%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 33 0 R 48 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150227101254+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150227101254+00'00') /Title (Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4282 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cars for Comrades)] TJ ET BT 126.692 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a kind of ?total history? of the automobile and ?car culture? in the Soviet Union, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is exhaustively researched and engagingly written. Consisting of six chapters, Professor Siegelbaum?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book covers a wide range of topics, from the early development of the technology and the arrangements for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its production, to the construction of roads and the supporting infrastructure required for the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(automobile use, to the growing market for cars as items of mass consumption and as icons of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. It is one of those rare historical studies that focuses on a particular subject but which succeeds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touching on a vast number of important themes ? political, social, and cultural ? that relate to the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of a unique epoch and its people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first three chapters of )] TJ ET BT 160.976 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cars for Comrades)] TJ ET BT 253.652 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provide case studies in the development of the Soviet car )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, each concentrating on one of the principal automotive manufacturing plants. Each developed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity of its own, grounded in the styles and types of automobiles manufactured, but primarily through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities that built up around the individual plant. While these are the most ?technical? chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulging discussion of engine types and design specifications that \(while necessary\) are probably more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing to the closet ?gear-heads? among Modern European historians, the opening chapters of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide Siegelbaum with an opportunity to develop the discussion of individual and collective experiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of work and of working life under Soviet socialism, themes around which he has forged his reputation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(722)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Siegelbaum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801446382)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik Landis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7793 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional historian.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.672 795.075 m 154.664 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In telling the stories of AMO-ZIL \(located in Moscow\), GAZ \(Nizhnii Novgorod\), and GAZ \(Togliatti\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively, Siegelbaum covers a lot of ground, touching on themes such as foreign investment in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrializing Soviet Union, the crash construction of one-plant cities, the politics of central planning and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Communist Party, as well as the challenges of adaptation to the post-Soviet market. In the latter two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, foreign automotive companies were involved in the construction of major hubs of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(automotive industry: the Austin Company, a specialist construction enterprise from the United States, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily involved in the planning and construction of the entire "Socialist City" complex in Nizhnii )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Novgorod, which would eventually become the home to a community of well over 100,000 persons after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War, while the construction of the Togliatti plant was enabled by the conclusion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial agreement in 1966 between the Soviet state and the Fiat Company worth over $900 million, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largest such deal ever signed by the USSR. While these chapters are filled with discussion of the commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations and decisions that determined the development of the domestic car industry, as well as details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the car models that came off the assembly lines of these three plants, Siegelbaum is at his best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when describing the daily challenges and satisfactions of individual workers and their families drawn to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these three sites of the Soviet industrial landscape. The social impact of urbanization and the endurance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortages and other consequences of poor planning were far from unique to the automotive industry in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR, but Siegelbaum's archival research and oral history bring tremendous texture to these three portraits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Soviet industrial life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early years in the development of the Soviet automotive industry were in the late 1920s and 1930s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the motorcar represented for some an essential part of the modernization of the Soviet Union, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of industrialization that would complement the railway network in integrating the vast, centrally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned economy. Early advocates pushing for state investment in the domestic production of motorcars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echoed the growing public image of the automobile in the West as the symbol of the modern age, both as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph of mass production and as a product of mass consumption. Long captivated by the achievements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Detroit automotive industry, advocates in the USSR claimed that the triumph of socialism could never be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved without the adoption of the motorcar as a quintessentially modern technology, the hopes for which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echoed Lenin's own advocacy of electrification at the end of the civil war. While production levels remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low for many years, organizations promoting automotive development within the Soviet state arranged auto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rallies across the USSR to test the endurance of both drivers and cars alike, but mainly to raise public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of the automobile and to boost public investment. They also raised awareness by demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the distance the USSR needed to travel in order to rival the industrialized societies of the West. In the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first issue in 1928 of Za rulm \(Behind the Wheel\), the official publication of Avtodor, the main automotive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocacy group, statistics were produced that demonstrated just how limited the existing infrastructure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR was; whereas in the USA, there were 450 km of roads for every 10,000 people, in the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that total was 1.7 km.