%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721093153+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721093153+01'00') /Title (The Arabian Frontier of the British Raj. Merchants, Rulers and British in the Nineteenth-Century Gulf) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4171 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Arabian Frontier of the British Raj. Merchants, Rulers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(British in the Nineteenth-Century Gulf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arabian Frontier of the British Raj)] TJ ET BT 223.364 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( analyses the infrastructure of British informal empire in the Persian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gulf in the context of the different types of rule exercised by the Government of India in Asia and East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa in the 19th century. Ambitious in scope and geographical breadth, this book is also very detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painstakingly researched using as case studies the Gulf political residency of Bushehr and the native agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bahrain, the latter located in what was known in the 19th century as eastern Arabia, a strip of coastline)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which extended from Kuwait to Muscat in Oman. In contrasting modes of imperial governance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peripheries of British India, Onley compares the Persian Gulf with the patchwork of princely states which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounded Britain?s colonial possessions in the heart of the Indian sub-continent. The author?s main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is that that there were striking similarities between the management of the protected states of India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of those of the Arabian coast. As Lord Curzon, then Viceroy of India, remarked in 1903,)] TJ ET BT 482.252 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[Muscat] is as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much a Native State of the Indian Empire as Lus Beyla or Kelat [in princely India], and far more so than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nepal or Afghanistan? \(p. 217\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By focusing on the Gulf residency and on the native agency system this study adds to the literature which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has advocated a reinterpretation of the foundations of British imperialism in Asia since the 1970s. It draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Ronald Robinson?s seminal theory of collaboration which places emphasis on the indigenous foundations)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(726)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Onley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199228102)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(387pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelida Fuccaro)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8247 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of European imperialism. In this book Onley sets out to demonstrate that the Persian Gulf was administered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along)] TJ ET BT 63.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines similar)] TJ ET BT 125.684 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to those of Britain?s Indian Empire which was ?run by Indians for Britons? \(p. 73\). And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he provides ample evidence to this effect. In Appendix A to the study, for instance, we learn with an)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abundance of detail that the Gulf Residency of Bushehr and its dependencies in Bahrain, Muscat and Sharjah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(among others\) were staffed overwhelmingly by locals. Merchants based in the regional ports, the centres of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperial influence, acted as native agents following a practice adopted by the East India Company in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Indian sub-continent before the 1820s. At the onset of the agency system in the Gulf,)] TJ ET BT 462.620 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindus, Christians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jews were the preferred candidates to fill in the posts. As British interest in the region became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounced after the 1830s, Muslim merchants \(both Arab and Persian\) gradually took over on the grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their religious affinity with the local rulers of tribal descent. Their seemingly more intimate knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous customs was a further bonus which increased their importance in the eyes of the Government of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section dealing with early British agents \(pp. 83?91\) makes a fascinating reading, particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode involving the Bushehr Resident Nicholas Hankey Smith. His refusal to hand over the British flag to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his Indian Muslim successor Mahdi Ali Khan in 1798 highlights the racial and religious prejudices which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervaded the Indian Political Service and the internal friction created by such policies)] TJ ET BT 445.268 570.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 451.268 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Onley attributes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradual demise of the Gulf native agency system in the 1890s and the posting of officers from the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Service to a number of factors: Ottoman expansion)] TJ ET BT 324.980 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Eastern Arabia, the increasing conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between trade and politics which negatively affected the position of native agents and the arms trade which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplied weapons to rebels in the north-western frontier of British India. By the mid-1880s this trade had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become)] TJ ET BT 74.336 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a major bone of contention between the native agent Muhammad Rahim, the ruler of Bahrain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British resident. Ironically, as pointed out by Onley, British firms seem to have been the main suppliers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of weapons creating a peculiar conflict of interest with the Government of India \(pp. 196?7\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Onley?s approach to the Persian Gulf as an imperial frontier of British India unequivocally)] TJ ET BT 473.276 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inward-looking perspectives on Gulf history representing a new and exciting departure in the historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the region. Previously, historians have studied British influence more or less exclusively in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the survival of ruling families and principalities well into the 20th century. In other words, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus has been the military and political protection offered by the Government of India to the tribal rulers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Arab coast.)] TJ ET BT 109.328 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late Rosemarie Said Zahlan famously)] TJ ET BT 313.964 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote that ?the British connection added an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important element to the sovereignty of the states and their rulers?