%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 29 0 R 73 0 R 120 0 R 159 0 R 213 0 R 251 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416071433+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416071433+01'00') /Title (On Farting: Language and Laughter in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5466 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(On Farting: Language and Laughter in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When one is sent such an item to review one inevitably speculates why. Is one a known purveyor of hot air? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or just vulgar and unshockable?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.320 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.320 271.929 m 203.312 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.312 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Is one being set up for Max Reger?s response to a music critic? 'Ich sitze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in dem kleinsten Zimmer in meinem Hause. Ich habe ihre Kritik vor mir. Im nchsten Augenblick wird sie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinter mir sein.' \(?I am sitting in the smallest room in my house. I have your review in front of me. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment it will be behind me.'\) This should be a gas )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.500 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.500 229.161 m 299.492 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.492 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for Valerie Allen has let rip a meditation on farting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Middle Ages. The book \(subtitled ?Language and Laughter in the Middle Ages?\) is divided into three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts: ?The Beginning? \(pp. 7?105\), ?In Between,? \(pp. 113?60\), and ?Die )] TJ ET BT 398.264 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Afterwissenschaft)] TJ ET BT 482.936 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(pp. 161?79\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a ring-composition at work, for we begin with Roland the Farter?s annual Christmas fee of a jump, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whistle, and a fart \(p. 12\) and conclude with more of Roland?s ?fartprints? \(pp. 161-177\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.256 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.256 172.137 m 486.248 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 486.248 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning? is primarily literary and theological, ?In Between? is linguistic and philosophical, and ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Afterwissenschaft)] TJ ET BT 118.688 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? tangles with history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This reviewer amused herself by hopping about on one leg trying to envisage some systematisation worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Teuton in the old joke about the international conference on the elephant.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.612 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.612 103.113 m 430.604 103.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.604 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Could)] TJ ET BT 462.944 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( one have written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kind of work that would have begun with etymologies and attestations, and with a properly anal )] TJ ET BT 514.628 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(partitio)] TJ ET BT 550.640 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 74.601 m 48.008 74.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 51.008 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Un pet quatres volumes)] TJ ET BT 176.660 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(traduit du prussien)] TJ ET BT 268.004 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Fart Greek, Fart Roman, Fart in the Early Middle Ages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fart in the Central Middle Ages, Fart in the Later Middle Ages, The Fart in Latin Literature, The Fart in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(733)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 28 February, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valerie Allen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0-312-23493-5)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(251pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danuta Shanzer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.3197 272.2435 203.3117 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.4997 229.4755 299.4917 241.3555 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.2557 172.4515 486.2477 184.3315 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.6117 103.4275 430.6037 115.3075 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 74.9155 48.0077 86.7955 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R 62 0 R 65 0 R 68 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 10429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Literatures. Farts in Hagiography, Historiography, Drama, Satire, Apocalyptic, Philosophy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medical and Dietetic Literature . . . Farts at Court, Professional Farters, Monastic Farts, Hot Air as Abuse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Gendered Fart, the Queered Fart, the Nun?s Fart, The Wolf?s Fart, Out with a Fart, Famous Last Farts)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.264 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.264 766.563 m 556.256 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(...)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 43.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 43.016 752.307 m 57.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is no systematic and encyclopedic work on the medieval fart. Taking its lead from the fecal product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, unorganised, undifferentiated, Allen presents the fart in an anecdotal stream of consciousness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punctuated into fits and farts. The fart is representative of the arsy-versy world of scholarship, ?where you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never know what is coming next.? Although Chaucer could joke about the division of a fart in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Summoner?s Tale)] TJ ET BT 120.344 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(a favorite text of Allen?s\), to draw any strict line between the solid product \(of which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fart is the odoriferous harbinger\) and the fart itself is difficult. This book thus celebrates not just the fart, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also shit, and \(while we are talking wind\) belching, burping, and the organs and orifices that produce said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(afflatus)] TJ ET BT 70.028 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.028 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.028 626.259 m 87.020 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It will take its place \(GT2840 A45 2006 ?Flatulence: Social aspects, History, in literature,?\) at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right hand of the repulsively tactile black velvet microfiber-bound D. G. Laporte, )] TJ ET BT 444.608 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Shit)] TJ ET BT 514.616 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, Mass., 2000\) \(GT2835 L3613 2000 ?Feces-Miscellanea?\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Allen acknowledges differences between now and the Middle Ages \(pp. 11-2\), she does not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outline any developments or befores and afters \(as opposed to Afters\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.940 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.940 557.235 m 384.932 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.932 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But she does expound and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anatomize many a medieval fart to us. I say ?anatomize,? for her one-woman-on-a-Bummel leisure reminds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of Burton?s project, where a whole universe is tied to a single word. Kitchen-sink digressions )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.612 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.612 528.723 m 526.604 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 526.604 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval set pieces are incessant.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.972 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.972 514.467 m 214.964 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.964 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Allen clearly hasn?t seen a pun she didn?t like.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.588 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.588 514.467 m 463.580 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 463.580 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her writing is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quaint, witty, naughty, learned, and playful. She refuses to make her ripe and odorous subject arid and dull. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The language is a delight.