%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140731074843+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140731074843+01'00') /Title (The Mantra of Efficiency: From Waterwheel to Social Control) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4495 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Mantra of Efficiency: From Waterwheel to Social Control)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is said that ?efficiency is doing better what is already being done?, although the word in English derives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Latin )] TJ ET BT 106.340 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(efficere)] TJ ET BT 142.328 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; simply, to accomplish. In its crudest sense then, regardless of culture or nationality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vast majority of humanity engages in efficiency at a personal level on a daily basis. The lowest common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominator from this perspective is that life presents material challenges ? the perpetual need for food, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shelter and protection from harm ? and from the birth of civilisation this has entailed individuals learning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplish certain tasks and improving upon their own methods for doing so throughout their lives. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefest delving into the archaeological history of tool-making shows that separated societies have often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stumbled upon similar technical solutions to shared material dilemmas \(especially in hunting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture\). In this narrow sense the pursuit of efficiency is at least as old as humanity itself and has been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key dynamic at the individual and societal level through to the present. However as most historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with modernity will accept, there is something special about modern forms of efficiency. In all its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various guises it has flourished in the 20th century, remaining among the most discussed issues around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world and an important idea in most walks of life. Efficiency is fundamental in everything from waging war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through all forms of logistics, to perfecting speed cycling. For many the word is aspirational, for others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppressive. It can be synonymous with ideals of perfection, expansion and progress or it might denote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance, equilibrium or the absence of disruption. Since the enlightenment the word has been formalised as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept, increased in sophistication and its 20th-century variants have been utilised in such diverse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(732)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 28 February, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Karns Alexander)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801886935)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Sutton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7713 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex ways ? both subtle and extreme, and in the service of all imaginable ideologies ? as to almost defy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent understanding. As Jennifer Alexander explains at the beginning of her book, )] TJ ET BT 447.932 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mantra of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Efficiency: From Waterwheel to Social Control)] TJ ET BT 261.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, efficiency ?belongs? to the epoch of industrial modernity \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mantra of Efficiency)] TJ ET BT 167.336 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Alexander, based at the University of Minnesota?s Department for the History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Science, Technology and Medicine, has produced a thought provoking study underwritten by a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of secondary literature and no small amount of primary research, including much conducted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, Paris and Berlin. Her book is a brief but ambitious attempt to understand efficiency as an article of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual history in Europe and America since the 18th century, tracing modern understandings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept back to the study of early industrial machinery, through industrial revolution and post-enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationality, and into the 20th century when it became ubiquitous, and its meanings and use more diverse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential. Nevertheless this is no seamless trajectory. Rather, six case studies from Europe and America are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in chronological order organised loosely around three levels of analysis ? context, metaphor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantification. The use of these three ?foci? seemed ambiguous by the book?s end, and there was seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some discord in the choice of case studies \(although this is more than compensated for by research in three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages!\). Alexander?s principal claims about the causal significance of early industrial machine-study on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the one hand, and the great synthetic theories of Darwin and Marshall on the other, to the subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of an intellectual forest of efficiencies by mid-20th century \(each shaped in different ways by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political, cultural and economic contexts\) is an intriguing argument however. Indeed there is much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admire in the combination of fascinating detail and arresting commentary throughout what is a thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched and fluidly expressed addition to the intellectual historiography of modern industrial culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first third of the book deals with the origins of conceptual efficiency. Beginning with an account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famed British engineer John Smeaton?s studies on waterwheels, the reader is taken on a journey through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the most thorough investigations of industrial machinery staged at engineering institutions in France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and America up to the mid-19th century. The search for ?perfected machines? necessitated an enhanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of particular mechanical principals, both static and dynamic, and as these found parallels in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grand social, economic and scientific theories of the period \(personified here in the form of Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin and economist Alfred Marshall\), ideas about what efficiency meant matured and diffused. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle third comprises two differing 20th-century manifestations of efficiency, from scientific management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consultants influencing popular ?personal? efficiency in America, to the social control accrued from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workplace seating strategies in Weimar Germany. The final chapters consider first the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency and morality in an essay on the academic furore surrounding Fogel and Engerman?s )] TJ ET BT 491.912 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cross)] TJ ET BT 62.024 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and their analysis of efficiency in the slave trade, before concluding with a summary of efficiency in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the globalised economy and contemporary networks of culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central message of Alexander?s thesis then is that although efficiency comes in many forms ? closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to the characteristics of their particular historical contexts ? the most powerful and enduring concepts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of efficiency found in modern western commerce and culture have their origins in the study of machines in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century England. Modern efficiency therefore begins with