%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221203232+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221203232+00'00') /Title (Land and Revolution: Nationalist Politics in the West of Ireland 1891-1921) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3854 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution: Nationalist Politics in the West of Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1891-1921)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fergus Campbell?s book explores the relationship between agrarian conflict and nationalist politics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from 1891 to 1921. Although the study focuses primarily on the five counties of Connaught, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular emphasis on east Galway and especially the Craughwell area, provincial and local events are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located in a national context. In order to achieve this Campbell adopts what he calls a ?concertina motion: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting from the wide-angle shot to the close-up, and then back again \(sometimes within a single chapter\)? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work is essentially a study of the United Irish League \(UIL\) and Sinn Fin during the period. The stated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim is to ?write the history of Irish agrarian and nationalist movements from below? \(p. 7\). Much emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is placed on the examination of popular political activity and the evolution of nationalist politics at a local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level. This is accomplished through a detailed and meticulous investigation of local politics and agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity in east Galway. The author is anxious to explore the relationship between land and revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the eyes and experiences of the nationalist rank-and-file. The actions of Irish political leaders or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in Dublin and Westminster do not take centre stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the birthplace of the Land League \(1879\) and of the UIL \(1898\) the province of Connaught is an obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(734)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 28 February, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fergus Campbell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199273249)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(74.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(376pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Cosgrove)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7535 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice for a study of this kind. The three principal periods of agrarian agitation in the early decades of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century, the compulsory land purchase campaign of 1901?3, the Ranch War of 1904?8 and the unrest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolutionary period of 1917?23, were most virulent in the province and are central to the narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book adopts a chronological format although a thematic approach is taken in the various chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one explores the nature of everyday life in the west of Ireland in the final decade of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. The social and economic conditions of the population and the prevalence of widespread poverty are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to the fore. Campbell identifies the unequal distribution of land in the province as one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal causes of poverty. The majority of the population were huddled on small uneconomic holdings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst a minority of graziers occupied a disproportionate amount of land. Many graziers were publicans or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopkeepers, the main sources of credit in rural Ireland, and thus their influence could often be immense. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William O?Brien?s indignation and anger over the system of land holding in the west led him to found the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UIL in 1898 with the principal aim being land redistribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters two and three deal predominantly with the UIL. Chapter two traces the origins of the 1903 Land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act or the Wyndham Act as it was better known. The UIL?s campaign of agrarian agitation for compulsory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land purchase, in the south and west of Ireland, is credited with laying the foundations for the Land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference and the subsequent 1903 act. Campbell argues that the UIL agitation and the coercive response it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked from the government have not been sufficiently acknowledged by historians. The rise and growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the UIL are systematically traced and examined from its humble beginnings in Co. Mayo in 1898 to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment as the official organisation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. By scrutinising the make-up and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity of the movement in east Galway the nature and extent of the agrarian agitation of 1901?3 are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three traces the role of the UIL in the Ranch War from 1904 to 1908 and the response of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist community to the Wyndham Act. Campbell is eager to differentiate his bottom-up approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying the Ranch War from the high politics approach he attributes to the works of Paul Bew, David Seth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones and Philip Bull.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.364 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.364 416.931 m 153.356 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 153.356 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This section of the monograph shows how the UIL found a new purpose after 1903 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by agitating to ensure that tenants received reasonable purchase prices under the Wyndham Act. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilisation of rent strikes and later cattle-driving during the Ranch War, to ensure that the landlords? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untenanted land was sold along with the tenanted estate so it could be redistributed, gave a new impetus to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the UIL. This chapter also provides a valuable insight into the rise of Sinn Fin and how their policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absenteeism provided an apparently viable alternative to the Irish Parliamentary Party?s alliance with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberals especially after the rejection of the Irish Council Bill in 1907. Campbell convincingly argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sinn Fin?s support for radical agrarianism forced John Redmond and the leaders of the Irish Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party to row in behind the Ranch War agitation, which prior to the Irish Council Bill fiasco had been pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by nationalist MPs such as Laurence Ginnell and David Sheehy, in order to counteract the growth of Sinn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four investigates the UIL court system and the ?law of the league? which have received scant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention from historians. Throughout large areas of Connaught and Munster these courts claimed authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over agrarian matters and land disputes. A thorough investigation of the role played by the UIL courts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of its objectives is carried out, while the organisation, procedural norms and