%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141024055908+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141024055908+01'00') /Title (The 19th Century British Library Newspapers website) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5324 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The 19th Century British Library Newspapers website)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 55.676 373.115 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(19th Century British Library Newspapers)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 55.676 371.895 m 255.692 371.895 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 258.692 373.115 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 277.028 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digital archive provides a full run of 48 British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers from the 19th century from 1800 to 1900. It was funded by a grant of 2m from the Joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Information Systems Committee \(JISC\) from April 2004 to make up to two million pages of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library?s newspaper holdings available digitally as a fully searchable database for access by the UK higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and further education communities, its primary audience. It became available from early 2008 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is commercially distributed by Gale Cengage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A key aspect of the project?s construction was an academic user panel which was called upon to assist in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of newspapers and to advise on the usability of the website design. The preliminary list of titles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included at least 160 newspapers, split into London national dailies and weeklies; English regional dailies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and weeklies; and Home Countries?newspapers \(Scottish national, Scottish regional, Welsh, Irish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Irish\). Priority for inclusion was given to newspapers that helped lead particular political or social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements, organized in specialist sub-clusters such as Reform, Chartism, and Home Rule. Cheap papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed at the working classes are also present in the collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To further refine the criteria for selection, an online questionnaire was circulated to stakeholders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential users during February and March 2005. This confirmed the desire for the broadest possible UK )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage within the necessary restrictions of the budget. The initial list was then pruned into four coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands ensuring that titles selected were geographically and politically as representative as possible and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could lay claim to wide circulation or a wide political influence, particularly in their editorials. Included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were several national titles such as )] TJ ET BT 203.312 92.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s Weekly Newspaper,)] TJ ET BT 358.616 92.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Morning Chronicle,)] TJ ET BT 475.616 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( some specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest titles, such as )] TJ ET BT 139.676 78.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Era)] TJ ET BT 178.676 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 202.004 78.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Examiner)] TJ ET BT 269.660 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as a number of Reform and Chartist papers. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capture something of the linguistic variety of the newspaper press across the century there are also three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh language titles, two Irish, three Scottish, and two Welsh general papers. The final 48 titles selected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(730)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 March, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Sheffield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelprestype/news/newspdigproj/ndproject/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheffield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Conboy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 55.6757 372.0355 255.6917 383.9155 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://newspapers.bl.uk/blcs/) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 9694 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include 17 national and 29 regional newspapers, including two titles which are mainly illustrated: )] TJ ET BT 504.968 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Police News)] TJ ET BT 93.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 117.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Graphic)] TJ ET BT 178.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Despite this admirable attempt at inclusivity, it could easily be demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the liberal and radical press is better represented than the conservative press, yet it is hard to fault the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of this necessarily finite selection given the acknowledged demands and potential needs expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by such a large group of stakeholders and potential users of the archive. A total of 195 people replied and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these, the majority consisted of librarians and lecturers working mainly in universities and further education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleges, with a spread of researchers, students, managers, and teachers. 13 percent of the replies came from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final selection of newspapers selected by the British Library in consultation with the range of academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experts is designed to provide a cross-section which represents the development of the newspaper as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contributor to social and political life in 19th-century Britain. The selection of newspapers from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century, which are no longer in production, avoids both issues of copyright as well as potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas of duplication with contemporary newspapers which are making their own historical holdings more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to online searching.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a timely production in several ways from both historiographical and technological perspectives. From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a scholarly point of view it will be used to enhance the emerging work on 19th-century newspaper history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in journals such as )] TJ ET BT 175.676 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Media History )] TJ ET BT 248.336 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 286.328 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 409.340 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as well as in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications like Wiener and Hampton )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.992 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.992 528.723 m 236.984 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.984 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Brake and Demoor.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.620 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.620 528.723 m 368.612 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.612 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The resource will help to reaffirm the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrality of newspaper content and production in the shaping of the dominant discourses of 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.352 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.352 500.211 m 84.344 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.344 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and it will enable research projects to be undertaken with an economy of scale and efficiency not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible when limited to the confines of physical archives. It will also greatly enhance the specific project of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journalism Studies, which has been elevated rapidly and recently to sub-panel status at the prestigious ICA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference in recognition of the fertility of this emergent field of study as expressed in journals such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journalism Studies, Journalism Practice )] TJ ET BT 232.340 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 252.668 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism)] TJ ET BT 462.992 