the birth of modern engineering, and in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard the outstanding name is constructor of lighthouses, bridges and canals, and founder of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society of Civil Engineers, John Smeaton \(1724?1792\). Smeaton designed and built waterwheel models )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a dual purpose in mind. He wanted waterwheels to work more effectively in harnessing the power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowing water, but as a philosopher engineer he also craved knowledge of the fundamental principals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing the optimal calibration of such machines. Newton?s laws of mechanics were not readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicable to the flux and unpredictability of real-world dynamic systems and Smeaton?s models were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore aimed at defining and quantifying the effects of constituent input-output forces \(water-flow and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wheel-speed\) in relation to a set of variables \(wheel-size, paddle dimensions, and positioning in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water-flow\). From these experiments a more dedicated and nuanced appreciation of how motive force could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be manipulated to produce ever higher output yields gripped the nascent field of mechanical engineering, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though confusion about the core tenets of mechanical efficiency abounded for long after this. Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves swiftly from the 1750s to the 1830s in an elegant comparison of Smeaton?s early efforts with those of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7880 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later mechanical institutes, demonstrating how far formal conceptualisation of different types of technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency had developed. The Franklin Institute, founded in the machine-tool district of Philadelphia, acted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a melting pot for new ideas on mechanical engineering with the purely pragmatic objective of civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(betterment. There, the first large-scale research projects in waterwheel design sought to overcome the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing confusion about elemental principals of millwright construction and encountered the considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities of waterwheel dynamics. This demanded great efforts of analysis. During 1830 some 1,381 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiments were carried out with every aspect of their workings diligently tabulated in what is described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the earliest engineering handbooks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When news of the Franklin experiments reached scientific elites in Europe, the results were deemed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph of empirical investigation. But as is made clear in a fine chapter on Grard-Joseph Christian of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatoire des Arts et Mtiers in Paris, a wide variety of industrial machinery beyond the waterwheel had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also received detailed examination by this time, refining a technical understanding of efficiency that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become entwined with egalitarian philosophies about industrial and societal organisation. The Conservatoire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a hub for industrial knowledge in Restoration France and Christian and his colleagues immersed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in the study of manufacturing, mining and agricultural machines. Acquiring knowledge about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving parts, the transmission of motion and the effects produced was accomplished in the drawing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed technical illustrations displayed in industrial exhibitions. Various models of technical efficiency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equating mechanical work with mass-times-distance-moved were developed upon the precept that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfect machine produced the maximum output with the minimum waste. The Conservatoire published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily, describing ?real machines in actual use? \(p. 40\) and disseminating works of theory on industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes in its journal, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Industriel.)] TJ ET BT 212.012 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Throughout her discussion of such journals and of Christian?s seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plan de Technonomie)] TJ ET BT 138.668 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(with its vision of perfect machines liberating workers from unpleasant labour\) there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a rich sense of how the intimate examination of machinery was opening up new ways of imagining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency, not just in a technical sense, but in the macro-system sense, shaping into compassionate theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of industrial organisation. Alexander is to be commended for persuasively integrating this point into her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the journey of efficiency, and more so for bringing fresh research on the Conservatoire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglophone readerships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering efficiency in its broadest terms is a theme pursued in an engaging comparison of Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s )] TJ ET BT 83.000 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origin of Species )] TJ ET BT 169.328 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1859\)with Alfred Marshall?s )] TJ ET BT 315.632 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Principals of Economics)] TJ ET BT 433.628 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1890\), conducted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to how their conceptions of efficiency can be categorised between static and dynamic types. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall, the great economic theorist, apparently paid little attention to Darwin?s writing making a link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them appear tenuous at first glance, and there is perhaps greater scope for debate about how Darwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood efficiency than Alexander?s balance-and-progress characterisation allows for. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of Darwinian thinking to economic and commercial domains ? and the role of efficiency therein )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? becomes clearer once juxtaposed with a debate about Alfred Marshall and the nature of late 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic theories. Here there is much food for thought, particularly on Marshall?s experiences in visiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering workshops in America where he at once witnessed a new range of industrial technology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered different attitudes in the managers and workers there. This fed back into his developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic theory in which the industrial marketplace, though in a constant state of flux, could be usefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood in a static, quantitative fashion. Isolated and quantified, relationships between technology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitiveness, management and labour, and even between characteristics of a population and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities such as perseverance or adaptive thinking often seemed to fall into predictable patterns. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin and Marshall represented pinnacles of synthetic thinking in the 19th century - their commonality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the insight that within large-scale dynamic systems \(ecological and economical respectively\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measurable differences in individual efficiency could make the difference between success and failure over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long-term. In business, as in nature, success in the competition for limited resources was determined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which methods that minimised waste and maximised output could be perfected. Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that these lines of thinking increasingly permeated a wide range of intellectual matters by mid-19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, linking efficiency with ideas of social progress and commercial growth. What is interesting is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the midst of this renewed and expanded focus on the potential power of efficiency, the broadest thinkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on economics continued to find inspiration in studying the workings of reaping machines, glassworks and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7766 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watch factories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remainder of )] TJ ET BT 120.320 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mantra of Efficiency)] TJ ET BT 240.644 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a focus on 20th-century expressions of the meme. During a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major American hearing on railroad taxation in 1910, the efficiency consultant Harrington Emerson was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called as an expert witness and declared that efficiency measures could save American railroads ?one million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dollars a day?. After this, American interest in efficiency ?truly exploded? and was soon used to describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?diets, appliances, child rearing and education, clothing design, exercise, saving money, and the path to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global dominance ... By 1915 the word )] TJ ET BT 224.000 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(efficiency)] TJ ET BT 269.984 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was plastered everywhere ? in headlines, advertisements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editorials, business manuals, and church bulletins? \(p. 79\). Here, Alexander draws on her paper recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in )] TJ ET BT 96.020 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Studies of Science)] TJ ET BT 215.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, unearthing rich detail on the nature of engine efficiency, showing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how brake horse power measurement was ranged alongside a plethora of elaborate quantification techniques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to judge how well combustion engines balanced their fuel input with energy output. The idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency as a balancing act was transferred out of this preoccupation with machine perfection first into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political realm of governmental and industrial policy and second into the personal realm of self-help, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promising perfected lifestyles to public audiences, especially those new to the disorientating life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing city. The reform journal )] TJ ET BT 195.320 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET BT 254.636 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published guides on personal efficiency written by these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consultants in scientific management. Alexander delved into the books and articles written by these men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(followers of Frederick Taylor \(1856?1915\), the so-called Father of scientific management\), aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular audiences, again hinting at great fluidity between technical and popular appreciations of stability, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning and control. An important point is that although these were universal ideals to a certain extent, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of efficiency could be used to implement them in authoritarian and constrictive ways. A chapter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ergonomics of workplace seating in Weimar Germany addresses these issues, followed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical account of the slave trade in which the question of whether or not efficiency can or should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have moral qualities in modern academic debate forms the focus. Alexander concludes by considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheer variety of ways in which efficiency endures in importance and continues to be reinterpreted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically and culturally modern times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mantra of Efficiency)] TJ ET BT 154.340 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a salutary reminder that universal ideals of rationality manifest themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different and sometimes surprising ways; that rationality and all its sub-categories are among the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful ideas ? in their generic and specific forms ? readily utilised for emancipation or oppression \(both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and technical\). Anyone fascinated by the relationship between technology and culture will enjoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading this, and will be prompted to pause for thought at several junctures thanks to Alexander?s skill for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical juxtaposition. Specialists in the different areas covered will find new details and stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives and students interested in efficiency will be thankful for a thoroughgoing and authoritative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographic essay in the appendix. Whilst the focus of the thesis drifts somewhat in the final chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in an erratic conclusion, the case studies themselves and many of the ideas linking them are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable and provocative respectively. This is by no means a definitive intellectual history of efficiency ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a thing is surely impossible ? but as the first intellectual history to reach beyond efficiency?s use in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolated context, it constitutes an informed appraisal and condensation of a number of prominent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longstanding themes that have arisen in the vast literature on technology in modern times. )] TJ ET BT 468.308 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mantra of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Efficiency)] TJ ET BT 82.004 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( widens our understanding of how ideas of efficiency began, how efficiency has been experienced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in different historical circumstances, and indeed how it can be understood in a more complex way than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply )] TJ ET BT 69.692 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(doing-better-what-is-already-being-done)] TJ ET BT 266.996 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 146.067 m 240.992 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ens/summary/v010/10.1.hintz.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 117.555 m 339.704 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.704 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 114.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 96.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 96.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/732)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 95.049 m 322.316 95.049 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 70.072 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3709)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 146.3815 240.9917 158.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=24134) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 117.8695 339.7037 129.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ens/summary/v010/10.1.hintz.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 95.3635 322.3157 107.2435 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/732) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 270 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=24134)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ens/summary/v010/10.1.hintz.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005198 00000 n 0000005307 00000 n 0000005417 00000 n 0000005526 00000 n 0000009087 00000 n 0000009215 00000 n 0000009299 00000 n 0000009364 00000 n 0000017130 00000 n 0000017195 00000 n 0000025128 00000 n 0000025226 00000 n 0000033045 00000 n 0000033172 00000 n 0000033273 00000 n 0000033400 00000 n 0000033513 00000 n 0000033640 00000 n 0000033735 00000 n 0000033800 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34122 %%EOF