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.664 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.664 485.955 m 177.656 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 177.656 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Only ?osphresiolagniac? \(p. 51\) initially and ?tirret? \(p. 57\) definitively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baffled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book fits into the New Middle Ages \(Stephen Jaeger?s ?diminutive Middle Ages?\), not the old \(now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsolete\) one that argued aetherially about how many angels could dance on the head of a pin. People were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short, stank, had bad hair, and worse teeth, and farted incessantly. Throughout we are reminded of just how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad the age smelled. ?My dear, the noise, the smell, the )] TJ ET BT 302.972 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(people)] TJ ET BT 334.964 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(!? The project reflects a postmodern interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the low, abject, and marginal, ?hodiernal trivia,? and takes very literally the allegedly Virgilian concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking gold in dung.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.348 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.348 374.163 m 157.340 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.340 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Allen recently moderated a session ?Bodily Functions in Late Medieval Literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Art? at the International Medieval Congress at Leeds, and her book attracted an interview in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle of Higher Education)] TJ ET BT 183.680 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.680 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.680 345.651 m 206.672 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.672 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This unafraid scholarship takes on something small, despised, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarrassing. The fart poses special challenges because of its \(happy\) evanescence and invisibility. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involves another fashionable form of history, namely of the senses. Smell was a member of one of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important canonicals sets that medievals loved to think with. It is the mediating sense \(not haptic like touch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and taste\), but also not capable of leaping great distances or physical barriers like its higher brethren, sight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sound.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen?s book may shock some \(perhaps philosophers with its disquisition on the )] TJ ET BT 422.672 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(meditatio mortis)] TJ ET BT 501.680 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fart \(p. 70\) and Judaeo-Christian believers who might prefer less information about God?s )] TJ ET BT 469.940 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(posteriora )] TJ ET BT 522.944 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 78\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sinai ?reeking? \(p. 96\), the ?mighty wind? of Pentecost \(p. 96\), or ?a time to fart and a time to clench? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(125\)\). It is obviously a transgressive snook-cock \(or should it be ?cock-snook??\). We?ve long used the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?f***? in academic prose so now, as for five-year-olds, fundamental terms are the final frontier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We begin with the paradoxical silence around the fart )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.284 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.284 164.835 m 314.276 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.276 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the shame surrounding its emission, the silent-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but-deadly fart \(?vesse? Trust the Gallo-Romans to have a word for it!)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.272 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.272 150.579 m 392.264 150.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 392.264 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the Middle Ages? ?high comfort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level? with the fart, Roland the Farter?s feudal payment of one fart, medieval lack of privacy, proverbs about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shit and defecation, the compulsion to use the scatological in elementary Latin grammatical education, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logic of the fart \(how to divide one\), the musical bum \(both Boschian demons and proto-Pujolic ptomanes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([already in Augustine]\), farts elicited by movement, carminatives )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.624 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.624 93.555 m 370.616 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.616 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( charms to induce farting, its ?audible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence,? smell as the mediating sense \(non-haptic\), the stench of sin, sexual sedition in the privy, internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and external winds, breaths, spirits, and exhalations, microcosm and macrocosm, erections raised by air \(not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blood\), farts as barometers of virility,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.656 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.656 50.787 m 233.648 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.648 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the death fart \()] TJ ET BT 306.956 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(crepitus mortis)] TJ ET BT 379.292 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the testamentary fart, the fart as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.2637 766.8775 556.2557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 43.0157 752.6215 57.0077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0277 626.5735 87.0197 638.4535 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.9397 557.5495 384.9317 569.4295 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.6117 529.0375 526.6037 540.9175 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.9717 514.7815 214.9637 526.6615 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.5877 514.7815 463.5797 526.6615 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.6637 486.2695 177.6557 498.1495 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.3477 374.4775 157.3397 386.3575 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.6797 345.9655 206.6717 357.8455 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.2837 165.1495 314.2757 177.0295 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.2717 150.8935 392.2637 162.7735 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.6237 93.8695 370.6157 105.7495 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.6557 51.1015 233.6477 62.9815 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 76 0 R 79 0 R 82 0 R 85 0 R 88 0 R 91 0 R 94 0 R 97 0 R 100 0 R 103 0 R 106 0 R 109 0 R 112 0 R 115 0 R 118 0 R ] /Contents 74 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Length 11498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pentecostal spirit, the fart omen of Baby Hermes, death in the privy, Dante?s hell as intestinal, insect trials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 87\), ubiquity of demons, anal death throes, )] TJ ET BT 258.656 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exsufflatio)] TJ ET BT 308.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at baptism, connections between gold and shit and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alchemy, and ?Duck-Rabbit, Face-Bottom? \(pp. 104?5\), which comes out of nowhere and concludes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section primarily concerned with ?laughter.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there is also the ?language? side of the book. Laporte saw Franois I?s ordinances about the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and about urban waste of 1539 as portentously linked, a moment when the mud-town of the )] TJ ET BT 523.280 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parisii)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?emerged from the muck.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.644 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.644 697.539 m 182.636 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.636 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And Allen?s ?In Between? is largely about etymology and language. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what medievalist needs to be told about the unscientific nature of medieval etymology or what modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic theories about the regularity of sound change entail? Also puzzling is the flippant tone discernible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in some of the comments about sound laws \(p. 131\). Is Allen tilting at a windmill or creating straw men? It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all sounds like a defensive build-up to the multi-lingual pun she discerns in Chaucer?s ?ars-metrike? \(p. 139 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and p. 143\). But it has been known for a long time )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.660 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.660 626.259 m 298.652 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.652 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and few would question its legitimacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While there is much that is intriguing, learned, enlightening, clever, and ? in flashes ? profound in the book )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 585.747 m 54.008 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there is also a fair amount of balderdash, both the portentous-pretentious type )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.948 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.948 585.747 m 451.940 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.940 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the fun-but-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frivolous.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 80.348 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 80.348 571.491 m 100.340 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.340 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caveat lector)] TJ ET BT 168.332 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(! While fine readings and insights are many \(e.g. pp. 83?4, pp. 94?5\), some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material is presented that cannot stand up as any sort of rational literary or historical argument. And this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer missed exegetic sources.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.300 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.300 542.979 m 217.292 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.292 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And while systematization of this sort of subject is an easy target for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derision, it should be possible to write a less persistently jocular scholarly cultural history of the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fart.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 53.672 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 53.672 514.467 m 73.664 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some connections seem based on false premises, e.g. the section on alchemy \(pp. 95ff\). It is hard to pin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the entry point for the discussion, beyond the image of the )] TJ ET BT 346.316 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dukatenscheisser )] TJ ET BT 433.964 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shitting ducats \(?world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upside-down? seen as an image of alchemy\). At p. 101 ?metallic fodder gets putrefied into shit? in the earth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?en route to becoming gold.? This seems to presuppose a misunderstanding about the range of meaning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(faex)] TJ ET BT 54.008 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 57.008 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 57.008 431.187 m 77.000 431.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.000 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Or perhaps the treatment was encouraged by the dread Laporte?s obsession with ?lustral gold? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories about alchemy?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.656 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.656 416.931 m 170.648 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 170.648 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One might read the )] TJ ET BT 268.964 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dukatenscheisser)] TJ ET BT 353.612 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a miser punished, since in a Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comedy a miser is fantastically imagined as a man so stingy that he stops his nether mouth too when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sleeps so as not to lose any wind.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.340 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.340 388.419 m 213.332 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.332 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A comic hellish torment ? or alternatively as a surrealist fantasy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plenty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section on ?Bastard Laughter,? \(pp. 144ff.\) deals with )] TJ ET BT 317.288 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anagnorisis )] TJ ET BT 376.964 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in tragedy, specifically with Oedipus. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen sees Oedipus as a ?great farter? on the basis of a cockamamie interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 442.904 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OT)] TJ ET BT 458.240 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1074 where evils \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaka)] TJ ET BT 56.672 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) breaking forth are interpreted as if they meant ?shit? \()] TJ ET BT 321.932 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caca)] TJ ET BT 344.588 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) \(p. 146\). She then moves on to Freud?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joke about Serenissimus? paternity \(which, by the way, must ultimately go back to Macrobius, )] TJ ET BT 490.976 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sat)] TJ ET BT 506.312 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 2.4.20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(of the Emperor Augustus\), whence it was picked up by John of Salisbury, )] TJ ET BT 394.964 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pol)] TJ ET BT 411.632 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 3.14, l. 151\). If even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oedipus? tragic )] TJ ET BT 112.664 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anagnorisis)] TJ ET BT 169.340 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fart \(for realization brings a smile\), and )] TJ ET BT 383.624 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anagnorisis)] TJ ET BT 440.300 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?goose us in the ass,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think what results comic )] TJ ET BT 154.676 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anagnorisis)] TJ ET BT 211.352 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could produce! Allen then moves on to Judas Iscarioth )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.312 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.312 262.371 m 499.304 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.304 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legend was contaminated with Oedipus?. Two versions of Judas? death are transmitted \(Mt. 27.3-8 for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hanging and Acts 1.18-19, where he bursts open, and his bowels gush forth\), which Allen identifies as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pooped or popped.? Judas? )] TJ ET BT 172.316 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anagnorisis)] TJ ET BT 228.992 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of his betrayal of Christ ?brings a massive expenditure of bodily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product? \(p. 150\). And naturally tragic )] TJ ET BT 222.644 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(katharsis)] TJ ET BT 266.648 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is laxative and enematic \(p. 151\). Aristotle must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talked about cathartic laughter in the lost second book of the )] TJ ET BT 326.972 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poetics)] TJ ET BT 362.300 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.300 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.300 191.091 m 385.292 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.292 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Aristotelian pity, teary and wet, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to the opening of the Biblical ?bowels of compassion? \(p. 152\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.648 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.648 176.835 m 391.640 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.640 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Words fail me: where to begin? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mind and bowel, dilating and contracting, together register the bursting forth of knowledge? \(p. 153\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen?s breadth of learning is considerable. Few of us write books that give us the opportunity to get it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong in so many different languages and areas. But under the hood there are problems, of which a sample.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 107.811 m 54.008 107.