%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420114001+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420114001+01'00') /Title (Youth Culture in Modern Britain, c.1920?c.1970: From Ivory Tower to Global Movement ? a New History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4315 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Youth Culture in Modern Britain, c.1920?c.1970: From Ivory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Tower to Global Movement ? a New History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given that the growth in the cultural prominence of the young was one of the most remarkable features of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western society in the 20th century, serious historical studies of youth culture do not come along as often as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they should. For this reason I was very pleased to be asked to review David Fowler?s new book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains much original archive research. Chapters cover such diverse topics as the flapper cult of the 1920s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimental youth movements of the inter-war period, youth culture and juvenile delinquency in Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, the emergence of the academic study of youth culture in the 1950s and 1960s, student culture in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s, mod culture and pop culture. In so doing, Fowler considers both the ways in which young people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talked about themselves and the ways they were viewed by adults. The book is chronologically broader, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematically narrower, than its title suggests. Despite the focus on the years between c.1920 and c.1970, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are treated to an opening chapter on Edwardian cults of youth from the boy labourers of urban Britain to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Neo-Pagans, along with a closing postscript on the Spice Girls. By contrast, although chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover a variety of episodes in modern youth history, there is no overarching narrative of youth culture by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to contextualise the individual case studies \(more of this later\). Nevertheless, Fowler has drilled some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating bore-holes into the history of 20th-century British youth, and the breadth and variety of examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed are a welcome and indeed important antidote to the historic tendency to focus on the post-1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Fowler is cautious of imposing too heavy a grand narrative on his material, but ultimately concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(735)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 28 February, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fowler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780333599211)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?Central to that history are the youths of the middle classes? and that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Youth culture developed in Britain over the course of the twentieth century by organic means, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through word of mouth, domestic and foreign travel, cultural contact between elite youths and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class communities, Mods observing each other and their outfits in suburban dance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halls, countercultural youth pop groups like the Pink Floyd learning their repertoire in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basement of a Cambridge pub, and so on. Youth culture, in other words, is not merely an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offshoot of mass culture \(p. 198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What impressed me about the book? First, Fowler displays a refreshing appetite to challenge some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable interpretations of 20th-century youth which have become normative both in the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination and in some academic historiography. Notably, he contends that the genesis of modern British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth culture occurred much earlier than the traditional focus on the 1950s and 1960s has led us to believe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some particularly good discussions of the way that the myth of the ?novelty? of youth culture was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established by academic sociologists and cultural commentators in the 1950s and 1960s \(including such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luminaries as Richard Hoggart and Bryan Wilson\), some of whom had very little first-hand experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their subject-matter. Fowler argues that even those scholars who did engage in serious primary research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often failed to historicise their accounts, leading them to overlook points of continuity with the youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures of the early 20th century, and earlier pioneers who blazed a trail for youth. As Fowler rightly notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class youth have received scant attention from historians of youth culture. Consequently, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotes considerable attention to higher education, particularly in the 1920s and 1960s \(the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is suggested to be concurrent with, and influential upon, the appearance of new youth cultures\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of students in fermenting youth movements. Chapter two is devoted to the intriguing figure of Rolf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gardiner, Cambridge graduate, prolific writer and morris dancer, sometime activist for the Kibbo Kift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kindred \(a more folksy, less regimented rival to Boy Scouts and Boys? Brigade\) and later Nazi sympathiser. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fowler credits Gardiner as architect of one of the earliest attempts to frame youth culture as a distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterculture and philosophy of life in the 1920s. One might argue that in a comparatively short book such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as this, Gardiner receives a disproportionate amount of attention. However, as a case study, the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly persuades that serious attempts by young people to create distinct youth cultures predates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explosion of youth cultures in the 1950s and 1960s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second valuable feature of the book is the extent to which Fowler has returned to some familiar episodes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in youth historiography and subjected them to careful archive research. Thus in Chapter eight, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the student protests of 1968 and the Wilson government?s response, Fowler argues that far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituting open generational warfare, students in Britain were little interested in revolution \(particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison to their Parisian counterparts\). Moreover, on the ?establishment? side, cabinet papers reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Secretary James Callaghan was relatively unperturbed by the protests. In similar vein, Fowler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the notorious 1967 trial of Mick Jagger, Keith Richards and Robert Fraser for possession of illegal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drugs. Widely reported at the time as evidence of a growing generation gap in morals and worldviews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jagger and Richards are shown to be little interested in ?youth culture? as such, while even many culturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative ?establishment? figures felt the two pop stars had been harshly treated by the courts and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media. \(In fact, opinion surveys of the time suggest class ? rather than age ? was the most significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic indicator of opinion on the episode\). At several turns, then, Fowler argues that the supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation gap was much less sheer than has sometimes been supposed. In fact the notion that the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were uncomplicatedly a period of youth revolt and a growing generation gap has been challenged by several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars. Arthur Marwick, for example, asserts that while youth cultures were frequently puzzling, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsettling, to many adults, many older adults and authority figures were in reality more inclined to treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young people with ?measured judgement? than with unreserved condemnation ? at least in part because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves were sympathetic to young people?s appetite for freedom of expression.