%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722224420+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722224420+01'00') /Title (Russia?s Age of Serfdom, 1649-1861 \(Blackwell History of Russia\)) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4344 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russia?s Age of Serfdom, 1649-1861 \(Blackwell History of Russia\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To study Russia before the late 19th century is to labour under a twofold handicap. One sometimes feels like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a poor relation: in the Russian field, it is the rise and fall of Soviet communism that occupies centre stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(increasingly so as budgets for Russian studies shrink\), and while one often turns instead to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of western Europe for inspiration, non-Russianists rarely return the compliment. The other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handicap is the dead hand of ideas from the past. After Gogol and Dostoevskii, what is there to add about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society of imperial Russia? After ?1917 and all that?, how could the story of tsarist Russia be anything other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ?decline and fall??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter?s new book is all the more welcome, then, because her excellent synthesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recent literature ? to which she herself has made important contributions )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.948 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.948 160.137 m 415.940 160.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.940 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? challenges the hoary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clichs. For example, she explains, the Orthodox Church in Muscovy actually contributed significantly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural Westernisation. The proto-socialist communalism of the Russian peasants was a product of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern fiscal regime, not immemorial ?Slavic? tradition. Tsarist Russia was an undergoverned society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose social hierarchy was fluid and porous. While not all of this is news to experts in the field, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wirtschafter provides a much-needed synthesis to orient readers in a dynamic scholarly field. As I will try to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show, Europeanists as well as Russianists will find much that is useful in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is this book trying to do? The preface by Simon Dixon, the series editor, indicates that the Blackwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(736)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 28 February, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elise Kimmerling Wirtschafter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405134583)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Martin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.9477 160.4515 415.9397 172.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7197 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History of Russia series is ultimately to comprise three volumes: the present book; a second volume, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore R. Weeks, on the period 1861?1945; and a third, by Stephen Lovell, from 1941 to the present. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon writes that each volume is conceived within ?an unconventional chronological framework? ? i.e., each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bridges a watershed historical moment \(the Petrine Reforms, 1917, 1991\) ? so that ?familiar \(and still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial\) information can be presented in fresh and stimulating ways, interesting to both the student and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar? \(p. x\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is Wirtschafter?s periodisation in fact ?unconventional?? Yes and no. No, because the specialist literature for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some time now has recognised the 17th-century roots of the Petrine reforms and seen the Great Reforms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1860s?70s ? particularly the abolition of serfdom in 1861? as a major turning point; few would still treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?imperial? period from Peter the Great until 1917 as a coherent, discrete era. That said, scholarly practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains shaped by the older periodisation: historians of the 17th century rarely work on the 18th and vice-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versa, and those who study the early 19th century are a separate cohort again. Crossing chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries is more often talked about than actually done, so Wirtschafter?s enterprise is indeed somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconventional.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wirtschafter draws together a broad range of issues in a coherent, sophisticated synthesis. The nature of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is reflected in the book?s organisational structure: three chronological sections ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovite/Petrine, 18th century, and early-to-mid-19th century ? each of which is in turn divided into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters on society, politics, and culture. All of this is woven together in a single argument that may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarised as follows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structures of 17th-century Muscovite society form the starting point for the book?s first section. Seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from below, this was a society of patriarchal households that were clustered in geographically dispersed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectivistic communities that had few formal ties to other communities. Villages and towns were ?self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing and largely self-sufficient? and ?had little need for a larger ?society? or government?. They had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenuous political connection to the outside through a vertical hierarchy of landlords and officials all the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to the monarchy, but unlike other Europeans they were not connected horizontally through ?locally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted bodies designed to mediate civic relations? \(p. 28\) ? no provincial estates, leagues of towns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interregional guilds, and the like. Seen from above, meanwhile, Muscovy in the 17th century was developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly effective power structures ? a nascent bureaucracy, nobles who ruled the newly enserfed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry, and an increasingly centralised clergy ? that operated by exploiting the wealth and labour of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower classes, but the relationship among these power structures was full of tension and ambiguity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter the Great inherited this situation and took steps to resolve its contradictions: nobles and clergy were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly subordinated to the autocracy, the enserfment and fiscal exploitation of the population intensified, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier ambivalence over contacts with the West was decisively resolved in favour of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitanism and aggressive imperialist expansion. The title of this first section of the book, ?Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Absolute Monarchy 1649?1725?, conveys the section?s principal theme: the construction of top-down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments of power, from the legal consolidation of serfdom in 1649 until Peter?s death in 1725.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section ? ?The Building of Society 1725?96? ? focuses on the attempt by the regime and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allies to foster a ?society? that could assist the state in governing the country. Russia?s peasant ?base? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed little during those decades; instead, it was at the upper end of the scale that important developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred. The Petrine reforms bequeathed to Russia?s elites a contradictory set of political realities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations that unfolded across the 18th century. Ideally, Russia?s upper classes wanted government to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become ?regular?, i.e., subject to laws and routinised procedures. They also wanted to bring government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more effectively to the local level by systematising the participation of nobles and townspeople, to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end bodies of local and provincial self-government were established. Achieving these various goals required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potent institutions of state that could knit the country together. In practice however, bureaucracy and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic institutions remained weak, and Russians further undercut the impetus toward ?regularity? by holding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firm to the belief that power was best exercised through individual relationships, not impersonal institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms; hence they continued to prize individual morality above respect for laws and rules, an attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected in the quasi-unanimous support for preserving the absolute personal authority of the emperor. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7679 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accordingly, when they encountered the Western Enlightenment, its ideas about ways to reorganise state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and society interested them less than did its moral teachings; in Russia, as Wirtschafter puts it, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment represented a moral philosophy, not a political or social movement? \(p. 144\). Ultimately, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is one of her central arguments, 18th-century Russia ?remained undergoverned and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underinstitutionalized?, and its ?governing elite looked to moral progress for solutions to legal-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative problems? \(p. 142\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter?s successors applied these approaches to governance with growing success, and the later 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a time of consensus among Russia?s elites. The government by then treated the educated classes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far greater consideration than in Peter?s time, and for their part, the educated classes considered it their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic moral duty to promote an \(often rather imitative\) Westernised culture and serve the monarchy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patriotism and cosmopolitanism, service to the nation and to the crown, noble and ?public? interests ? all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were harmoniously aligned. Alas, this harmony broke down in the early 19th century. Three factors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in the book?s third section, conspired to undo the accomplishments of Peter and his successors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the ?public? or ?society? ?new constructs that designated a nascent civil society ? gradually achieved a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-consciousness that, for lack of institutionalised political venues, expressed itself through literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arts. Educated Russians started using European cultural forms to express a consciously ?Russian? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and to speak to and for a nation that they began to differentiate conceptually from the regime. Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the West, crown and nation, the nobility?s class interests and those of the ?public??these were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly seen to be in tension with each other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the state could have accommodated these forces by giving public opinion an institutionalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political role. Instead, and this is the second factor underlying the decline of the 18th-century order, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime grew authoritarian and repressive. Russian government in the 18th century, especially with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms of Catherine II in the 1770s?80s, had encouraged free public discussion and local civic participation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ways that could have pointed the way toward constitutionalism. This impulse revived under Alexander I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1801?25\) but did not prevail. The desire to achieve ?regular? governance undermined liberal reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives and instead strengthened the power of the bureaucracy. Ironically, however, the growing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly repressive bureaucracy was never able to govern with optimum effectiveness because both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander I and Nicholas I \(1825?55\) clung to their personal autocratic prerogative of intervening at will in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government affairs. The desire to achieve bureaucratic ?regularity? without sacrificing personalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority therefore produced government that was increasingly both oppressive and ineffective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?State? and ?society? were becoming increasingly alienated from each other when ? the third factor in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old order?s demise ? the Crimean War revealed how backward Russia?s serf-based socioeconomic order had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become in the era of west European industrialisation. What had been a successful sociopolitical system in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th century thus carried the seeds of its own demise in the 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument that Elise Wirtschafter develops in this book holds interest not only for Russia but in wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European perspective as well, and exemplifies why European historiography would benefit from closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to imperial Russia. Three examples will illustrate this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of France know that the oppression and backwardness of the )] TJ ET BT 379.616 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 447.932 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a retrospective post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary construct that we should be wary of taking at face value. The same, Wirtschafter shows, is true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Russia. Russia?s educated society came into its own just as its )] TJ ET BT 348.332 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 416.648 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( began looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dysfunctional, so novelists, playwrights, journalists, social scientists, and graphic artists filled entire libraries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and art galleries with denunciations of its iniquities. For readers interested in the evils of the tsarist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy there were Gogol?s satires. Serfdom? Read Turgenev. The Siberian exile system? Dostoevskii. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The benighted merchantry? Ostrovskii. These polemical representations shape perceptions down to this day, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they don?t help us understand why the system was so resilient in the first place. Arguably it is actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the system?s successes, not its failures, that are in need of closer scrutiny. Scholars have argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 102.332 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( character of the Russian army helps explain its victories over Napoleon )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.932 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.932 67.299 m 464.924 67.