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0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women of the Twelfth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(73)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georges Duby)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745616957)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(104pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745616957)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georges Duby)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745617893)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(160pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745617893)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georges Duby)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745619002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> 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?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6130 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be no response to this review as Georges Duby, the author of this trilogy died, full of honours, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3 December 1996 before even the first of the translated volumes was published. This is the last work of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great medieval historian in which he attempts to forget that he is a man with his own idea of women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tries to get close to the women of the twelfth century. He had been preoccupied with this idea for at least 15 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. In the introduction to )] TJ ET BT 170.000 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knight, the Lady and the Priest)] TJ ET BT 341.672 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1981\) he announced:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What I want to do next is to demystify this male discourse and find out what the position of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women really was in the period with which I am concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 508.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love and Marriage in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 233.660 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1988\) he noted:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The middle ages were resolutely male. All the opinions that reach and inform me were held by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, convinced of the superiority of their sex. I hear only them. Nevertheless, I listen to them )] TJ ET BT 64.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking here about desire, and consequently about women. Men were afraid of them and, to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassure themselves, despised them. My aim is to reveal the hidden part, the feminine. To find )] TJ ET BT 64.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out what women were in those distant times, that is my present endeavour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 374.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of his search for the traces left by women in the twelfth century he says that he became fond of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the women even though he could glimpse only 'shadowy figures, without shape, without depth and without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuality'. \(i.2\) In the end he has to concede defeat and admit that he has found out much more about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men who were the contemporaries of these fleeting images and about how they saw women. The trilogy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends with a gallant, if limp, apology to the women he has been trying to find: 'It was the men, ultimately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who failed women'. \(iii.122\) This admission of defeat at the end of a scholarly career immersed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century is rather disheartening to those of us interested in history of women in the middle ages and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is enlightening to ask why Duby finds women so elusive and to try to explain why his sympathetic male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaze at mediaeval women is so disappointing and ultimately unsatisfactory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not easy to criticise the last work of a master of the historian's craft. This is history in the grand manner: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magisterial, confidently relaxed and redolent of distilled scholarship lightly worn. It is a wonderfully easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read, helped by the excellent translation. The translator so skilfully reproduces Duby's clear and direct style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that modernisms such as 'young girls up for grabs' \(i.48\), churchmen who 'laid it on the line' \(iii.6\) or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young man 'strutting his stuff at tournaments in search of a good catch' \(ii.42\) fail to jar. The tone is personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intimate; Duby speaks directly to his readers, he tells us what he is trying to do, how he is going to do it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and freely admits his limitations and frustrations. There is none of the usual scholarly apparatus: no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes, no bibliography, no index, quotations are from primary sources only and there are very few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to other historians. Occasionally, however, a phrase such as 'recent excavations in this spot have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed...' \(ii.119\) gives an indication of the depth of his knowledge. Duby as a co - editor of the multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume )] TJ ET BT 73.016 91.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire des Femmes)] TJ ET BT 174.332 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, must have been familiar with recent writing about the history of women in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages but he gives little indication of it here. He reveals, however, that he does not approve of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent treatments of women in the twelfth century: 'I have fought long and hard against the hypothesis of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion of women in the feudal age, since the arguments put forward to support this thesis seem to me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(128pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745619002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Kettle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 5832 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconvincing.' \(i.97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duby concedes that 'history has for too long been written without regard for women' but immediately warns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'we must not therefore fall into the opposite trap of conceiving a history of women which pays no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to men'. \(ii.94\) He hopes to explain the relations between the two sexes by a close examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the surviving written evidence. He tries to disarm criticism by saying that he cannot go beyond his texts; 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian of these distant periods has no way of probing the secrets of hearts'. \(ii.133\). He makes it clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he sees himself as a 'positivist' historian:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For me the positive is not the reality of the 'small true facts'; I am well aware that I will never )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve this. The positive is the concrete object, this text which preserves an echo, or a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection, of words and deeds irrevocably lost.