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.268 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.268 93.555 m 450.260 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 450.260 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this respect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain arguments are not entirely new, and Fowler?s book occasionally asks more questions of folk memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than it does of academic historiography. Nevertheless, his contention that a ?generation gap? interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1960s has been overplayed certainly rings true for my own research area \(Christianity and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.2677 93.8695 450.2597 105.7495 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8022 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generational change\) where the drift from organised religion in the 1960s probably owed at least as much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents enforcing religious practice less strongly amongst their children, as to any youth revolt against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised religion )] TJ ET BT 124.004 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 152.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.996 766.563 m 169.988 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these ways then, Fowler deserves credit for expanding our field of vision and exploding some persistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myths. However, though I would recommend this book to any student of 20th-century youth culture or social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, I do also have some reservations, some of which are quite substantial. For me, the most serious issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the absence of any developed discussion of what youth culture actually is. Defining youth culture is by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means straightforward, and definitional debates have been a fairly constant thread of debate in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological and cultural studies literature in particular. However, for a general historical audience \(such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may benefit from this book\), it might have helped to include a brief definitional overview, along with a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed justification as to how the term was to be used here. Fowler does helpfully trace the etymology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the term in the 20th century, and a brief ?note on the text? in the preface distinguishes between ?Youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Culture? \(as a specific version\) and ?youth culture? \(in a generic sense\). On p. 4, a further distinction is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made between ?youth lifestyles? and ?youth culture? as a pursuit of new ways of living. This is briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborated at several further points in the book. However, a more comprehensive map of the term?s various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings, and a definitional compass for this study, might have been helpful. In the absence of these, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes became difficult to distinguish how the terms were being used at different points.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was most problematic when it came to evaluating the core thesis that youth culture was the product of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular period of time and set of influences. For example, on p. 5, Fowler suggests that ?the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth culture in 20th-century Britain has quite a definite beginning around 1920?, whilst on p. 19 he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that ?youth culture was first identified with middle-class families in Britain? in the 1880s. If ?youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture? in fact meant something slightly different in each case, some further explanation or qualification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been helpful. Again, the distinction on p. 4 between ?youth lifestyles? and ?youth culture? could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been more clearly delineated. At what point does ?youth lifestyle? become ?youth culture?? At certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points, Fowler implies that ?youth culture? encompasses both the lifestyles of youth and more deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to create youth movements and philosophies of life; at other times, ?youth culture? is distinguished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the mass of young people?s artefacts and leisure habits as something more intentional. In fact, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought I discerned at least four potential meanings here which required further disentangling and sharper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition: a\) youth culture as a set of attitudes or behaviours mainly characteristic of the young; b\) youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture as a recognisable cultural milieu distinct from those of childhood or adulthood; c\) specific youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures or ?youth cults? ? e.g., Mod culture; d\) an intentional search by the young for new ideals or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophies of life in which ideals of ?youth? are paradigmatic, such as advocated by Rolf Gardiner. Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it would also be possible to conceive of youth culture as ?whatever young people thought and did? \(cf. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some ? albeit rather general ? definitions of ?culture?\), clarity was vital. However, this was not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplied. For example on pp. 197?8, Fowler concludes that ?the Beatles were not in any meaningful sense a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection on youth culture during the 1960s?. Whilst I share much of Fowler?s scepticism of what might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called the ?Philip Larkin? school of contemporary history )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.976 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.976 257.859 m 327.968 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.968 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this is a controversial claim and needs careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantiation. While the book features an interesting survey of established \(older adult\) commentators? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of the Beatles, it contained little direct evidence of young peoples? own attitudes to the band or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressions of their longer-term significance for youth. Although the phenomenon of Beatlemania is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, Fowler?s argument otherwise rests on the fact that the Mods ? ?the most visible, geographically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobile and cohesive youth cult of the period? ? were little interested in the Beatles? music. Whilst this may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be true, lack of interest amongst one particular ?youth cult? says little in itself about the Beatles? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to any wider sense of ?youth culture? \(however homogenous or diffusive we take that to be\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My second reservation relates to the overall structure and flow of the book. As a collection of studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different aspects of youth culture, the book is very worthwhile in itself. However, I think it could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even better with more contextualisation of each episode a\) within its own time b\) within a longer narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about youth culture c\) within the social construction of age more generally. Regarding the first, I frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked myself how far one could generalise from the episodes narrated, or the extent to which variations or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives existed. For example, Rolf Gardiner?s conscious attempts to bring working- and middle-class )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.9957 766.8775 169.9877 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.9757 258.1735 327.9677 270.0535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7729 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth together in the 1920s through outdoor activity strongly echoes the spirit of the Duke of York?s Camps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Boys \(begun in 1921\), which were also founded by a committed young activist with high ideals ? even if, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that particular case, he happened to be royal. If Gardiner?s initiatives were qualitatively different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other youth movements and experiments being conducted in the 1920s, in what ways? Similarly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating discussions of student culture at the LSE and Cambridge beg the question whether similar ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were finding voice at other British universities, or whether London and Cambridge were for any reason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different. Second, it might have helped to provide a general sketch of the evolution of youth culture\(s\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the 20th century to help the reader ?join the dots? between the various episodes explored in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. If as Fowler argues there was no ?youth culture? \(only ?youth cultures?