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To one coming to this \(as this reviewer does\) from behind, from antiquity, the medieval material seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more plentiful and more explicit, with access to higher literary genres \(Dante, for example\), but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially different. From the wall of a tavern at Ostia the Seven Sages seated gave advice about fecal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters: ?Thales advices those who shit with difficulty to strain.? and ?sneaky Chilon taught how to fart \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vissire)] TJ ET BT 65.348 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cf. ?vesse? above\) soundlessly.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.304 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.304 50.787 m 246.296 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.296 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A Plautine comedy preserves for us the Latin sound that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 75 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.6437 697.8535 182.6357 709.7335 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 78 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.6597 626.5735 298.6517 638.4535 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 586.0615 54.0077 597.9415 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 86 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.9477 586.0615 451.9397 597.9415 ] >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 87 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 80.3477 571.8055 100.3397 583.6855 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 90 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.2997 543.2935 217.2917 555.1735 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 93 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 53.6717 514.7815 73.6637 526.6615 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 96 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 98 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 57.0077 431.5015 76.9997 443.3815 ] >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 99 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.6557 417.2455 170.6477 429.1255 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 102 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 104 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.3397 388.7335 213.3317 400.6135 ] >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 105 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.3117 262.6855 499.3037 274.5655 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 108 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 110 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.2997 191.4055 385.2917 203.2855 ] >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 111 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.6477 177.1495 391.6397 189.0295 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 114 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 116 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 108.1255 54.0077 120.0055 ] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 117 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 119 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.3037 51.1015 246.2957 62.9815 ] >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 123 0 R 126 0 R 129 0 R 132 0 R 135 0 R 138 0 R 141 0 R 144 0 R 147 0 R 150 0 R 153 0 R 155 0 R 157 0 R ] /Contents 121 0 R >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Length 10939 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a fart \()] TJ ET BT 124.304 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prox)] TJ ET BT 146.300 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(!\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.292 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.292 795.075 m 177.284 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 177.284 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is a long ancient history of the thunderous fart \()] TJ ET BT 439.568 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(papapappax)] TJ ET BT 498.896 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(!\) from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristophanes? )] TJ ET BT 105.668 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Clouds)] TJ ET BT 139.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 390-91 to Suetonius? )] TJ ET BT 247.676 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Lucan)] TJ ET BT 311.684 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where with a fart the poet recited a half-line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nero?s in a public latrine: ?one would have thought that it thundered beneath the earth.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.604 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.604 766.563 m 480.596 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.596 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudius?s soul suffered a vocal anal egress \(Seneca, )] TJ ET BT 292.280 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apocolocyntosis)] TJ ET BT 370.940 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 4.3\), not irrelevant to death on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can. Gold in shit had long been associated in an anecdote about Vergil and Ennius.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.288 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.288 738.051 m 451.280 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.280 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is competitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farting in Petronius )] TJ ET BT 129.680 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sat)] TJ ET BT 145.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 117.12-13. There is plenty of material on farting in the late antique world too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in relation to demonic activity. Demons consume rotting meat in peoples? bodies, thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causing them to fart.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.668 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(38\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.668 695.283 m 152.660 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.660 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The heresiarch Arius died in a latrine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.280 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(39\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.280 695.283 m 357.272 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.272 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Anal exorcisms are common.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.912 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(40\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.912 695.283 m 520.904 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 520.904 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young student of Augustine?s, reprimanded by his mother Monica for singing a psalm \(79:8 Deus )] TJ ET BT 506.636 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(converte )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nos et ostende faciem tuam et salvi erimus)] TJ ET BT 236.996 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in a privy, jokingly countered, 'As if God would not be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hear my voice, if an enemy shut me in!' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.808 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(41\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.808 652.515 m 246.800 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.800 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( No idle worry, for devils had a habit of appearing in latrines or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to those )] TJ ET BT 74.684 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in secessu)] TJ ET BT 123.008 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.008 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(42\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.008 638.259 m 146.000 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 146.000 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But a royal female saint could retreat there too for prayer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.924 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(43\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.924 638.259 m 445.916 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.916 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet almost none of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this material appears in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quis leget haec)] TJ ET BT 108.668 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? While this reviewer enjoyed Allen?s book very much, doubts remain about the project as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straight academic scholarship \(rather than as ludic essayistic journalism to tickle ignorant or jaded palates\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(44\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 569.235 m 54.008 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A distinguished medieval historian once joked that, although he did not expect the same reimbursement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Michael Jackson, he wanted his dean to understand that what he did in his lecture courses belonged )] TJ ET BT 526.928 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(same pay-scale)] TJ ET BT 107.660 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?as entertainment. This book raises a similar question. One wishes to be fair to it by taking a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead from Collingwood, who emphasized the need correctly to identify the question to which a given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition was the answer. What questions did Allen set herself? And here one encounters difficulties. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book features farts in many different contexts, particularly in OF fabliaux and ME literature. It certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us of the multiple contexts in which the fart makes its presence known in medieval literature. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains many intriguing literary and cultural )] TJ ET BT 254.660 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aperus)] TJ ET BT 292.652 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But reading it is like watching a PowerPoint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation whose slides could be presented in any order. There is pleasure in watching or reading the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components, but no central arguments emerge, and beginners will find it hard to test Allen?s assertions. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypostasized dehistoricized Middle Ages is explored through the fart. Masses of detail are laid on, but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored critically with regard to register, audience, or context. And many of its propositions are neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verifiable nor falsifiable, but the kind of thing one tries out in class or in a lecture or conversation?to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the market can bear, or who salutes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither pure literature, nor history, but cultural studies, there is nonetheless something oddly antiquarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the project: a collection of appealing farts with meditations thereon. In the end one is left with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nagging worry that this, like other work from the new Medieval Studies, is a bit desperate to )] TJ ET BT 480.296 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pater les )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois)] TJ ET BT 82.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to show administrators and colleagues in various modern cultures that we are ?with it? too, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combat the accusations that we are irrelevant, hidebound, archaic old fogeys \(or farts\), by somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibitionist farting in the face of academe. )] TJ ET BT 245.972 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Isn?t this shit cool)] TJ ET BT 334.316 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? One would hate to feel that the only way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attract positive attention for Medieval Studies is to publish on paraphilias, defecation, venereal disease, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mooning, menstrual blood, burps, farts, etc.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.332 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(45\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.332 257.859 m 263.324 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.324 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And on occasion one worries that too much engagement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics such as this without sufficient scholarly preparation in more canonical studies may leave us with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excessively frivolous Middle Ages ? of which we may rapidly begin to tire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alas, I am not Derek Pearsall, whom I once heard give a wonderful postprandial talk on this very )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.012 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.012 149.571 m 155.000 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Eric S. Rabkin and Eugene M. Silverman, )] TJ ET BT 288.992 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(It's a Gas: a Study of Flatulence)] TJ ET BT 447.212 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Riverside, CA., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\). Also Jim Dawson, )] TJ ET BT 189.344 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who Cut the Cheese? A Cultural History of the Fart)] TJ ET BT 440.348 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, Calif., 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 106.803 m 118.004 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is another similar serjeanty \()] TJ ET BT 231.644 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Egidius [Gilles] de Wachesham xxx acras in Wachesham, et est ista )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(seriantia faciendi unum saltum, siffletum, et pettum)] TJ ET BT 310.688 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in Henry Churchill Maxwell Lyte et al., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber feodorum: The book of Fees, Commonly Called Testa de Nevill)] TJ ET BT 399.332 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(3 vols., London, 1920?31\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1151. Were such people minstrels and acrobats, or jesters? Were they professionals or sufferers? Or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 122 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 124 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.2917 795.3895 177.2837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 125 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 127 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.6037 766.8775 480.5957 778.7575 ] >> endobj 127 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 128 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 129 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 130 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.2877 738.3655 451.2797 750.2455 ] >> endobj 130 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 131 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 133 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.6677 695.5975 152.6597 707.4775 ] >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 134 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 135 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 136 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.2797 695.5975 357.2717 707.4775 ] >> endobj 136 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 137 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 138 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 139 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.9117 695.5975 520.9037 707.4775 ] >> endobj 139 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 140 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 141 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 142 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.8077 652.8295 246.7997 664.7095 ] >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 143 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 144 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 145 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.0077 638.5735 145.9997 650.4535 ] >> endobj 145 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 146 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 147 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 148 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.9237 638.5735 445.9157 650.4535 ] >> endobj 148 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 149 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 150 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 151 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 569.5495 54.0077 581.4295 ] >> endobj 151 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 152 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 153 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 154 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.3317 258.1735 263.3237 270.0535 ] >> endobj 154 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 155 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 156 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.0117 149.8855 154.9997 161.7655 ] >> endobj 156 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 157 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 158 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 107.1175 118.0037 118.9975 ] >> endobj 158 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 159 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 161 0 R 163 0 R 165 0 R 167 0 R 169 0 R 171 0 R 173 0 R 175 0 R 177 0 R 179 0 R 181 0 R 183 0 R 185 0 R 187 0 R 189 0 R 191 0 R 193 0 R 195 0 R 197 0 R 199 0 R 201 0 R 203 0 R 205 0 R 207 0 R 209 0 R 211 0 R ] /Contents 160 0 R >> endobj 160 0 obj << /Length 13600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the descendants of either of the above? See Dave Postles, )] TJ ET BT 342.284 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naming the People of England, c. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1100?1350)] TJ ET BT 118.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Newcastle, 2006\), pp. 91?111 on the problems of bynames and pp. 112?24 for a hilarious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspectus of nickname bynames.