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.348 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.348 245.859 m 151.340 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 151.340 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The media coverage and attendant publicity surrounding auto rallies staged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the late 1920s and 1930s highlighted the poverty of the USSR's road system, which had barely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been extended since the days of the civil war, as a vital element to the campaign encouraging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?automobilisation? of the country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While technology and production statistics remained the benchmark for evaluating the Soviet Union's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances under the first five-year plans of the 1930s, the greater transformation in the mentality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people was never far from the minds of acute observers of the ?Stalin revolution?, just as it had been central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Lenin's musings on the need for ?cultural revolution? in the early 1920s. The famous Russian humourists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ilf and Petrov, known for their satires such as )] TJ ET BT 255.308 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Twelve Chairs)] TJ ET BT 345.980 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 369.308 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Golden Calf)] TJ ET BT 449.312 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, penned a travelogue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which they described their own journey through America in the mid-1930s, and in their chapter devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?remarkable network? of roads crossing the landscape of that country, emphasising that what they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described was ?life, and not only technology?. The roads, and the automobiles that travelled on them, were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of individual and collective experience in the United States, in a manner that was still a distant dream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Soviet advocates of the passenger car. Predictably, though, the greatest early advances in road )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.6717 795.3895 154.6637 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.3477 246.1735 151.3397 258.0535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7580 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction, and indeed in the expansion of car ownership and operation, were made on national security )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds rather than on any more profound concerns relating to the transformation in the mentality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the automobile is one of the most iconic mass-produced products of the 20th century, one whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotations of individualism and independence became synonymous with popular understandings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and American-style capitalism. Indeed, the automobile probably did more to )] TJ ET BT 448.280 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(embourgeoiser)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals and cultures than any single invention. Therefore, as a product of mass consumption, the car )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a vexing problem for Communist Party leaders committed to central economic planning and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideal of collectivism over pernicious individualism. Although it is surprising just how little this troubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators in the Soviet Union at the time of the birth of the Soviet automotive industry, the automobile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a component of a larger dilemma facing the Soviet leadership after World War II. Even before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative living standards became a part of the Cold War struggle, the Soviet leadership faced pressures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to improve the quality of life among its citizens and increase, particularly, the provision of consumer goods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Party leadership proved responsive to these pressures, albeit not in an uncomplicated and direct manner.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 583.491 m 48.008 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With only small gains during Stalin's final years, compromised in part by the demands of reconstruction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the effects of massive harvest failure, the Khrushchev years by comparison proved a boom time for Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers, with the provision of housing ? private rather than communal apartments ? the signature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment made by the state. Private cars, however, were deemed a step too far in the direction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism, and inefficient and ultimately unsatisfactory rental schemes were devised as an alternative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented by investment in public transport. Yet despite the public rhetoric of the Soviet leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denouncing private car ownership ? rhetoric that inevitably filtered down to the street but only had a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and selective influence on popular attitudes ? car production and ownership expanded during Khrushchev's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenure in power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The state's decision to permit the expansion of car ownership and in the driving public is described by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siegelbaum as a ?Faustian bargain? in which the Soviet leadership temporarily secured the acquiescence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the population. While Siegelbaum does not argue the point particularly forcefully, he clearly does see the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union as an interesting test case for the concept of ?automobility?, most importantly articulated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sociologist Brian Urry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.008 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.008 359.907 m 176.000 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 176.000 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For Urry, the societies that embrace the passenger car become locked into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system that is self-organising, autonomous, and, it would seem, universal, exercising a profound influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on individuals and society at large. This involves a move away from public transport, of course, but it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means the development of attendant technologies and infrastructure, from roads to reliable supplies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petroleum. While recent authors have developed the history of the automobile and the influence it has upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in more predictable contexts )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.648 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.648 288.627 m 223.640 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.640 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Siegelbaum's story of the automobile under Soviet socialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents an interesting testing ground for evaluating the universalizing aspects of car ownership and use. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the automobile, the iconic image of Western individualism and freedom, in the USSR, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beacon of socialism and the promise of a Communist future, becomes a case study in the failure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union to construct and sustain an alternative to Western modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no single answer as to quite why car ownership would expand so rapidly under Leonid Brezhnev, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it was certainly in keeping with the ideological laxity and materialism of the day, both qualities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personified by the car-loving General Secretary. The state at this time played its own significant role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermining any popular commitment to collectivism through the creation and tolerance of shortages ? long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing characteristics of the planned economy that were only accentuated with the expansion of the range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consumer goods promised to the Soviet population. Siegelbaum appears to suggest that the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(car ownership in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s deepened the Soviet people?s attachment to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private world of commerce more by necessity than by desire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than being a clear manifestation of individualism and a demand for autonomy or freedom, car )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership forced conscientious and enthusiastic drivers deeper into the underground economy because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scarcity of spare parts, gasoline, and professional repair services. For example, Siegelbaum cites )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 583.8055 48.0077 595.6855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.0077 360.2215 175.9997 372.1015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.6477 288.9415 223.6397 300.8215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8889 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics that illustrate the limited provision of services for motorists at a time when car ownership was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding rapidly: ?In 1963, there were some seventy thousand individually owned cars in Moscow and all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of eight STOs [service stations, distinct from simple petrol stations]; by 1980, the number of service stations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had increased to thirteen, but the number of cars had risen to an estimated 250,000?. With the state unable or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwilling to meet demand for attendant services, car owners entered into the shady world of midnight auto-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts bazaars, the black market for gasoline \(which predictably dwarfed the official market\), as well as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole host of under-the-table interactions with the state officials, from licensing bureaus to traffic cops, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were pursued out of necessity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mindful of the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, one is tempted to ask whether there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something essential to passenger car ownership and use that instills an individual desire for autonomy, or if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the car simply satisfies an essential human need for such independence and freedom? Of course, it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular revolution that brought the USSR to an end, but the weight of its innumerable internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions, among which must be included ?car culture?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.628 612.003 m 339.620 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.620 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Certainly the fall of the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought with it an explosion of car ownership, much more an expression of suppressed demand than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of failing public services. The wealth that has soared in the country has continued that trend, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making Russia one of the markets that the major automobile manufacturers \(with more hope than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence\) will have to rely upon in the present economic climate. But the challenges of ?automobility? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain, for while the availability of cars is ever expanding, investment in infrastructure has remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woeful, parking and traffic in the major cities is atrocious, and corruption among state officials has gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely unchecked. In spite of the authoritarian methods of the Kremlin, and the high popularity ratings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Russian leadership, one of the groups most consistently involved in protests and acts of defiance over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past three or four years has been motorists, from disgruntled commuters refusing to respect the express lane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserved for high state officials in Moscow, to anti-tax protestors in Vladivostock. While popular revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not even remotely on the horizon, cars and car ownership have not only proved a manifestation of post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet freedom and autonomy, but they have also proved an interesting force for the definition of collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievances and even collective acts of protest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siegelbaum?s other major publications broadly deal with the politics and culture of the urban working )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class, particularly in the 1930s. See Siegelbaum, )] TJ ET BT 299.324 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stakhanovism and the Politics of Productivity in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(USSR, 1935?1941)] TJ ET BT 152.012 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1988\) and Siegelbaum and Andrei Sokolov, )] TJ ET BT 431.984 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism as a Way of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life: a Narrative in Documents)] TJ ET BT 214.676 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven; London, 2000\). Perhaps not coincidentally, Siegelbaum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Professor of History at Michigan State University, located not far from Detroit and what is, at the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present moment, still the home of the US automotive industry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.680 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.680 263.619 m 417.668 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Za rulm)] TJ ET BT 107.684 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( first appeared in 1928 and continues publishing to this day. The magazine is one of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siegelbaum's principal sources, providing a chronologically ordered touchstone for understanding the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns and hopes of motorists in the USSR.