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duby is superbly confident in his handling of his chosen texts and can conjure from them some memorable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of women, such as Gunnor, the mistress of Duke Richard I of Normandy who startled her husband )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by asserting her right to turn her back on him in bed once he had married her, or Petronella, the child bride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Arnold III of Ardres observed, 'simple in soul and childlike in body' \(ii.130\), cooling herself by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swimming in a fishpond or Arlette, the mother of William the Conqueror, surrendering herself to his father )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dreaming of a tree growing out of her belly and giving shade to the whole of Normandy He tries hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be sympathetic to women; in the poetic conclusions to each of the volumes he recognises their parlous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition and, although he rejects the feminist viewpoint \(he refuses, for example, to see Eleanor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aquitaine as the 'first heroine of the feminist struggle' \(i.15\)\), he recognises the need to look for the turning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points which punctuate the miserable history of women in the middle ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One must ask why he finds it so difficult to see his women clearly? It may be the nature of the texts which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he knows so well. The authors are not only all male and clerical, they are fixated on masculine values and all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the texts Duby uses, even the fictional ones, are didactic in that they were trying to change the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women behave. It may lie in the period of his enquiry as he admits that the culture of the twelfth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century was a very masculine one. It may be a matter of the region he studies, the country of the langue d'oui)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where even the courtly poets were churchmen. Or it may be the limited group of women from the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranks of society who appear in his texts. Or it may lie in his own ingrained attitudes as an elderly, male and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French medieval historian. For all the excellent clarity of his exposition he can appear patronising about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women he is writing about, for example, 'She retained a portion of reason; pretty small, of course; in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire predominated.' \(i.103\) Occasionally he seems to take a salacious delight in describing the sins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If they had no luck, in default of a partner of good blood, they made do with the menservants, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcing them to have sex with them as if they were bitches on heat. \(iii.6\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or repeating the brutally direct interrogations of women by churchmen:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Have you made what some women as in the habit of making, have you made a certain machine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the right size for you, have you bound it to the site of your sex or that of a woman friend and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 139.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have you fornicated with other evil women, or others with you, with this instrument or another? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(iii.12\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is significant that Duby does not attempt to write a continuous history of women in the twelfth century but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produces three volumes, each with a different emphasis and based on different kinds of sources, which can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be read separately but which are linked by common themes. In the first volume, )] TJ ET BT 419.948 58.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor of Aquitaine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 43.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Six Others)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7453 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the approach is biographical and the main sources are chronicles and romances. He tells the )] TJ ET BT 476.576 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories of seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, three of them real: Eleanor of Aquitaine, Hlise and Juette \(a Flemish widow who became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recluse\), one of them, Mary Magdalen, a legend and three of them: Iseult, Soredamors and Fenice, fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women invented by male authors. In his treatment of the real women he seems concerned to cut them down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to size, to strip away the accretions of legend and reveal how even women who appear to be powerful were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really frail and under the control of men. He is inclined to pity Eleanor of Aquitaine and doubts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authenticity of the correspondence between Hlise and Abelard which he sees as a moral treatise with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lessons to teach about the proper dependence of women on men and the need for women to overcome carnal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desires. He explains the apparently powerful heroines of romance as an attempt to civilise the young men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the courts of northern Europe at a time when more of them were allowed to marry. In these profiles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual women he claims to have identified the three main features of woman's place in the world order of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twelfth century. Women were primarily objects to be used by the men who controlled their space and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their time; since women did not always allow themselves to be controlled, men feared them as naturally bad, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carrying within them the seeds of sin and death; finally women were deceitful because they were weak.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second volume, )] TJ ET BT 134.000 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remembering the Dead)] TJ ET BT 247.304 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is based on one source, the family memorials of the dukes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Normandy, counts of Flanders and other great French families. Here Duby tries to find out what knights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests thought about the women of their blood and what place those women occupied in the households and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies of the twelfth century. Once more the images are fleeting and indistinct: 'lineage, after all, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man's business' and women were merely 'tools of alliance', the bridge between lineages. \(ii.33\). Access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women had to be strictly controlled and their sexual activities contained within well-ordered households. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main method of control was the political act of marriage. 'Women were obliged to submit to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions of the men of the family, whose job it was to make profitable and judicious use of their procreative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capabilities.' \(ii.127\) Duby finds in these family memorials evidence of a strict division between the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domain of men and the private, contained space of women. The separate lives of men and women is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the main themes of the trilogy:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a society which took care that the feminine and the masculine were strictly separated, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assigning each to its place. \(ii.106\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duby concludes that women were expected to be docile daughters, understanding wives, prolific mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, in old age, pious widows. The final function of women within the household was to lead the mourning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their men, prepare their remains for burial and preserve their memory faithfully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the third, and perhaps the most interesting, volume, )] TJ ET BT 310.664 296.