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.984 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.984 766.563 m 281.972 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a recent version, see Alan Dundes at <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.400 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.400 752.307 m 322.388 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is an amusing synoptic scientific table of farts in )] TJ ET BT 330.644 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliotheca Scatologica)] TJ ET BT 445.640 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Paris: Giraudet et )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jouast, 1849\), 44.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.012 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.012 723.795 m 203.000 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yes, there is a [hideously inadequate] chapter on this topic in Johannes Ravisius, "Todesursachen und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todesarten: )] TJ ET BT 126.668 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In latrinis occisi . . . In latrinis mortui)] TJ ET BT 309.020 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(," in )] TJ ET BT 332.252 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Officinae epitome)] TJ ET BT 417.908 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lyon, 1593\), 93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.232 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.232 695.283 m 559.220 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bringing out one?s inner Erica Jong \(Erica Jong, )] TJ ET BT 300.980 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fear of Flying: A Novel)] TJ ET BT 419.300 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1973\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24?5\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.340 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.340 666.771 m 148.328 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Same connections and coverage in the )] TJ ET BT 250.640 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliotheca Scatologica)] TJ ET BT 365.636 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.636 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.636 652.515 m 422.624 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some hints, such as how scatological humour in fabliaux takes off and coincides with institutions of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the self such as confession or wills \(p. 16\) or at p. 165 about late medieval/early modern ?fart )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse? vs. its earlier medieval version: the former exposes scholastic logic as hot air, the latter is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with acrobatics and is more anti-ecclesiastical.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.608 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.608 595.491 m 393.596 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. pp. 38?39 on air, auras, and haloes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.644 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.644 581.235 m 315.632 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. on the sense of smell at pp. 40?43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.996 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.996 566.979 m 311.984 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. ?got wind? \(p. 9\); ?fundamentals of the toilet? \(p. 18\), ?tongues in turds, books in burps? \(p. 18\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the nose knows? \(pp. 40 and 101\), ?extimate relations? \(p. 50\), the ?)] TJ ET BT 397.280 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(herme)] TJ ET BT 427.268 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutic of the fart? \(p. 76\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?booty indeed? \(p. 89\) ?metrical arsis? \(p. 117\), ?ran out of steam? \(p. 174\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.260 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.260 524.211 m 489.248 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly Allen has different editors and copyeditors from other mortals!)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.288 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.288 509.955 m 464.276 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cass. )] TJ ET BT 92.684 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inst)] TJ ET BT 110.684 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1 )] TJ ET BT 125.684 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de octoteucho,)] TJ ET BT 195.668 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 540 )] TJ ET BT 231.668 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vergilius dum Ennium legeret a quodam quid faceret inquisitus )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(respondit, 'aurum in stercore quaero.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.476 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.476 481.443 m 306.464 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evan R. Goldstein, ?The language of farting," )] TJ ET BT 287.540 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle of Higher Education)] TJ ET BT 437.204 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 53 \(July 2007\), B2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 452.931 m 124.004 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like time present?s its existence is hard to capture \(Aug. )] TJ ET BT 339.632 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conf)] TJ ET BT 362.972 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 11.15.18\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.968 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.968 438.675 m 477.956 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin )] TJ ET BT 92.348 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vissinare, vissio, and vissire )] TJ ET BT 230.348 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET BT 234.344 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(REW )] TJ ET BT 262.004 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9380-82\) were likewise soundless. Other Romance languages )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also have reflexes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.984 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.984 410.163 m 212.972 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 397.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One thinks of poor Denis the young writer who belatedly discovers that ?carminative? means )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Windtreibend? in Aldous Huxley, )] TJ ET BT 234.992 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crome Yellow)] TJ ET BT 303.332 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1922\), 212?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.968 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.968 381.651 m 492.956 381.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 368.794 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hence the vernal ?bucke verteth. Murie sing! cuccu.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.264 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.264 367.395 m 380.252 367.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 354.538 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominique-Gilbert Laporte, )] TJ ET BT 202.328 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Shit)] TJ ET BT 272.336 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, Mass, 2000\), 7 and 11.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.316 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.316 353.139 m 508.304 353.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 340.282 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paull F. Baum, ?Chaucer's puns?, )] TJ ET BT 228.164 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PMLA)] TJ ET BT 259.496 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1946\), 231.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.488 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.488 338.883 m 384.476 338.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 326.026 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let readers decide which of the following )] TJ ET BT 267.632 326.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(obiter dicta)] TJ ET BT 323.300 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is which: The fart pokes fun at reason; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Personal space? is an area of ?smell exchange? \(p. 46\); ?Smell extends the self beyond the perimeters )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the flesh? \(p. 47\); ?Permanently open for business they \(the nostrils\) are how we receive the world? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 50\); ?It has become our fate as a species to be aroused and corrupted in the same breath;? Women )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fart by accident \(p. 55\) and are ?figures of incontinence;? The crowding in hell \(p. 83\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.572 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.572 267.603 m 540.560 267.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A few samples: The anus represents emergent capitalism \(Laporte\) \(p. 13\); medieval grotesque bodies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vs. closed early modern subjects \(p. 14\); Early moderns were anal retentive, the Lutheran bowel )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?costive;? fart as meontological mark ?sign of not-being itself? \(p. 19\); The musical bum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?defamiliarizes the ordinary? \(p. 32\); ?Creaturely in itself, the air rearranges subject/object relations as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a continuum, and causes our selfhood to expand and contract with the elements.?