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The availability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high-quality text and image within the resource will enhance further research into the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the language of representation within 19th-century newspapers and popular visual culture. Technologically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it will complement pioneering work on the digitization of 19th-century periodicals led by Brake on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth Century Serials Edition \(NCSE\) digital project as well as the more extensive Nineteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Periodicals and Burney Catalogue digital archives available commercially. It will also assist in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of historical approaches to the changing patterns of newspaper language championed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars such as Jucker in his )] TJ ET BT 177.992 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Historical Pragmatics)] TJ ET BT 337.664 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Looking across the field to newspapers still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in production and which have made digital archives available commercially, the British Library archive will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enable more longitudinal comparison with, for instance, the )] TJ ET BT 323.312 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mirror)] TJ ET BT 386.312 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 392.312 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardian/Observer)] TJ ET BT 486.968 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 510.296 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 538.964 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as comparisons with the Early American Newspapers online archive which is now commercially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available. It is, of course, regrettable at present that there is no possible way for researchers to make the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this plethora of online material for fully integrated research. Apart from the free availability of the archive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under discussion, many other digital archives which could potentially complement it so productively are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibitively costly and only some serious negotiation between publishers and university libraries can ensure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this research potential is fulfilled by extending affordable access beyond a wealthy elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The web site provides a well-signposted Topic Guide to allow context for accessing the material including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief essays and biographical information for non-specialists in the field. This material is well-designed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lucidly presented and includes newspaper history, people \(from William Cobbett to George Reynolds\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical context \(from urban growth to the importance of the British Empire\). There are some useful cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references between the general histories and the practices of specific journalists and newspapers such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stead and Mayhew. These could be improved with more hypertext linkage, for instance to other BL material, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for those requiring more than a cursory overview. The bibliography, for instance, is a fair, generalist tool but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is missing some essential, recent material. One wonders whether the site is constantly being updated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant material or whether the process of intervention by its producers or even users is now at an end. De )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nie )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 54.344 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 54.344 74.787 m 68.336 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 68.336 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , Potter )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.004 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.004 74.787 m 122.996 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.996 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hampton )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.660 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.660 74.787 m 190.652 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.652 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( even Thompson )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.644 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.644 74.787 m 287.636 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.636 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with his classic on the 19th-century radical press and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its formative influence on class consciousness could all be included and summarized in their findings on the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.9917 529.0375 236.9837 540.9175 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6197 529.0375 368.6117 540.9175 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3517 500.5255 84.3437 512.4055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 54.3437 75.1015 68.3357 86.9815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.0037 75.1015 122.9957 86.9815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.6597 75.1015 190.6517 86.9815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.6437 75.1015 287.6357 86.9815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7147 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context and history of newspapers of the 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Individual issues by month, date and year can easily be accessed through the Browse by Publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function. For additional background on a specific newspaper there are useful headnotes which provide the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential details about the publication dates, changes of name, editorial contributors and key features of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the publications. Again, although useful, this could be made more practical as a research tool, even for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-specialists, by providing cross-links to other parts of the archive or even beyond the archive itself to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further online material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The archive has successfully scanned the entire microfilmed content to provide effective article zoning and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page extraction; OCR of the page images assists enormously in the important business of finding what a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story or an advertisement looked like on the page and for exploring the essential constructedness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper discourse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.652 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.652 628.515 m 150.644 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 150.644 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The quality and consistency of the material available is enhanced due to the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the majority of pages have been digitized from new microfilm \(90% of all pages copied\). An in-house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality assurance team based at the British Library prepared and repaired the selected volumes and filtered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out duplicates and variants as well as identifying missing pages and issues at the start of the project. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newspaper images can be magnified for easier reading or reduced for on screen navigation. Articles can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saved and printed, created as persistent links and emailed to others. When trying to print entire newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages, they need to be tiled to make them legible, given the differing paper size between 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newsprint and contemporary common office paper sizes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basic Searches can be performed from the entry page of the database. The Advanced Search facility can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to refine a search using keyword, date range or various metadata fields, either across the entire database )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 48 titles or limited to selected publications. A clearly laid out Help section provides more detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about searching.