%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071646+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071646+01'00') /Title (The Empire in One City? Liverpool?s Inconvenient Imperial Past) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4115 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Empire in One City? Liverpool?s Inconvenient Imperial Past)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On rare occasions, collections of conference proceedings have questioned paradigms and set new agendas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but for the most part this form of publication has limited impact and esteem, at least in the discipline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. For those published straight after the event, collected conference papers tend to lack coherence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-ordination. Where time is allowed for revision and cross-reference in the light of discussion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection, slippage often occurs so that by the time the volume finally appears it is already outdated, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been superseded by studies published in the interim. The editors of this collection of papers presented to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference of the Centre for Liverpool and Merseyside Studies in April 2006 endeavour to avoid these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangers in two ways: first, by means of a strident interpretative introduction, tendentious and polemical in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tone, suggesting a major re-alignment of Liverpool historiography; and second, in acknowledgment of delay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by cursory reference to some of the major publications which have appeared to mark the 800th anniversary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 2007 of the granting of letters patent to Liverpool and the city?s status as European Capital of Culture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008. These practices are not deployed, however, with any uniformity or consistency throughout the volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ambition displayed by the three editors in their joint introduction is formidable. Determined to impose a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new master narrative, they reject the strap line of Liverpool?s successful bid for Capital of Culture status, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(737)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 March, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheryllyne Haggerty)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Webster)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas J. White)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0-7190-7887-3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Belchem)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7403 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The world in one city?, in favour of ?The empire in one city?? Given the tone of the introduction, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of a question mark would seem gratuitous. Liverpool historiography, we are informed, has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoodwinked by the romance of the wide oceans, seduced and ?skewed? by an ?Atlantic and global focus? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ?subtly aligns the city with notions of free trade and cosmopolitan liberality, rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggression, protection and oppression of empire? \(p. 3\). Historical revisionism of this order does little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitate Liverpool?s adverse image and reputation, but it allows the editors to embrace a familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpudlian trope: self pity. As a major imperial hub, Liverpool has to be rescued from metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condescension. To the editors? ire, the second city of empire is all but excluded from the London-centric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of Cain and Hopkins? study of the ?gentlemanly capitalism? that shaped the imperial project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 667.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their determination to assert the hegemony of imperialism, the editors define the term ? even when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended to informal empire ? in absolute manner. Indeed, imperial, global and Atlantic are presented as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutually exclusive categories, a stance soon undermined by the economic history which informs the volume. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What follows the introduction is disappointing: individual contributions fail either to sustain the supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist purpose of the volume or even in some cases to engage with it. The theme demands a proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of essays, not a random bunch of \(rapidly dated\) conference papers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection begins with Sheryllyne Haggerty?s trenchant analysis of ?Liverpool, the slave trade and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British-Atlantic empire, c.1750?75?. A wealth of closely examined evidence from business records is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered to endorse and expand an earlier revisionist claim that ??Liverpool was more important for the slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade than the slave trade was for Liverpool?, or, indeed, for its merchants? \(p. 29\). Given the risks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreliability of the slave trade, merchants maintained a diverse commercial portfolio \(with dry goods and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foodstuffs to the fore\) across the British Atlantic empire )] TJ ET BT 306.308 484.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and beyond)] TJ ET BT 361.964 484.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Imperial networks were but one aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?a complex and diverse global imperial business profile?\(p. 10\). Here are the beginnings of Liverpool?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exponential growth as a general cargo port of global significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Webster?s study of ?Liverpool and the Asian trade, 1800?50: some insights into a provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial network? shows how this growth continued by highlighting one of the ways in which Liverpool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjusted to abolition of the slave trade by developing new markets and networks, imperial and otherwise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Members of the Liverpool East India Association ?were readily persuaded of the benefits of a robust policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperial aggression? \(p. 49\) but this approach was part of a wider matrix which ensured that ?by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle of the nineteenth century, Liverpool had become the principal exit point for British manufactures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound for the crucial specific markets of India and Pacific Asia, as well as a major warehousing and transit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(port for imported produce from ?the East? generally? \(p. 44\). Here, too, imperial networks were part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider process \(aided by deep-sea steam\), enabling Liverpool, Webster concludes, ?to exert itself on a truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global scale? \(p. 52\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third member of the editorial troika, Nicholas J. White, appears much later in the volume with a paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on ?Liverpool shipping and the end of empire: the Ocean group in East and Southeast Asia, c. 1945?73?. