%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818100920+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818100920+01'00') /Title (Expelling the Germans: British Public Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in Context) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4067 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Expelling the Germans: British Public Opinion and Post-1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Population Transfer in Context)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 8 February 2008, the Polish minister of culture announced that his government would not support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of a centre in Berlin commemorating the expulsion of Germans and other ethnic minorities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century. Initially proposed in the late 1990s by Erika Steinbach, a CDU member of the Bundestag )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and head of the association which represents German expellees, this project has been consistently opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Polish and other East European governments over the last ten years. Repeatedly, Polish and Czech )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians have stated that any centre or exhibition focusing on the consequences of population transfer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be misused to equate the suffering Germans experienced after 1945 with the suffering that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflicted by Germans upon others during the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that Erika Steinbach?s initiative has managed to elicit such a great amount of both positive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative attention is no coincidence. Popular concerns in Poland and the Czech Republic that German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expellees might be able to take advantage of German reunification to assert territorial or financial demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been played upon to gain votes by ambitious nationalist politicians such as Vaclav Klaus, Andzrej )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lepper or the Kaczynski brothers. Conversely, many expellees saw the potential accession of Poland and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Czech Republic into the European Union as an opportunity to challenge the expropriation of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property in 1945 and demand compensation in German and European courts. Despite the strenuous efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(725)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Frank)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199233649)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Clarkson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7696 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many individual Germans, Poles and Czechs to promote national reconciliation, the heated debates caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by attempts to commemorate the expulsion of ethnic Germans demonstrate the extent to which the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy of this form of population transfer can still have a major impact on European political life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The resurgence of this debate has been accompanied by a growing number of historical studies and fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinterpretations of the causes and consequences of population transfer in the 1940s. While Gnther Grass? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Im Krebsgang)] TJ ET BT 102.344 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most prominent of recent novels exploring the mass evacuation of Germans from East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussia, popular histories written by journalists and scholars such as Tomas Urban have continued to sustain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public interest in post-war population transfer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.652 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.652 683.283 m 270.644 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 270.644 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Extensive research on this topic has also been conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by several English-speaking historians, culminating in two excellent recent studies dealing with the forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of ethnic Germans, Pertti Ahonen?s )] TJ ET BT 262.316 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Expulsion: West Germany and Eastern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1945-1990)] TJ ET BT 86.012 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Ian Connor?s )] TJ ET BT 176.660 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees and Expellees in Post-War Germany)] TJ ET BT 398.948 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.948 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.948 640.515 m 415.940 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While most of this research has focused on the experience of the German expellees themselves, Matthew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank has gone on to examine this controversial topic from a different perspective in a book which is both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating and frustrating. In )] TJ ET BT 178.988 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expelling the Germans: British Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Context)] TJ ET BT 71.348 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Frank has put together a study which explores the response of the British political class as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider British public towards population transfer in the run-up to and aftermath of the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. In the process, this book demonstrates that the social and political impact of the expulsions was not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited to Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia. It is to Frank?s credit that this study sheds light on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed and often anguished public debates in Britain surrounding the forced removal of German civilians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Eastern Europe. By focusing on an aspect of the expulsions which has been largely ignored by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, Frank?s research has demonstrated the extent to which the expulsion of ethnic Germans affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy-making in London throughout this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a shift in emphasis has been long overdue. While the great number of detailed and often highly partisan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the expulsions have provided a wealth of information about Polish, German and Czech responses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the forced relocation of ethnic minorities after 1945, the research work which has been done on British, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American or Soviet attitudes has largely focused on high-level diplomatic exchanges in the build-up to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Frank?s thorough examination of policy debates in London surrounding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficacy of population transfer before and during the Second World War gives a strong sense of the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional context in which British government policy towards the expulsion of ethnic Germans was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Particularly significant is his analysis of how forced population exchanges between Greece and Turkey in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-1920s influenced the attitudes of British politicians and officials towards ethnic tensions in Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe in subsequent decades. While Frank?s research confirms that initial British assessments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of minority populations, whose fate was decided by representatives of the Greek and Turkish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments in Lausanne in 1922, were largely positive, he also demonstrates that many senior figures in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the House of Commons and the Foreign Office were aware of the social and economic disruption that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of peoples had caused in Anatolia and the Balkans \(pp. 20?5\). His examination of British policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates surrounding population transfer during the Second World War itself paint the picture of a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class which may see expulsion as a political inevitability, but is certainly aware that this was unlikely to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?quick? or ?clean? process \(pp. 78? 