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.924 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; that early 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Russian peasant serfs ate better than west European peasants )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.268 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.268 53.043 m 381.260 53.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.260 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; that liberal economic ideas tended )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.9317 67.6135 464.9237 79.4935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.2677 53.3575 381.2597 65.2375 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8169 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make the agrarian system more oppressive and exploitative )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.632 795.075 m 347.624 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.624 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and that ?proto-industrialisation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated significant economic development well before the onset of large-scale, state-sponsored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.356 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.356 766.563 m 128.348 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.348 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Russian )] TJ ET BT 194.012 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 262.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was long able to sustain a powerful state and a reasonably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(by premodern standards\) prosperous population, and few Russians of any political stripe in the 1820s?40s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt envious of the barricades of Paris or the slums of Manchester. The Russian experience thus reminds us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to take for granted the superiority of ?modern? over ?premodern? forms of social or political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The constructedness of identities is another theme from European history that Wirtschafter applies with great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect to Russia. In fact, the sheer amorphousness and fluidity of its social structures, and the resulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty of constructing stable identities, makes it an ideal arena for studying the phenomenon. The tsars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were torn between multiple identities ? Russian patriot versus Europeaniser, Orthodox Christian versus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?enlightened? seculariser, bureaucrat-in-chief versus father figure. The nobles were torn between being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obedient imperial servitors, despotic serf-owners, and civic-minded members of ?society?. Officials divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the population into social estates whose definitions often had little relation to social reality. These issues are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to Wirtschafter?s analysis. Thus, she notes that in her patronage of Russia?s fledgling art and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, Catherine II ?acted as a kind of grand )] TJ ET BT 266.612 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(salonnire)] TJ ET BT 317.276 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( eager to engage in polite conversation? \(p. 148\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that educated Russians constructed identities ? as members of ?society?, ?the public?, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?intelligentsia? ? that deeply affected the behaviour of those who internalised them. Wirtschafter barely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touches on the multiethnic character of the Russian Empire, but the difficulty of constructing a satisfactory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of Russian nationality would only bolster her argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third issue that connects Wirtschafter?s story with the wider history of Europe is what one might call the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 87.344 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( problem. Like their Germanist counterparts, Russian historians have to account for the disaster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that befell ?their? country in the 20th century. The debate over the German )] TJ ET BT 396.596 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 449.924 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was rooted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that there existed a Western norm ? Enlightenment plus middle-class culture equals liberal modernity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? from which Germany deviated. Russia is different in many ways from Germany, but its history raises a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar question: why did the reasonably progressive consensus undergirding the 18th-century regime fail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry over into the 19th century and beyond? Wirtschafter offers a range of answers. For one thing, Russia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment focused on moral questions and failed to articulate a sophisticated sociopolitical agenda. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also, Russia?s nascent civil society constituted itself in the realm of high culture, so it did not develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong ties to politics \(controlled by bureaucrats and the court\), business \(dominated by culturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionalistic merchants\), and the common people. Some of these issues are different than in Germany, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the two countries side by side and you find that liberal modernisation looks considerably less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?normal?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having \(I hope\) conveyed my unalloyed enthusiasm for the book as scholarship, let me suggest some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts about genre and audience. )] TJ ET BT 206.648 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s Age of Serfdom)] TJ ET BT 326.312 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important and thought-provoking book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who should read it? According to the editor?s preface, the intended audience includes both ?the student and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scholar? \(p. x\), but balancing the needs of those two is always tricky, the more so when the topic is vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the text is a mere 236 pages long.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s Age of Serfdom)] TJ ET BT 153.680 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, like most historical studies, combines description, analysis, and narrative, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembles Wirtschafter?s other books in giving primacy to the descriptive and analytical: what were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms of Russian history \(serfdom, Enlightenment, bureaucracy?\) and how did they work? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptive component is excellent, which is of course essential if beginners are to understand the argument. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The analysis likewise is always stimulating, but novices may not find it uniformly accessible. Certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts are easily explained, e.g., that peasant village elders were not mere despots but took their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalistic obligations seriously. In other cases, however, the book?s analysis rests on theoretical concepts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that scholars convey with specialised terms of art. Some of these terms ? for example, ?industrious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution? \(p. 99\) ? are explained for the benefit of the uninitiated, but elsewhere a shorthand is used that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be opaque to novices: ?carnivalesque? \(p. 46\), ?cameralism? \(p. 54\), ?printing revolution? \(p. 61\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?polite sociability? \(p. 76\) are mentioned without explanation, and readers unfamiliar with ?prepolitical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary public sphere? \(p. 144\) will find a definition only if they flip to an endnote 108 pages later, which )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.6317 795.3895 347.6237 807.2695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.3557 766.8775 128.3477 778.7575 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not every undergraduate is likely to do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Narrative plays a subordinate role in the book, and for good reason, since the focus is on deep structures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term dynamic forces, not )] TJ ET BT 182.324 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(histoire vnementielle.)] TJ ET BT 296.300 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, the book does contain two types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative elements. One are thumbnail portrayals of individual personalities that illustrate broader themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are excellent. The brief sketches of Pososhkov, Lomonosov, Herzen, and others hold no surprises for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expert, but the beginner will find them helpful, I think, for humanising the abstract processes described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the book. The other type of narrative has to do with battles and treaties from various wars and the court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the 18th century. Since military campaigns, empire, and dynastic infighting seem peripheral to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s central focus, I am not persuaded of the usefulness of this material \(the more so as there are no maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of campaigns and battle zones to help the geographically challenged\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real strength of this book lies in its quality as an extended interpretive essay, not as a textbook that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?covers? dates and events. The true novice who most needs a conventional textbook will, I suspect, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trouble anyway with the sheer density and complexity of the argument presented here; for him or her, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s Age of Serfdom)] TJ ET BT 153.680 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may have more value as a challenging supplementary reading than as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward textbook. Instead, the ideal audience, in my view, is likely to be readers who have a grasp of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical concepts but limited knowledge of the specifics of Russian history?graduate students, advanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduates, and non-Russianist historians. It is they who have the most cause to welcome the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of this excellent book, and to look forward to the remaining volumes in the Blackwell History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia series.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elise Wirtschafter wishes to acknowledge with appreciation Alexander Martin's thoughtful and intelligent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of her book. She cannot imagine a more meaningful review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 409.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example: )] TJ ET BT 130.676 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Serf to Russian Soldier)] TJ ET BT 270.680 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1990\); )] TJ ET BT 383.336 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Structures of Society: Imperial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia's 'People of Various Ranks')] TJ ET BT 230.384 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(DeKalb, IL, 1994\); )] TJ ET BT 332.360 395.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Identity in Imperial Russia)] TJ ET BT 493.688 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(DeKalb, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IL, 1997\); )] TJ ET BT 115.676 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Play of Ideas in Russian Enlightenment Theater)] TJ ET BT 366.668 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(DeKalb, IL, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.308 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.308 379.923 m 519.296 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 367.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominic Lieven, ?Review article: Russia and the defeat of Napoleon?, )] TJ ET BT 405.944 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kritika: Explorations in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian and Eurasian History)] TJ ET BT 209.024 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 7, 2 \(Spring 2006\), 283?308, esp. 294?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.672 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.672 351.411 m 461.660 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen L. Hoch, )] TJ ET BT 151.004 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Serfdom and Social Control in Russia: Petrovskoe, a Village in Tambov)] TJ ET BT 496.664 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IL, 1989\), p. 50.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 322.899 m 196.328 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alessandro Stanziani, ?Free labor ? forced labor: an uncertain boundary? The circulation of economic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas between Russia and Europe from the 18th to the mid-19th Century?, )] TJ ET BT 422.972 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kritika: Explorations in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian and Eurasian History)] TJ ET BT 209.024 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 9, 1 \(Winter 2008\), 27-52; Esther Kingston-Mann, )] TJ ET BT 457.328 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Search of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(True West: Culture, Economics, and Problems of Russian Development)] TJ ET BT 407.984 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.304 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.304 265.875 m 557.300 265.875 l S BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 251.619 m 78.008 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claus Gestwa, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(P)] TJ ET BT 143.672 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(roto-industrialisierung in Russland: Wirtschaft, Herrschaft und Kultur in Ivanovo )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(und Pavlovo, 1741?1932)] TJ ET BT 184.340 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gttingen, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.332 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.332 223.107 m 330.320 223.107 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 207.775 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 189.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 189.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/736)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 188.601 m 322.316 188.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3713)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.3077 380.2375 519.2957 392.1175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.6717 351.7255 461.6597 363.6055 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 323.2135 196.3277 335.0935 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.3037 266.1895 557.2997 278.0695 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 251.9335 78.0077 263.8135 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.3317 223.4215 330.3197 235.3015 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 188.9155 322.3157 200.7955 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/736) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000005061 00000 n 0000005170 00000 n 0000005280 00000 n 0000005389 00000 n 0000008950 00000 n 0000009078 00000 n 0000009162 00000 n 0000009191 00000 n 0000009319 00000 n 0000009355 00000 n 0000009420 00000 n 0000016670 00000 n 0000016761 00000 n 0000024493 00000 n 0000024523 00000 n 0000024649 00000 n 0000024685 00000 n 0000024715 00000 n 0000024841 00000 n 0000024877 00000 n 0000024968 00000 n 0000033190 00000 n 0000033220 00000 n 0000033348 00000 n 0000033384 00000 n 0000033414 00000 n 0000033542 00000 n 0000033578 00000 n 0000033704 00000 n 0000041110 00000 n 0000041238 00000 n 0000041293 00000 n 0000041421 00000 n 0000041476 00000 n 0000041604 00000 n 0000041659 00000 n 0000041787 00000 n 0000041842 00000 n 0000041968 00000 n 0000042023 00000 n 0000042151 00000 n 0000042206 00000 n 0000042334 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42429 %%EOF