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period of attempted diversification but seemingly irreversible decline it is a moot point whether post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial or new European factors were more decisive. For White, the former were crucial, particularly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new developments by Merseyside-based companies such as Ocean to ?spread risk and/or circumvent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic nationalism in the era of decolonisation were increasingly taking place outside the region? \(p. 182\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In economic terms, the empire, it seems, mattered most precisely when it was no longer. Liverpool, White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rues, ?ossified as a marooned imperial seaport in a post-colonial age, while, with an east-coast location, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London was poised in the 1960s and 1970s to take full advantage of the EEC? \(p. 183\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was nothing new, of course, in the locational and other advantages enjoyed by London, aptly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described by John M. MacKenzie, general editor of the ?Studies in Imperialism? series of which this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms a part, as ?one of the few capitals that combines all its administrative and financial functions with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.405 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status as the most significant port in the country?. \(p. 218\) In their study of ?Liverpool and South America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.149 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850?1930?, Rory M. Miller and Robert G. Greenhill, stand apart from the editorial crusade against London-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centricity. Initially the ?more dynamic centre? for trade with the ?informal empire? of Latin America , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool was rapidly overtaken by London which lured first the merchant houses and then the shipping )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5984 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies away from the Mersey:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Access to officials and to the machinery of government, membership of the House of Commons )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or House of Lords, institutional explanations and the availability of capital in London were all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful attractions with which Liverpool could not compete. Moreover, the influence of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool?s close-knit network of business dynasties, important as a source of mercantile )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiative in the middle of the nineteenth century, was of much less significance half a century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later. The allure of networking with City capitalists and, to a lesser extent, Whitehall officials )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had replaced the dependence on family and friends in Liverpool \(p. 90\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To an extent, Stephanie Decker?s paper, ?Return to imperial trade? John Holt & Co \(Liverpool\) Ltd as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary free-standing company, 1945?2006? offers some counterbalance. In its free-standing mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, here is a company which has come almost full circle in modern times, pursuing its core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business and adhering to its traditional geographical connections in Nigeria:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead of showing weaker control structures than classical multinational companies, the set-up )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows for closer )] TJ ET BT 146.996 539.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(personal )] TJ ET BT 191.996 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control in a highly insecure environment ?The advantage of local )] TJ ET BT 64.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge, contacts, a good distribution network and, especially, the ability to be ambiguous )] TJ ET BT 64.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about corporate nationality still enable Holt to be competitive in the modern economy \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(203?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While informed by business theory, Decker?s paper looks beyond economic history to consider cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors. Attention is drawn to the company?s logo which combines a manila and a five-pointed star in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion of the famous White Star line: ?In choosing a corporate logo from two historical symbols, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific to Nigerian economic and cultural history, the other representative of Liverpool Atlantic history, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company continues to place itself as the agent linking those two places, which in turn defines its identity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an organisation? \(p. 188?9\). Once again, the notable motif is inter-locking fusion not any specific imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is also the case in Murray Steele?s paper, ?Transmitting ideas of empire: representations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrations in Liverpool, 1886?1953?. The study begins with the International Exhibition of Navigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commerce and Industry in 1886, the occasion for a special feature on Liverpool ? unfortunately ignored by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steele - in the )] TJ ET BT 103.340 303.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated London News)] TJ ET BT 222.020 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool, thanks to modern science and commercial enterprise, to the spirit and intelligence of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the townsmen, and to the administration of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, has become a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder of the world. It is the New York of Europe, a world-city rather than merely British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.676 222.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.676 221.139 m 129.668 221.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 184.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steele, however, notes the Atlantic connection in examining the historical pageant to mark the 700th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversary in 1907 of the granting of letters patent: ?The central figure in the final tableau, the ?Goddess of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool?, was attended by figures representing ?Great Britain, Ireland, and all the Colonies and America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing [Her] their Tributes of Merchandise? \(p. 129\). While a refreshing change from the conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history of other contributions, Steele?s paper \(which tends to conflate imperialism and patriotism\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be read in conjunction with other studies of civic image and civic patriotism, including the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flurry of publications by historians, sociologists and literary critics examining the latest exercises in civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boosterism and urban rebranding around the 800th anniversary in 2007 and then Capital of Culture year in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 70.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 68.835 m 75.008 68.835 l S endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6757 221.4535 129.6677 233.3335 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 69.1495 75.0077 81.0295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8716 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While acknowledging recent critical work on cosmopolitan Liverpool )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.960 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.960 783.075 m 385.952 783.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.952 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( John Herson?s paper, ??Stirring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacles of cosmopolitan animation?: Liverpool as a diasporic city, 1825?1913?, marks a backward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical step, forgoing problematic cultural sources and studies )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.636 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.636 754.563 m 397.628 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.628 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in favour of census statistics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Papers. As deployed here the awkward term ?diasporic? is devoid of any particular imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotation; and it is applied broad-brush \(without due distinction between the differing needs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions of transients, sojourners and settlers\) to the entire city rather than to the distinctive waterfront and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sailortown? districts where it might have resonance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diane Frost?s paper, ?The maligned, the despised and the ostracised: working-class white women, interracial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships and colonial ideologies in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Liverpool? is a poignant reminder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that inter-marriage, regarded in most contexts as a register of racial integration, was stigmatized and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemned in Liverpool as )] TJ ET BT 167.996 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 182.660 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?social problem?. This too is a paper which should be read in conjunction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other studies, including those which deal with inter-marriage with the Chinese. Demonized in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian period for sexual deviance, Chinese husbands were swiftly rehabilitated in the binary polarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which characterised social surveys of 1930s Merseyside: the very virtue of the Chinese served to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vice and ?real social menace? of the ?negro?