85\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another fascinating aspect of this study is the information Frank has uncovered on the attempts by British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats and journalists to monitor the actions of Czechs and Poles in the border regions. His description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the initial stance taken by Foreign Office officials observing the actual process of expulsion in territories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Czechoslovak control indicates the extent to which the British political class had accepted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity of population transfer. Yet the growing humanitarian concerns expressed by British diplomats in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Czechoslovakia such as the former SOE agent Harold Perkins over the suffering experienced by Germans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also show how moral ambivalence about these measures began to creep back in among quite senior British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats and journalists in the field as well as in London \(pp. 102? 15\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6517 683.5975 270.6437 695.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.9477 640.8295 415.9397 652.7095 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7430 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank has also managed to find extensive evidence of Czech and Polish exasperation with such British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism. At several points this study describes increasingly acrimonious debates between East European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials and British diplomats and campaigners such as Viktor Gollancz, who expressed concerns about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian consequences of the organized expulsions which took place in late 1945 and early 1946 \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(145?7\). These tensions demonstrate that even without the growing influence of the Soviets, the differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Anglo-American and the Eastern European experience of the Second World War had created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive gulf of understanding. As a consequence, communication between British officials and their Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Czech counterparts, who had to cater to demands for revenge against a minority population which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely supported the Nazi regime, was bound to be fraught with difficulty \(pp. 176?83\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In perhaps some of the strongest passages of this book, Frank examines how this growing alienation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately led to open hostility between Polish and British military officers directly responsible for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer of Germans from East Prussia and Silesia to the British zone in Germany in 1946 \(pp. 245?61\). By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing how the response to the expulsions of British officers and administrators in the field affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates concerning the future of Europe at home, Frank?s study indicates that population transfer in Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe had a considerable knock-on effect on a much wider range of states than has previously been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised. It is to be hoped that in future more detailed investigations of responses to population transfer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other occupying powers in Germany such as France, Canada or the United States will build on this new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach towards the historical legacy of the expulsion of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet while this book is an excellent exploration of the initial response of British officials to population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer in the 1930s and 1940s, it also contains significant weaknesses. In particular, it does not give the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader a sense of how this process, in which thousands of British journalists, army officers, administrators or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats were either directly or indirectly involved, influenced long-term attitudes towards what would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now be described as ?ethnic cleansing?. In fact, the book only really looks beyond the 1940s in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, where Frank simply asserts that in the late 1940s and early 1950s the British government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public quickly abandoned the notion that population transfer was an acceptable solution to ethnic conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 276?8\). Rather than taking an in-depth look at how and why this shift away from the language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?community rights or ?collective responsibility? took place in the decades after 1945, only a few sentences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are devoted to this process in the final paragraphs. These brief passages simply assert that ?the rhetoric and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal framework of human rights, which henceforth became a salient feature of the post-war settlement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped militate against the revival of grand schemes for internationally sanctioned population transfers? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(278\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank is right to contend that the ambivalent response of the British towards population transfer in Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe led British governments to ultimately reject the idea that this was an acceptable means with which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end ethnic conflict in territories outside of their direct control. Yet the issue is less clear cut when it comes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of similar tactics against ideological opponents within the \(shrinking\) British sphere of influence. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank himself admits, throughout the decolonisation process massive shifts of population took place across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire. Though he claims that the population exchanges that took place in India after partition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not been planned for by the Indian Civil Service, there is considerable evidence indicating that at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some British officials believed that the mass flight of Hindus to India and Muslims to Pakistan in the wake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the collapse of British control would ultimately lead to the creation of more ethnically homogeneous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stable states in South Asia.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.016 176.835 m 177.008 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In stark contrast to Frank?s assertion that population transfer was a ?limited solution but also a strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continental European one? \(p. 277\), there is a considerable body of evidence pointing in the opposite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction. Even in situations in which the British had a much greater degree of control over the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial withdrawal than was the case in India, officers and administrators were prepared to use forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population transfer in order to achieve their long-term political goals. In the counterinsurgency campaigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against communist guerrillas in Malaya which began in the late 1940s and ended in 1957, British military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanders moved large numbers of Chinese and Malay peasants from their old villages into fortified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encampments in order to achieve greater control over the countryside. This use of population transfer to win )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.0157 177.1495 177.0077 189.0295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7470 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hearts and minds? and limit insurgent access to local populations was a strategy which was subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emulated by British as well as French and American officers in similar conflicts across the Third World.