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers are indexed by title, date, issue and location. A set of rules has been devised for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segmentation of pages and the creation of articles. The articles are then categorized into newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sections? for more detailed searching. These sections help both at the search level, where a section may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specified to limit your results, and in the search results list, where articles are divided by section. An article )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be bookmarked \(or a page of search results\) by using the Bookmark icon in the top menu bar. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, while viewing an article or page, you may email yourself or others the citation information for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article\(s\). As you use the Mark feature, you may also email yourself the list of Marked Items for future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further enhancement of the search technology is the fuzzy logic \(or fuzzy searching\) which allows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search process to find ?near misses? to the term being searched. This is a particularly valuable feature within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a database such as )] TJ ET BT 124.652 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(19th Century British Library Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 324.668 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in that it allows a user to locate a word or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words within documents despite imperfect matches in spelling between the searched term and document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content. This is a common occurrence in 19th-century documents due to spelling variants. Three levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuzzy searching are offered so that the user may fine-tune a search depending on how closely he/she wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(match term\(s\): Low, Medium, and High. The Low setting will expand the full-text search results to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matches very near to the chosen term\(s\), while the High setting expands the results to include much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad matches.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this is a wonderfully rich resource which has all the benefits of a well-funded, exhaustively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched project designed with the views of potential users well to the fore. The process of academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consultation has produced a selection of material which is certainly of enormous value for those wishing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better understand the language, layout and political contexts of the 19th-century newspaper across the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isles. The website design complements its ambition to make the resource available to a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars from newspaper specialists to historians and sociologists and from postgraduate researchers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers at Further Education institutions. This useability is particularly noticeable in the construction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search and save tools which, with time, will surely enable a hitherto disparate and unconnected community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholars to be better able to navigate, archive and communicate their material with a greater sense of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.6517 628.8295 150.6437 640.7095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 4550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared purpose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American Media Interactions 1850?2000, )] TJ ET BT 300.992 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. J. Wiener and M. Hampton \(Basingstoke, 2007\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 715.299 m 118.004 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Brake and M. Demoor, )] TJ ET BT 191.324 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Dictionary of Nineteenth Century Journalism)] TJ ET BT 419.648 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 2009\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.636 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.636 701.043 m 560.624 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Brown, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian News and Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 273.020 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1985\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.668 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.668 686.787 m 408.656 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. De Nie, )] TJ ET BT 121.004 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eternal Paddy: Irish identity and the British Press 1798?1882)] TJ ET BT 441.332 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Madison, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.324 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.324 672.531 m 557.984 672.531 l S BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 658.275 m 90.344 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. J. Potter, )] TJ ET BT 122.024 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(News and the British World: the Emergence of an Imperial Press 1876?1922)] TJ ET BT 492.332 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 629.763 m 152.000 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Hampton, )] TJ ET BT 131.348 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of the Press in Britain 1850?1950)] TJ ET BT 332.696 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Urbana and Chicago, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.328 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.328 615.507 m 532.316 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. P. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 147.356 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 348.692 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1963\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.016 601.251 m 487.004 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terdiman, R. )] TJ ET BT 130.676 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourse/Counter-Discourse: the Theory and Practice of Symbolic Resistance in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth Century France)] TJ ET BT 195.332 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, 1985\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.968 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.968 572.739 m 348.956 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 528.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 511.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 511.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/730)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 509.721 m 322.316 509.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 484.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3707)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://newspapers.bl.uk/blcs/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.544 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 715.6135 118.0037 727.4935 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.6357 701.3575 560.6237 713.2375 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6677 687.1015 408.6557 698.9815 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.3237 672.8455 557.9837 684.7255 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 658.5895 90.3437 670.4695 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 630.0775 151.9997 641.9575 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.3277 615.8215 532.3157 627.7015 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.0157 601.5655 487.0037 613.4455 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.9677 573.0535 348.9557 584.9335 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 510.0355 322.3157 521.9155 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/730) >> endobj xref 0 66 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000006019 00000 n 0000006128 00000 n 0000006238 00000 n 0000006347 00000 n 0000009908 00000 n 0000010036 00000 n 0000010120 00000 n 0000010247 00000 n 0000010328 00000 n 0000010454 00000 n 0000020201 00000 n 0000020231 00000 n 0000020359 00000 n 0000020395 00000 n 0000020425 00000 n 0000020553 00000 n 0000020589 00000 n 0000020619 00000 n 0000020745 00000 n 0000020781 00000 n 0000020811 00000 n 0000020935 00000 n 0000020971 00000 n 0000021001 00000 n 0000021127 00000 n 0000021163 00000 n 0000021193 00000 n 0000021319 00000 n 0000021355 00000 n 0000021385 00000 n 0000021511 00000 n 0000021547 00000 n 0000021631 00000 n 0000028831 00000 n 0000028861 00000 n 0000028989 00000 n 0000029025 00000 n 0000029172 00000 n 0000033775 00000 n 0000033902 00000 n 0000033957 00000 n 0000034085 00000 n 0000034140 00000 n 0000034268 00000 n 0000034323 00000 n 0000034451 00000 n 0000034506 00000 n 0000034632 00000 n 0000034687 00000 n 0000034814 00000 n 0000034869 00000 n 0000034997 00000 n 0000035052 00000 n 0000035180 00000 n 0000035235 00000 n 0000035363 00000 n 0000035418 00000 n 0000035546 00000 n trailer << /Size 66 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35641 %%EOF