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eve and the Church)] TJ ET BT 406.316 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, we reach the real villains, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerical writers of letters, sermons and penetentials, who were 'trapped in their male prejudices and obliged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to keep away from women and fear them'. \(iii.2\) There are four sections: 'The Sins of Women' based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections of sermons and similar didactic and penitential writings; 'The Fall' which tells the story of Eve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from twelfth-century commentaries on Genesis; 'Speaking to Women' based on sermons and letters written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to high born women; and 'Love' which concentrates on the )] TJ ET BT 317.624 225.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Amore)] TJ ET BT 366.608 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Andreas Capellanus. Duby's main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is that the deeply misogynist attitude of churchmen was tempered during the twelfth century as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new meanings of love were developed. The clerical writers in the courts of northern Europe began to address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spiritual needs of women, not only of their preferred audience of virgin nuns but also of married women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose salvation had previously been left to their husbands. The church had a considerable difficulty with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married woman: the 'stumbling block' \(iii.92\) of sex. Just as the church imposed in this century its idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage as a way of curbing sexuality, it decided, Duby argues, to take over from husbands the control of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the behaviour of their wives and held out the hope of salvation to devout married women, provided they did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not take pleasure in physical love. Yet another burden was placed on wives: they were expected to have two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands, one on earth and the other in heaven, each of whom had rights over them. The manuals of courtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love had the same didactic function as letters and sermons in that they were intended to regulate the relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the sexes. In the game of courtly love it was the husband who pulled the strings. As always men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in control, they were the ones that mattered. Women were a race apart, a different and hostile species )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5576 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a constant source of temptation to men. It was necessary to master them, keep them in seclusion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect them from their own natures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duby has not really written a history of women in the twelfth century, his chosen sources do not allow it. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the male context for women but the women themselves have eluded him. Nor is he writing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the relations between the sexes - one side of the equation is missing. He is really writing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of male attitudes towards women. He feels obliged to look for signs of this attitude changing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinks that he has detected some 'slight signs of improvement' in the last two decades of the century with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic upswing and the beginning of the 'feminisation' of Christianity. This improvement, however, does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not amount to more than a slight change in the way that women of the upper classes were controlled by men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seduction replaced rape and the promise of rapture in heaven was held out to wives provided they renounced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure on earth. The church overcame its distaste for women and completed its work of civilising society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by regulating sexual relations to the advantage of men.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The women of this period remained, certainly, subject to the power of men, who still regarded )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as dangerous and frail. A few of the latter, however, and a growing number, discovered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as objects and subjects of love. They looked at them with a less disdainful eye. In this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way, women began imperceptibly to extricate themselves from the heaviest of the shackles in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they were bound by masculine power. \(i.104\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end it amounts to a rather old fashioned, out dated and extremely pessimistic view of the position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the high middle ages. There is little advance on Eileen Power's pioneering work on medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. Duby simply elaborates, with great erudition, on her view that those who wrote about women in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages came from two narrow castes, lay and clerical, who were ignorant of the great mass of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(womankind. He takes a very narrow view of the nature of female power:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nature of women made them unsuitable to the exercise of public power. Some, nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to snatch a few crumbs, but discreetly, and by exploiting their feminine resources. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When they were young, they played on the desire that the sight and the touch of their body )] TJ ET BT 64.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aroused in the bodies of men, that of their husband and those of the knights of the court. In old )] TJ ET BT 64.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age, they relied on the tender regard of their sons. \(ii.145\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and too easily gives up the attempt to get behind 'the screen that is erected before the historian's eyes by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invective and contempt of men.' \(iii.121\). Students often find it difficult to understand the nature and extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of clerical misogyny in the middle ages and I would direct them to the final volume for an inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of clerical attitudes to women but advise them to look elsewhere to find out what life was like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women in the middle ages. It would be interesting to know what Jean Birrell, herself a noted medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, thought about the central themes of these books which she has translated with such skill and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 172.783 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 155.003 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 155.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/73)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 153.609 m 316.316 153.609 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 128.632 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/787)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1023)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1025)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.032 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 153.9235 316.3157 165.8035 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/73) >> endobj xref 0 25 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000360 00000 n 0000000397 00000 n 0000000549 00000 n 0000000631 00000 n 0000003577 00000 n 0000003686 00000 n 0000003796 00000 n 0000003905 00000 n 0000007466 00000 n 0000007594 00000 n 0000007678 00000 n 0000007743 00000 n 0000013926 00000 n 0000014041 00000 n 0000014106 00000 n 0000019991 00000 n 0000020056 00000 n 0000027562 00000 n 0000027646 00000 n 0000033275 00000 n 0000033403 00000 n trailer << /Size 25 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33497 %%EOF