\(p. 37\); ?Prostitutes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also inhabit a threshold within the social body, as does a fart within the body physical? \(p. 168\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.636 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.636 182.067 m 552.296 182.067 l S BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 167.811 m 96.344 167.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 154.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turds are a baby?s first act of creation \(p. 46\); the body in throes of a pneumatic seizure \(p. 30\) is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played by a higher power; ?Like chocolate, shit is full of nutrients and dark promise? \(p. 93\); ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(butt ? does not wink or look shifty: it just wobbles and clenches.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.332 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.332 125.043 m 441.320 125.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 112.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How was Judas? death interpreted, to take one example? What about sounds and winds?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.928 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.928 110.787 m 547.916 110.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 97.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Works such as J. N. Adams, )] TJ ET BT 202.328 97.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Latin Sexual Vocabulary)] TJ ET BT 342.656 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\) show ways to handle sexual )] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material without giggling or gurning.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.348 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.348 82.275 m 302.336 82.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 69.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Faex)] TJ ET BT 88.004 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and its plural )] TJ ET BT 156.668 69.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(faeces)] TJ ET BT 186.656 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( mean ?dregs? \(what remains behind when liquids are poured\) and do not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have to have fecal connotations )] TJ ET BT 218.312 55.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace)] TJ ET BT 240.968 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Allen p. 96.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.632 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J 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/Action /S /GoTo /D 67 0 R >> endobj 193 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 194 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.2637 367.7095 380.2517 379.5895 ] >> endobj 194 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 70 0 R >> endobj 195 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 196 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.3157 353.4535 508.3037 365.3335 ] >> endobj 196 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 75 0 R >> endobj 197 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 198 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.4877 339.1975 384.4757 351.0775 ] >> endobj 198 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 78 0 R >> endobj 199 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 200 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.5717 267.9175 540.5597 279.7975 ] >> endobj 200 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 81 0 R >> endobj 201 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 202 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.6357 182.3815 552.2957 194.2615 ] >> endobj 202 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 84 0 R >> endobj 203 0 obj << /Type /Annot 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R 229 0 R 231 0 R 233 0 R 235 0 R 237 0 R 239 0 R 241 0 R 243 0 R 245 0 R 247 0 R 249 0 R ] /Contents 214 0 R >> endobj 214 0 obj << /Length 14371 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laporte pp. 18?9, 38?9, 76?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.320 795.075 m 267.308 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plautus, )] TJ ET BT 105.356 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aulularia)] TJ ET BT 151.364 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 304 )] TJ ET BT 175.364 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Etiamne obturat inferiorem gutturem/ne quid animai forte amittat dormiens?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 124.004 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Paull F. Baum, ?The medieval legend of Judas Iscariot,? )] TJ ET BT 364.292 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PMLA)] TJ ET BT 395.624 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 31,3 \(1916\), 381-462 should be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 738.051 m 150.332 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 85.676 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tractatus Coislinianus)] TJ ET BT 195.368 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( edited by Richard Janko, )] TJ ET BT 320.684 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aristotle on Comedy: Towards a Reconstruction )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Poetics II)] TJ ET BT 122.672 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 1984\), pp. 24-25 speaks of )] TJ ET BT 332.636 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(katharsis)] TJ ET BT 376.640 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( through pleasure and laughter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.608 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.608 709.539 m 553.268 709.539 l S BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.283 m 96.344 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1 Joh.3.17. The term )] TJ ET BT 166.340 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(splangchna)] TJ ET BT 221.672 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?entrails,? ?viscera,? is not explored.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.624 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.624 681.027 m 461.612 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the Jew of Tewkesbury see Martha Bayless, ?The story of the fallen Jew and the iconography of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish unbelief,? )] TJ ET BT 150.332 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Viator)] TJ ET BT 181.004 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 34 \(2003\),142?56; 18 Heraclitus?s ipnos in Arist. )] TJ ET BT 424.316 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Part. An)] TJ ET BT 464.984 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 645a is highly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely to be a dunghill. After all his action of warming himself at it \(theromenon pros to ipno\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works best with an oven \(which is what the word means\); p. 30 \(and also p. 129\) Ps. 44.2: Latin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(eructare)] TJ ET BT 104.672 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does mean ?to belch,? but is a special Christian Latin neutral usage derived from difficulties )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Hebrew verbs used \(?to bubble or gush? or ?to be excited, to speak, express? and the LXX?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation as ?to belch.? See Hermann Rnsch, )] TJ ET BT 295.640 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Itala und Vulgata)] TJ ET BT 380.312 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Mnchen, 1965\), p. 363. This is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-reading; ??iniscule? \(pp. 48 and 87\) should be ?minuscule;? ?Grenouille? \(p. 52\) is a frog, not a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toad \(?crapaud?\); p. 56 ?Sentir ? meaning ?to embrace? seems forced; p. 64 ?Sepentrio? should be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Septentrio;? p. 85 On the baby who defecates in the font, n. 365 could cite Constantine Copronymus )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theophanes, )] TJ ET BT 128.000 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronographia)] TJ ET BT 202.676 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 9 a.m. 6211 and also Ethelred the Unready in William of Malmesbury?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Regum Anglorum)] TJ ET BT 179.336 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 2.164; p. 115 The correct reference is not James 5.12, but Matthew 5.37; p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(119 ?Mugitus? means ?bellowing? or ?mooing,? not ?crying;? p. 120 For ?stidor? read ?stridor;? p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(122 J. Ziolkowski, )] TJ ET BT 156.356 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alan of Lille's Grammar of Sex: the Meaning of Grammar to a Twelfth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intellectual)] TJ ET BT 118.676 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. 10, Speculum Anniversary Monographs. \(Cambridge, Mass., 1985\) could be cited; p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(128 On being ?in a pet,? Spitzer, L. 