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.672 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.672 220.851 m 338.660 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vera Dunham, )] TJ ET BT 137.660 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Stalin's time: Middleclass Values in Soviet Fiction)] TJ ET BT 392.552 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Durham 1990\); Elena Zubkova, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia)] TJ ET BT 96.020 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( After the War: Hopes, Illusions, and Disappointments, 1945?1957)] TJ ET BT 417.680 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. by H. Ragsdale )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1998\); Julie Hessler, ?A postwar perestroika? Toward a history of private enterprise in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR?, )] TJ ET BT 105.356 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavic Review)] TJ ET BT 172.340 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 57, 3 \(1998\), 516?42; Mark Edele, ?Soviet veterans as an entitlement group, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945?5?, )] TJ ET BT 110.672 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavic Review,)] TJ ET BT 180.656 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 65, 1 \(2006\), 111-37.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.644 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.644 149.571 m 339.632 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Brian Urry, ?The ?system? of automobility?, )] TJ ET BT 368.960 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory, Culture & Society)] TJ ET BT 495.620 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21, 4/5 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(October 2008\), 25-39.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.656 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.656 121.059 m 228.644 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance, the recent book by Cotten Seiler, )] TJ ET BT 289.988 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic of Drivers: A Cultural History of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Automobility in America)] TJ ET BT 182.012 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 2008\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.000 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.000 92.547 m 322.988 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another recent book on Soviet automobiles ? more for the non-academic enthusiast, but still )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly worthwhile ? indirectly highlights another of these contradictions, unexplored by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siegelbaum. Andrew Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 232.664 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cars of the Soviet Union: the Definitive History)] TJ ET BT 462.320 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yeovil, 2008\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.6277 612.3175 339.6197 624.1975 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.6797 263.9335 417.6677 275.8135 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.6717 221.1655 338.6597 233.0455 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.6437 149.8855 339.6317 161.7655 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.6557 121.3735 228.6437 133.2535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.9997 92.8615 322.9877 104.7415 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 2234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains many lavish photographs of Soviet car models drawn mainly from contemporary marketing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature and advertising copy. As such, it raises curious questions about how the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketed its cars abroad. Obviously, many of those exports were within the Soviet bloc, but at the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(height of Thatcher's premiership, the Lada was one of the ten best-selling automobiles in the United )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.352 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.352 738.051 m 169.340 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eh-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/cars-comrades-life-soviet-automobile)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 345.632 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 348.632 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v050/50.4.lundin.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 350.372 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.372 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/722)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 322.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3699)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/cars-comrades-life-soviet-automobile)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v050/50.4.lundin.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.3517 738.3655 169.3397 750.2455 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 683.5975 345.6317 695.4775 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/cars-comrades-life-soviet-automobile) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 350.3717 666.9655 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v050/50.4.lundin.html) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 322.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/722) >> endobj xref 0 58 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000004978 00000 n 0000005087 00000 n 0000005197 00000 n 0000005306 00000 n 0000008867 00000 n 0000008995 00000 n 0000009079 00000 n 0000009170 00000 n 0000017016 00000 n 0000017046 00000 n 0000017174 00000 n 0000017210 00000 n 0000017240 00000 n 0000017368 00000 n 0000017404 00000 n 0000017502 00000 n 0000025135 00000 n 0000025165 00000 n 0000025291 00000 n 0000025327 00000 n 0000025357 00000 n 0000025485 00000 n 0000025521 00000 n 0000025551 00000 n 0000025679 00000 n 0000025715 00000 n 0000025834 00000 n 0000034776 00000 n 0000034806 00000 n 0000034934 00000 n 0000034970 00000 n 0000035098 00000 n 0000035153 00000 n 0000035281 00000 n 0000035336 00000 n 0000035464 00000 n 0000035519 00000 n 0000035647 00000 n 0000035702 00000 n 0000035829 00000 n 0000035884 00000 n 0000035989 00000 n 0000038276 00000 n 0000038404 00000 n 0000038459 00000 n 0000038586 00000 n 0000038701 00000 n 0000038828 00000 n 0000038943 00000 n 0000039071 00000 n trailer << /Size 58 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39166 %%EOF