decisions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various courts are dealt with in considerable detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter five Campbell openly challenges David Fitzpatrick?s conclusions in his study of Co. Clare )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.292 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.292 164.835 m 537.284 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.284 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing how this model does not necessarily apply to Co. Galway. Whereas Fitzpatrick found that there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable continuity between the membership of Sinn Fin and the UIL in Co. Clare, Campbell found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that rather than emerging from the home rule movement in east Galway, Sinn Fin had its roots in a tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of radical agrarianism epitomised by Tom Kenny?s secret society. The case study of the Craughwell UIL )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides some illuminating insights into the make-up of a typical branch while the analysis of the split )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Kennyite and Hallanite factions is most revealing. In fact, Campbell?s analysis of the career of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Kenny and his secret society is one of the most interesting aspects of the work. Kenny and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers, mainly smaller tenants and agricultural labourers, were in favour of a more radical agrarianism. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.3637 417.2455 153.3557 429.1255 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2917 165.1495 537.2837 177.0295 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6236 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This resulted in conflict with the local UIL, which contained many of the Catholic elite such as shopkeepers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graziers and publicans who, in order to protect their position and property, had joined the organisation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control the radical tendencies of groups such as the Kennyites. Therefore, the Kennyites gradually developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong links with Sinn Fin due to its willingness to accept a more radical form of agrarianism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell?s reconstruction of the 1916 rebellion in Galway is one of the most detailed yet for provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. He shrewdly asserts that the rising in Galway was envisaged as a serious military struggle and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply motivated by the notion of a blood sacrifice. Indeed, the rising in the county is viewed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuation of earlier agrarian struggles although influenced by distrust of the local Protestant elite and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class tensions in agricultural society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six takes a similar line to other recent works, such as Terence Dooley?s )] TJ ET BT 420.932 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?The Land for the People?: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Land Question in Independent Ireland)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.664 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.664 628.515 m 252.656 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.656 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in challenging the orthodoxy that there was no social element )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Irish revolution. Campbell?s findings demonstrate that in Galway there was a considerable difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the social and generational background of the UIL and Sinn Fin members. Indeed, the experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin O?Shiel as the Dil Land Commissioner during the revolutionary period highlight the agrarian aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the revolution, particularly in Connaught.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has done a great service for historians by locating in the National Archives the Royal Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constabulary monthly reports for the period 1903 to 1908, which are missing from the official CO 904 series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in London. Likewise, his location and utilisation of six collections of privately held letters and diaries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connaught and his use of the more recently released Bureau of Military History archives is admirable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, extensive use could have been made of the annual reports of the Irish Land Commission, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congested Districts Board or the Estates Commission between 1891 and 1921. These annual reports contain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wealth of information and could only have enhanced the study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the strengths of Campbell?s work is the detailed analysis of the growth and social composition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UIL and Sinn Fin, particularly in the study of the local branches in Galway. Campbell?s extensive use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census returns and land valuation books is commendable. However, the social composition of these groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been given even further analysis by examining the parliamentary returns of advances, these being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government loans to tenant-purchasers repaid by an annuity, for the land acts of 1891, 1896, 1903 and 1909. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This would have allowed a number of questions to be assessed. For example, what effect did land purchase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have on UIL membership? Was a tenant farmer more likely to be a member of Sinn Fin if he had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchased his land?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell rightly claims that insufficient recognition has been given to the UIL agitation for compulsory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase between 1901 and 1903, which helped lay the foundations for the Land Conference and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent 1903 Land Act. His dissection of how the campaign operated is also noteworthy. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell acknowledges that the ?architect of the demand for compulsory purchase was T. W. Russell? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47\), little mention is made of the compulsory purchase campaign of 1900?3 in Ulster orchestrated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist MP for South Tyrone. Russell?s campaign not only ensured that Ireland was united in its demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for compulsory purchase but it also threatened to split Ulster unionism. Russell has gained more prominence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and relevance in recent times owing to the works of certain historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.616 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.616 207.603 m 384.608 207.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.608 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is growing evidence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that not only was the compulsory purchase movement initiated in Ulster but that the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Land Conference and the 1903 Land Act lay in the parallel campaigns of T. W. Russell and the UIL.