'On the etymology of )] TJ ET BT 342.476 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pet)] TJ ET BT 357.140 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', )] TJ ET BT 365.300 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Language)] TJ ET BT 413.300 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 26, 4 \(1950\), 533?8 is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant; p. 128 Looking for the derivation of )] TJ ET BT 284.984 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(petulans)] TJ ET BT 325.652 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 348.980 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(petulantia)] TJ ET BT 397.652 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not in *)] TJ ET BT 437.324 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(petulo)] TJ ET BT 467.324 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but in )] TJ ET BT 503.996 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pedo)] TJ ET BT 527.324 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorrect. Likewise the step further where )] TJ ET BT 267.620 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(peto)] TJ ET BT 288.284 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is suggested as an etymon, and )] TJ ET BT 442.268 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(petere)] TJ ET BT 472.256 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is translated as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?letting fly? \(rather than ?going for?, as in ?letting fly a fart/dart.? All of this is confused game-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playing, which will not convince any philologist. Quantity )] TJ ET BT 347.348 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(does)] TJ ET BT 369.344 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( matter; p. 129 The etymology of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perdix)] TJ ET BT 94.676 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is unknown according to D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 371.132 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Glossary of Greek Birds)] TJ ET BT 498.452 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1936\), p. 234, but at p. 235 he mentions )] TJ ET BT 301.676 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anth. Lat)] TJ ET BT 346.352 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 733 Riese, which puns on the sound the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bird makes \()] TJ ET BT 124.004 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kakkabizo)] TJ ET BT 171.992 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and )] TJ ET BT 199.316 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caco)] TJ ET BT 221.972 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(also v)] TJ ET BT 257.300 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(issire)] TJ ET BT 283.304 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Pierre Chantraine, )] TJ ET BT 383.612 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionnaire tymologique de la )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(langue grecque: histoire des mots)] TJ ET BT 229.664 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 3 \(Paris, 1968\), 885 cites )] TJ ET BT 379.988 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perdomai)] TJ ET BT 425.984 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Better, however, to cite )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship than Rabkin and Silverman, )] TJ ET BT 258.668 326.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(It's a Gas: a Study of Flatulence)] TJ ET BT 416.888 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 27 on this matter; p. 143 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Captio? should be ?Capito;? p. 159 consultation of the LLT would have shown that )] TJ ET BT 472.316 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(flatus vocis)] TJ ET BT 526.652 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( = )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?voice fart? is highly unlikely. The )] TJ ET BT 234.992 297.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(iunctura)] TJ ET BT 275.660 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( common describes the production of sounds in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grammatical works. The equation of )] TJ ET BT 241.316 283.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(immo)] TJ ET BT 267.980 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and)] TJ ET BT 288.308 283.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( imo )] TJ ET BT 312.308 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is likewise wrong; for ?nonisi? read ?nonnisi;? p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(217 Bernardus Silvestris \(not ?of Silvestris?\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.668 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.668 267.603 m 342.656 267.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Guido Calza, ?Die Taberna der sieben Weisen in Ostia,? )] TJ ET BT 358.604 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Antike)] TJ ET BT 409.592 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 15 \(1939\), 99?115: )] TJ ET BT 510.248 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Durum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cacantes monuit ut nitant Thales)] TJ ET BT 220.688 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 244.016 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vissire tacite Chilon docuit subdolus)] TJ ET BT 421.364 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The origin of the ?vesse.? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More recently John R. Clarke, )] TJ ET BT 212.324 226.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elite Viewers in Italy 100 B.C. ?A.D. 315)] TJ ET BT 263.012 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley-Los Angeles-London, 2003\), pp. 170?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.300 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.300 210.579 m 555.296 210.579 l S BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 196.323 m 84.008 196.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 183.466 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pseud)] TJ ET BT 93.344 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1279)] TJ ET BT 123.344 183.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( itaque dum enitor, prox, iam paene inquinavi pallium)] TJ ET BT 383.336 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.336 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.336 182.067 m 446.324 182.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 169.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 51.3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.016 167.811 m 160.004 167.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 154.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Above n. 000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.008 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.008 153.555 m 191.996 153.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 140.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Porphyry, )] TJ ET BT 135.008 140.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De philosophia ex oraculis)] TJ ET BT 264.668 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Eusebius, )] TJ ET BT 329.336 140.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PE)] TJ ET BT 344.000 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 4.23-174-75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.992 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(38\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.992 139.299 m 468.980 139.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 126.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His follower with a fart. Greg. Tur. )] TJ ET BT 235.976 126.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GM)] TJ ET BT 254.636 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.636 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(39\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.636 125.043 m 332.624 125.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 112.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. Sulp. Sev. )] TJ ET BT 138.356 112.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(VMartini)] TJ ET BT 182.360 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 17.7; Greg. Tur. )] TJ ET BT 266.012 112.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GC)] TJ ET BT 282.680 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.680 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(40\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.680 110.787 m 354.668 110.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 97.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aug. )] TJ ET BT 90.680 97.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De ord.)] TJ ET BT 127.340 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1.8.22. The subsequent post mortem merits closer attention.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.320 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(41\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.320 96.531 m 477.308 96.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 83.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. Greg. Tur. )] TJ ET BT 139.664 83.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(VPatrum)] TJ ET BT 182.996 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 17.3. 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