Championship records.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has been playing golf for over thirty years, and is a member of the Traces Women?s Golf Club. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She has participated in USGA events. Her own experiences and personal knowledge allows for a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the topic. For the most part, Johnson does not present a straight narrative, but lists major aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the history in brief sections. The author makes it clear that there is much work to be done on black women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(golfers, but this work is invaluable as the starting point for additional research. In short, she demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that black women remain on the periphery of many sports due to race, class and gender issues, and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain largely unexplored in the historiography of sports.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 86.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Where Are They Now?, )] TJ ET BT 187.628 86.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newsweek)] TJ ET BT 237.620 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(July 1961\), 24. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.616 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.616 85.059 m 373.604 85.059 l S endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.2557 417.2455 480.2477 429.1255 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.6157 85.3735 373.6037 97.2535 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/721)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3698)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/721) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000004851 00000 n 0000004960 00000 n 0000005070 00000 n 0000005179 00000 n 0000008740 00000 n 0000008868 00000 n 0000008952 00000 n 0000009017 00000 n 0000016274 00000 n 0000016365 00000 n 0000023162 00000 n 0000023192 00000 n 0000023320 00000 n 0000023356 00000 n 0000023482 00000 n 0000023537 00000 n 0000023621 00000 n 0000024428 00000 n 0000024556 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24651 %%EOF