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.968 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.968 357.651 m 368.960 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.960 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In an equally stimulating fashion this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book prompts the reader to re-think the historical roots of the contemporary political geography of the region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is usually considered the preserve of Middle Eastern specialists. The book cover brilliantly illustrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these novel approaches to the Gulf world adopted in Onley?s study. Featuring a section of the Howard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent Map of the British Empire centring on the Arabian Sea and the Gulf waters it exposes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical substance of the political and diplomatic networks which linked the Persian Gulf \(and Arabian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peninsula\) to India while unveiling the artificial nature of the boundaries drawn by academic conventions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To a great extent the Gulf?s Middle East connection is the brainchild of a retrospective reading of regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history which is rooted in the ?Arabisation? of politics and society which occurred with the advent of oil and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity after the Second World War. Before oil the Gulf ports had a markedly cosmopolitan outlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which resembled that of their British native agencies which Onley depicts as ?multinational collaborative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations? \(p. 219\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to explain the ?Indianisation? of the Gulf in the 19th century the author takes the rivalry between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Powers for Asian hegemony)] TJ ET BT 202.976 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as his point of departure, a rivalry which played so large a role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining the global contours of the British Empire drawn in the Howard Vincent map. As the ?gateway to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India? the Persian Gulf featured prominently in the Great Game and in the Eastern Question, the two major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(platforms of European diplomatic and military confrontation in western Asia. Throughout the 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian military and political encroachment in Iran and the turbulent politics of Afghanistan on the north )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western frontier of British India increased the importance of the Persian Gulf, and of the Iranian coast in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, as the bulwark against Russian expansion. At the same time,)] TJ ET BT 379.304 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British anxiety over the control of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas lying to the)] TJ ET BT 119.336 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east of the Red Sea was increased after Napoleon?s invasion of Egypt in 1798 which gave )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.9677 357.9655 368.9597 369.8455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8435 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impetus to Anglo-French disputes over the control of the Ottoman Empire. By the 1880s, when the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies started to make inroads into Eastern Arabia from Basra and Baghdad, the Arab coast gained further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence in the Eastern Question,)] TJ ET BT 211.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompting the Government of India to stipulate exclusive protection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements with a handful of local rulers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The critical apparatus of the study is included in the first three chapters of the book which )] TJ ET BT 468.272 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 512.612 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins and expansion of the residency and native agency systems of British India \(as far west as British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somaliland in East Africa\) and the history of the Indian Political Service. Onley draws on theories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism on the one hand, and on the rich literature on British India in the age of empire on the other. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of intelligence and mediation, which he identifies as the two principal functions of native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agencies across India and the Gulf, is informed by Bayly?s )] TJ ET BT 319.628 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire and Information)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.292 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.292 654.771 m 453.284 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 453.284 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Robinson?s theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of collaboration )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.336 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.336 640.515 m 127.328 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.328 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Fisher?s )] TJ ET BT 193.652 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indirect Rule in India)] TJ ET BT 297.308 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.308 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.308 640.515 m 314.300 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.300 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The last three chapters, which formed the core of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author?s doctoral dissertation, analyse the native agency of Bahrain from around 1816 until 1900. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss in detail its finances and organisation, and the agents? duties and their biographies which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously arranged in chronological order in chapter five according to)] TJ ET BT 388.604 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their tenure of office.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Onley?s book is a remarkable display of bibliographical erudition and knowledge of the subject matter. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossaries, appendices and bibliographies)] TJ ET BT 235.652 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which take up approximately one-third of the study are evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an almost encyclopaedic endeavour which will be extremely useful to any scholars wishing to study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal empire in the Persian Gulf and beyond. For instance, consider the topical structure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographies listing both primary and secondary sources. They range from autobiographies of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials organised by region and studies of British imperialism to merchants in the Gulf and Asia. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appendices contain a wealth of detail hitherto buried in the British archives and in the dusty ledgers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the private collections of Bahrain?s native agents which the author has perused extensively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study is clearly brilliantly researched. However, it is not always incisively)] TJ ET BT 416.636 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued or well organised. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The level of detail it includes is homage to the historian?s craft, a testimony of the skills and minutiae of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metier. Yet the wealth of detail sometimes constrains the narrative flow, and it does not help the reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate the evidence to the overall argument. This study is also overladen with a dense historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus reflecting its bibliographical spread \(however commendable an effort in itself\). In parts the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is left to wonder whether it would have been advisable to produce few articles on the side, which would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided the lengthy literature reviews in the text. See, for example,)] TJ ET BT 359.288 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the detailed analysis of the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the Gulf Residency and native agencies written by British civil servants, travellers and historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 48?52\). A firmer editorial hand would have been welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also some organisational problems which reflect upon the scholarly apparatus of the study. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction is relatively short and although it is quite evocative it should have fleshed out more organically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual issues such as imperialism, collaboration and mediation as a way to introduce the reader to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following chapters. Instead these issues are tackled in some detail in chapters two and three which are quite a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dense read. In chapter three British India?s Native Agency System should perhaps)] TJ ET BT 431.600 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been painted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader strokes following a more succinct and engaging thematic rubric. This chapter is some 40 pages long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and divided into 12 sections inclusive of tables. In chapter two the section ?British Native Agency in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahrain c.1816?1900? effectively deals only with the early years of the Agency and would feature more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriately in part II. Issues of organisation and synthesis \(the latter also evident in some passages in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later chapters\) seem to be symptomatic of the author?s too close reliance on his doctoral dissertation which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms the basis of this study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Informal empire comes alive in chapters four to six which are devoted to Bahrain. These pages depict an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial frontier populated by a multitude of shrewd Arab and Persian native agents, their powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant families and the often physically distant British residents based on the Iranian coast. Evidence of)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the judicial duties exercised by native agents is particularly instructive on the crucial connection between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and politics which underscored British penetration in the region throughout the 19th century. As native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents started to adjudicate commercial cases involving British subjects and dependants after 1861,)] TJ ET BT 513.944 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the protectors of imperial interests par excellence, as well as important arbiters in local politics. In )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.2917 655.0855 453.2837 666.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.3357 640.8295 127.3277 652.7095 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.3077 640.8295 314.2997 652.7095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6334 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these chapters some context on Bahrain which might have been useful for non-Gulf specialists is left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexplained. This is particularly the case of the relationship between merchants and the ruling family which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underscored the development of the port economy of the islands and the foundation of the political structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the principality. This relationship was an integral part of the power triangle which bound merchants and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers to the handful of British Indian officials who served in the Bushehr residency throughout the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. By providing evidence on merchants as intermediaries)] TJ ET BT 340.292 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Gulf residency and the rulers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahrain,)] TJ ET BT 78.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this study offers crucial insights into their role as state makers. That previous studies have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimated this role is the result of the often cursory reading of the literature on the)] TJ ET BT 456.608 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has informed them, a reading which Onley?s study clearly takes to new depths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book of substance. Despite a number of limitations its approach is original and timely and likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspire other)] TJ ET BT 97.340 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars in the field of regional and imperial history. For Gulf and Middle Eastern historians its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main achievement is to ?bring indigenous agency back in? as a way of explaining the workings of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Empire in a regional context. For imperial historians this book will hopefully expand the geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horizons of British India by focusing their attention on the relevance of its peripheries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosemarie Said Zahlan, )] TJ ET BT 182.000 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Modern Gulf States: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arab Emirates and Oman)] TJ ET BT 187.676 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd edn., Reading, 1998\), p. 20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.992 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.992 517.971 m 402.980 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Bayly, )] TJ ET BT 158.348 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(India, 1780?1870)] TJ ET BT 149.348 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.668 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.668 489.459 m 300.656 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RonaldE. Robinson, 'Non-European foundations of European imperialism: sketch for a theory of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration', in )] TJ ET BT 147.836 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in the Theory of Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 322.832 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Roger Owen and B. Sutcliffe \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1972\), pp. 117?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 446.691 m 208.328 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Fisher, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indirect Rule in India: Residents and the Residency System, 1764-1857)] TJ ET BT 483.620 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 418.179 m 149.000 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mej/summary/v063/63.1.floor.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 363.411 m 341.036 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.036 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 334.899 m 240.992 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/2/519.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 306.387 m 281.012 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.012 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 303.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 285.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 285.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/726)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 283.881 m 322.316 283.881 l S 0.000 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