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.6637 628.8295 252.6557 640.7095 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6157 207.9175 384.6077 219.7975 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7342 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author correctly identifies that the 1903 Land Act created the conditions for the perpetuation of agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitation by failing to ensure that the terms of purchase, between landlords and tenants, would not be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of contention. The little known use of rent combinations in the west of Ireland after 1903, to force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords to sell their tenanted and untenanted land at a price that the tenants considered reasonable, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed. Analysis of the returns of advances to tenant-purchasers under the 1903 Land Act would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled the purchase price to be calculated on estates where rent combinations had existed prior to sale. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether or not the combinations succeeded in their objective of obtaining reduced prices could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascertained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell provides a compelling case that the Ranch War was ?primarily a conflict between landlord and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenant, and that the intra-tenant hostility between smallholder and grazier was a subsidiary aspect of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader struggle? \(p. 86\). However, a more detailed examination of the provisions of the 1903 Land Act, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, would have revealed the cause of much of the unrest in the agricultural community during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranch War and allowed a more nuanced interpretation. Under clause two of the act [3 Ed. VII, c. 37.], a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenant on an estate being sold, his son, the tenant of a holding not exceeding 5 in valuation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood of the estate and evicted tenants were all eligible for a parcel of untenanted land where it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold along with an estate. Under the 1906 Labourers Act [6 Ed. VIII, c. 7.], an agricultural labourer was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added to the list of those eligible. To qualify, the labourer had to have been resident on the estate or in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood for at least five years prior to the advance. For the first time members of the agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, who were not occupiers of land, were eligible for a farm where untenanted land was sold along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an estate. By legitimising the claims of these groups, especially the sons of tenants who were landless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, the act triggered an agitation to ensure that landlords sold their tenanted and untenanted estates. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords opposed the sale of such lands as they made a lucrative profit renting it on the eleven-month )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. Land let by landlords on an eleven-month lease was not subject to the rent-fixing provisions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land courts \(established under the 1881 Land Act to regulate the fixing of rents\) as they only dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenancies of a year or greater. The system was quite popular among landlords as the rent was determined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the market demand and not by the land courts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Campbell?s work is obviously keen to address the experiences of the nationalist rank-and-file, little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention is paid to the position of landlords or their organisations. East Galway contained some prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resident landlords such as Lord Ashtown, the earl of Westmeath and Lord Clonbrock, who was very active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Irish Landowners? Convention. More extensive use of the British parliamentary debates, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those involving landlords from the west of Ireland and particularly Co. Galway which took place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Lords during the period 1904 to 1908, would have revealed the fears, anxieties and frustrations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this class.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 80.684 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 80.684 302.883 m 94.676 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 94.676 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Also, an extensive employment of estate papers would have undoubtedly complemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell?s findings and would have provided a much more rounded picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the heightened UIL agitation in 1908 certainly contributed to a significant increase in sales in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year there is another more obvious reason which is not mentioned. Under the terms of the 1903 act every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlord who sold received a 12% cash bonus based on the purchase money of the estate. The 12% bonus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was given upon sale was up for consideration after five years and was thus guaranteed only until 1 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 1908. Correctly identifying that the bonus was to be reduced and fearing that it might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolished altogether, Irish landlords rushed to take advantage of the act before the deadline. With a Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in power from early 1906 and a new land bill in the pipeline, the generous terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wyndham Act looked set to disappear. The report of the estates commissioners for the year ending 31 March )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1909 highlighted the frenzied efforts of landlords to lodge their sales applications in time to avail of the 12% )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bonus. Indeed, in November 1908 landlords? fears were confirmed when the bonus was reduced from 12% )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 3%.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument is made that it was the UIL agitation from below which brought about the introduction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1909 Land Act and that the act ?was not introduced primarily to amend the financial provisions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wyndham Act? \(p. 122\). While the delay in the distribution of the bonus and purchase money of estates sold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is mentioned there is little attempt to get to the heart of the Wyndham Act?s considerable financial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 80.6837 303.1975 94.6757 315.0775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 8370 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties. By 1908 it was clear to nationalists, unionists and the Liberal government that land purchase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not proceed for much longer under the Wyndham Act. The financing for its operation had proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decidedly unsound. Incidental charges, as a result of the act?s operation, had not been taken into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration and, as a result, the burden fell on the county councils and ratepayers of the country to pay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the duration of the 1903 act?s operation there was a depression in the stock market which ensured that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the guaranteed land stock issued to raise the actual cash for advances to tenants-purchasers was never issued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at anywhere near par. The cost of issuing stock at a discount had a snowballing effect so that even by 1907 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deficit had reached 2,800,000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.976 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.976 669.027 m 216.968 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 216.968 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If