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.932 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.932 780.819 m 548.924 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusion Frank claims that there were few connections between the ethnic conflicts caused by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonisation and population transfer in Germany \(p. 277\). Yet many of the British officials and journalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stationed in Germany and Eastern Europe in the late 1940s went on to take a prominent part in the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts in Asia and Africa in which the British forcibly relocated local populations in order to defeat their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological opponents. For example, the Director of Civil Affairs and Military Government in the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zone, Major-General Gerald Templer, who witnessed the humanitarian consequences of the population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer of ethnic Germans went on to become the commander of British forces in Malaya, where he initiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?fortified encampments? programme which led to another form of population transfer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.256 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.256 654.771 m 471.248 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Frank has produced a book which manages to provide new perspectives in a field which has largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the impact of population transfer on Germany and Eastern Europe. In the process, this study has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated how the political legacy of the expulsion of ethnic Germans from Poland and Czechoslovakia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be of relevance to countries such as Britain, where fierce debates between expellee lobbyists like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erika Steinbach and Polish or Czech nationalists have elicited little attention from the media. Yet this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not build on this excellent research to examine how first hand experience of these expulsions may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected the behaviour of British administrators and military officers when facing ethnic conflict and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological challenge after the 1940s. As a consequence this book fails to provide the reader with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate analysis of the long term impact population transfer in 1940s Europe may have had upon British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy-making and the British public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Grass, Im Krebsgang \(Gttingen, 2002\) and T. Urban, Der Verlust: die Vertreibung der Deutschen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(und Polen im 20. Jahrhundert \(Munich, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.000 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.000 420.435 m 340.988 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Ahonen, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Expulsion: West Germany and Eastern Europe 1945?1990)] TJ ET BT 447.980 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\) and I. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connor, )] TJ ET BT 106.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees and Expellees in Post-War Germany)] TJ ET BT 328.304 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.276 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.276 391.923 m 482.264 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Brass, ?The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946?47: means, methods, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes?, Journal of Genocide Research, 5 \(2003\), 71?101.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.612 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.612 363.411 m 407.600 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example J. Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Vietnam, \(Chicago, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.660 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.660 334.899 m 266.648 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For more detail see P. Deery, ?Malaya, 1948: Britain?s Cold War??, )] TJ ET BT 394.952 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Cold War Studies)] TJ ET BT 532.292 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\), 29?54 and S. C. Smith, ?General Templer and counter-insurgency in Malaya: hearts and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minds, intelligence, and propaganda?, )] TJ ET BT 248.984 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence and National Security)] TJ ET BT 413.972 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16 \(2001\), 60?78.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.292 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.292 292.131 m 559.280 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/508/767.short)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 237.363 m 320.336 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 323.336 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 208.851 m 240.992 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 205.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 187.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 187.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/725)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 186.345 m 322.316 186.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3702)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/508/767.short)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=24100)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.9317 781.1335 548.9237 793.0135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.2557 655.0855 471.2477 666.9655 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.9997 420.7495 340.9877 432.6295 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.2757 392.2375 482.2637 404.1175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.6117 363.7255 407.5997 375.6055 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.6597 335.2135 266.6477 347.0935 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.2917 292.4455 559.2797 304.3255 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 237.6775 320.3357 249.5575 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/508/767.short) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 209.1655 240.9917 221.0455 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=24100) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 186.6595 322.3157 198.5395 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/725) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000593 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000004794 00000 n 0000004903 00000 n 0000005013 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000008683 00000 n 0000008811 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000008986 00000 n 0000016735 00000 n 0000016765 00000 n 0000016893 00000 n 0000016929 00000 n 0000016959 00000 n 0000017087 00000 n 0000017123 00000 n 0000017207 00000 n 0000024690 00000 n 0000024720 00000 n 0000024848 00000 n 0000024884 00000 n 0000025031 00000 n 0000032554 00000 n 0000032584 00000 n 0000032712 00000 n 0000032748 00000 n 0000032778 00000 n 0000032906 00000 n 0000032942 00000 n 0000033070 00000 n 0000033125 00000 n 0000033253 00000 n 0000033308 00000 n 0000033436 00000 n 0000033491 00000 n 0000033619 00000 n 0000033674 00000 n 0000033802 00000 n 0000033857 00000 n 0000033984 00000 n 0000034093 00000 n 0000034220 00000 n 0000034321 00000 n 0000034449 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34544 %%EOF