\) before 1920 \(p. 5\), at what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, if at all, did something more homogenous and/or self-conscious emerge? Similarly, if Fowler is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct to regard the 1920s and 1960s as the most creative phases in modern British youth culture \(an idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which itself needs careful explication, to avoid any hints of ?golden age? thinking\), it might have bolstered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument to give a brief overview of the 1940s and 1950s \(which receive much less attention\) in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate their comparative lack of creativity. Third, the book might have benefited further from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the changing construction of ?youth? within the whole life course. How did the very notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?youth? change across the 20th century? How was ?youth? defined in ways not directly related to age? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Fowler rightly implies, for example, that in the mid-20th century, a single person might continued to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified as a ?youth? into their early 20s, while young married couples were rarely characterised as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?youths? in the same way. There is more scope to explore issues of this kind\). Moreover, what did ?youth? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signify in contrast to childhood or adulthood, and how far did children and adults also directly or indirectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape ?youth culture? \(depending on what is meant by the term\)? The case of Rolf Gardiner demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the salience of this question: though he possessed a more highly developed philosophy of youth than most, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gardiner was never ?anti-age? and indeed drew many of his ideas from older adults who inspired him \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40\). Likewise if the suburban dance hall was an important incubator of youth culture it seems important to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider the ways these were run and managed by dance hall proprietors and local licensing authorities ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to what young people themselves were thinking, doing and making of what was provided whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were there. Fowler takes the very reasonable decision to focus on ?youth as agent, not as object? \(p. 5, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Marwick?s phrase\) but it is worth acknowledging that this was only part of the story. Suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further topics for inclusion can sometimes seem like a cheap hit, since it is only possible to cover so much in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a single volume. However, in this case, space for further contextualisation could have been achieved without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrificing too much breadth or argument by eliminating a few cases where ideas or information were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated, and by substantially trimming the endnotes \(which run to 65 pages and together with the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annexes constitute a full third of the book\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having expressed some reservations, however, I still think that the book constitutes a ?must read? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone approaching the history of youth in 20th-century Britain, and indeed, any historian trying to write a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general account of British society in the period. This is because despite my perception of certain omissions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and difficulties of structure and argument, it moves the history of British youth culture convincingly beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?usual suspects?. Fowler notes John Lennon?s famous claim that ?before Elvis, there was nothing?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dedicated commentators on youth and pop culture have long recognised that as an \(almost certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mischievous\) exaggeration, but Fowler?s book demonstrates as much to a wider historical audience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoring a fascinating range of alternative episodes in youth culture to scholarly attention along the way. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fowler implicitly acknowledges that youth cultures have very often adopted a dismissive attitude to the past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to break with traditions and cut free from the influence of parents and elders. However, he also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests \(through the cases of Gardiner and others\) that the most prophetic youth voices have known their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history well. Likewise, today?s students should find their view of youth expanded by reading Fowler?s book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and evaluating its arguments for themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Marwick, )] TJ ET BT 148.328 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sixties: Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy and the United States, c. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1958?c. 1973)] TJ ET BT 129.344 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.992 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.992 61.779 m 261.980 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example: Elizabeth Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 239.984 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Families: an Oral History, 1940?1970)] TJ ET BT 485.636 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.9917 62.0935 261.9797 73.9735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 1957 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\); Hugh McLeod, )] TJ ET BT 174.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Religious Crisis of the 1960s)] TJ ET BT 334.352 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.000 795.075 m 466.988 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Sexual intercourse began / In nineteen sixty-three / \(which was rather late for me\) - / Between the end )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Chatterley ban / And the Beatles? first LP? \(Philip Larkin, )] TJ ET BT 377.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annus Mirabilis)] TJ ET BT 455.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.320 766.563 m 516.308 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 711.795 m 270.668 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/735)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3712)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=404763)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.9997 795.3895 466.9877 807.2695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.3197 766.8775 516.3077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 712.1095 270.6677 723.9895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=404763) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/735) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000609 00000 n 0000000691 00000 n 0000005058 00000 n 0000005167 00000 n 0000005277 00000 n 0000005386 00000 n 0000008947 00000 n 0000009075 00000 n 0000009159 00000 n 0000009243 00000 n 0000016710 00000 n 0000016740 00000 n 0000016867 00000 n 0000016903 00000 n 0000016994 00000 n 0000025069 00000 n 0000025099 00000 n 0000025227 00000 n 0000025263 00000 n 0000025293 00000 n 0000025421 00000 n 0000025457 00000 n 0000025541 00000 n 0000033323 00000 n 0000033449 00000 n 0000033504 00000 n 0000033609 00000 n 0000035619 00000 n 0000035747 00000 n 0000035802 00000 n 0000035930 00000 n 0000035985 00000 n 0000036112 00000 n 0000036228 00000 n 0000036356 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36451 %%EOF