land purchase had continued under the terms of the Wyndham Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ratepayers of Ireland would have been forced to cover the costs of stock being issued below par, as had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the case with the incidental charges, because the fund set aside to cover the losses, the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Development Grant, was almost exhausted. In reality, the act had been structured in such a way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidental charges and the cost of issuing land stock at a discount was taken out of Irish monies and not from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imperial exchequer. Therefore, without new legislation in 1909 land purchase simply could not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued without incurring significant expense on the Irish ratepayer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, the question of the bonus was equally problematic. The terms of the 1903 act had only provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sum of 12,000,000 to cover the 12% cash bonus to landlords. Augustine Birrell, Liberal chief secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1907 to 1916, discarded George Wyndham?s original estimation of 1903 that 100,000,000 would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffice to cover advances to tenant-purchasers under the act, for in his estimation the cost would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhere in the region of 180,000,000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.320 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.320 500.211 m 251.312 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 251.312 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The bonus fund was actually increased under the 1909 Land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act but it was distributed on a graduated scale and not fixed at 12%. A number of parliamentary papers, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the 1908 report of the departmental committee appointed to enquire into Irish land purchase finance, \([Cd. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4005] H.C. 1908, xxiii, 267\), or the return of guaranteed 2 % stock issues under the 1903 Land Act, \(\(279\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H.C. 1909, l, 343\), exist which emphasise the act?s financial problems. Moreover, the 1917 Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Convention, which was more or less a direct response to the 1916 rebellion, had a sub-committee devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land purchase question and to the continued financial fallout from the Wyndham Act, which would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been worthy of examination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell?s work is a welcome contribution to Irish historiography. It provides further evidence that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a significant social element to the Irish revolution. Rather than being viewed primarily as a revision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing studies, Campbell?s work should be seen as another welcome contribution to the debate on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social aspect of the period. Similar locally based studies will undoubtedly enhance and develop our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the social component of the Irish revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Bew, )] TJ ET BT 116.348 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict and Conciliation in Ireland, 1890?1910: Parnellites and Radical Agrarians)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1987\); David Seth Jones, )] TJ ET BT 232.328 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Graziers, Land Reform and Political Conflict in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Washington, 1995\); and Philip Bull, )] TJ ET BT 245.024 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land, Politics and Nationalism: a Study of the Irish Land )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Question)] TJ ET BT 107.348 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.676 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.676 208.851 m 238.664 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Irish life, 1913?1921: Provincial Experience of War and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 1977\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 180.339 m 192.332 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terence Dooley, )] TJ ET BT 146.984 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?The Land for the People?: the Land Question in Independent Ireland)] TJ ET BT 484.292 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 151.827 m 149.000 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Alvin Jackson, )] TJ ET BT 158.672 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ulster Party: Irish Unionists in the House of Commons 1884?1911)] TJ ET BT 502.004 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1989\); idem, ?Irish unionism and the Russellite threat 1894?1906?, )] TJ ET BT 420.320 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 532.328 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,xxv, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100 \(Nov. 1987\), 376-404; Andrew Gailey,)] TJ ET BT 272.648 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Ireland and the Death of Kindness: the Experience of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constructive Unionism 1890?1905)] TJ ET BT 232.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1987\); Paul Bew, )] TJ ET BT 355.676 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict and Conciliation in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1890?1910: Parnellities and Radical Agrarians)] TJ ET BT 294.020 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\); James Loughlin, ?T. W. Russell, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenant-farmer interest, and progressive unionism in Ulster, 1886?1900?, )] TJ ET BT 412.292 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eire-Ireland)] TJ ET BT 472.280 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, xxv, 1 \(1996\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44-63; Patrick Cosgrove, ?T. W. Russell and the compulsory land purchase campaign in Ulster, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.9757 669.3415 216.9677 681.2215 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.3197 500.5255 251.3117 512.4055 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6757 209.1655 238.6637 221.0455 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3437 180.6535 192.3317 192.5335 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 152.1415 148.9997 164.0215 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 3332 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900?03?, )] TJ ET BT 116.672 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 228.680 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.000 795.075 m 355.988 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard 4)] TJ ET BT 201.992 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cxxxiv, 876?9, \(10 May 1904\); cxxxv, 330?36 \(19 May 1903\); cxxxv, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1419?35 \(13 June 1904\) and cxlix, 687?718 \(14 July 1905\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.984 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.984 766.563 m 404.972 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Report of the Departmental Committee appointed to enquire into Irish Land Purchase Finance in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(connection with the provision of funds required for the purposes of the Irish Land Act, 1903)] TJ ET BT 505.352 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7, [Cd. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4005] H.C. 1908, xxiii, 267.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.688 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.688 723.795 m 253.676 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard 4)] TJ ET BT 115.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cxcvi, 1811?3 \(23 Nov. 1908\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.992 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 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