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.928 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.928 571.491 m 282.920 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachary Kingdon and Dmitri van den Bersselaar provide the most interesting of the cultural history papers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Collecting empire? African objects, West African trade and a Liverpool museum?. Their conclusions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, are far more nuanced than the editorial introduction would allow. While the connotations objects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired were often influenced by imperial ideas, the actual building up of the Liverpool collection was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?haphazard and unsystematic. It represented to some extent trading interests more than it did empire? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(119\). Furthermore, Africans were not simply passive suppliers of their material culture to Europeans: indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting became a struggle about whom could define the meanings of African artefacts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With so many papers deviating from or simply ignoring the editorial interpretative introduction, it is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not surprising that MacKenzie has added an ?Afterword: Liverpool and empire ? the revolving door?? In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valiant effort to tie things together, he tackles head-on the vexed issue of Liverpool exceptionalism. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing a comparison with Glasgow, a truly imperial city, MacKenzie places Liverpool firmly within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperial system. There is much to commend in these comparative insights but the discussion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindered by lack of engagement with the latest studies of Liverpool. Recent publications point the way to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most exciting approach to Liverpool?s past: a proverbial exception within Britain, Liverpool was the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplar of a world seaport. To understand Liverpool it is necessary to look wider than an ?inconvenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial past?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 255.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Liverpool: port, docks and city?, )] TJ ET BT 228.992 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated London News)] TJ ET BT 347.672 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 May 1886, quoted in John Belchem )] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Liverpool?s story is the world?s glory? in )] TJ ET BT 272.324 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Merseypride: Essays in Liverpool Exceptionalism)] TJ ET BT 511.628 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belchem \(Revised 2nd ed., Liverpool, 2006\), p.5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.988 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.988 225.363 m 355.976 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Vickers, ?Civic Image and Civic Patriotism in Liverpool 1880?1914?, unpublished PhD )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, University of Oxford, 2000; )] TJ ET BT 235.004 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reinventing the City: Liverpool in Comparative Perspective)] TJ ET BT 523.640 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munck \(Liverpool, 2003\); Paul Jones and Stuart Wilks-Heeg, ?Capitalising culture: Liverpool 2008?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Local Economy)] TJ ET BT 139.004 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19 \(2004\), 341-60, a special edition on ?Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration?. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Belchem, ?Celebrating Liverpool? in )] TJ ET BT 270.656 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool 800: Culture, Character and History)] TJ ET BT 497.324 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belchem \(Liverpool, 2006\), pp. 9-57. See also Nicholas Murray, )] TJ ET BT 380.300 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(So Spirited a Town: Visions and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Versions of Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 168.020 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Liverpool, 2007\); and )] TJ ET BT 283.004 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing Liverpool: Essays and Interviews)] TJ ET BT 482.996 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Michael )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murphy and Deryn Rees-Jones \(Liverpool, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.304 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.304 111.315 m 358.292 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Belchem and Donald M. MacRaild, ?Cosmopolitan Liverpool? in )] TJ ET BT 407.660 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 454.328 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( 800)] TJ ET BT 475.328 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.311?92. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Belchem, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish, Catholic and Scouse: the History of the Liverpool-Irish, 1800?1939)] TJ ET BT 492.668 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Liverpool )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\), ?was published after this chapter went to press? \(p. 77\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.952 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.952 68.547 m 418.940 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, there is no engagement with the important anthropological work of Jacqueline Nassy )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.9597 783.3895 385.9517 795.2695 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.6357 754.8775 397.6277 766.7575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.9277 571.8055 282.9197 583.6855 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.9877 225.6775 355.9757 237.5575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.3037 111.6295 358.2917 123.5095 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.9517 68.8615 418.9397 80.7415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 1899 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown, )] TJ ET BT 102.680 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dropping Anchor, Setting Sail: Geographies of Race in Black Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 449.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 118.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cosmopolitan Liverpool?, p.380. See also, John Belchem, ?Liverpool: world city?, )] TJ ET BT 470.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 539.648 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 57 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(April 2007\), 48-55.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 752.307 m 215.324 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 240.992 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/737)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3714)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=30663)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 781.1335 118.0037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 752.6215 215.3237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 240.9917 709.7335 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=30663) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/737) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004821 00000 n 0000004930 00000 n 0000005040 00000 n 0000005149 00000 n 0000008710 00000 n 0000008838 00000 n 0000008922 00000 n 0000008987 00000 n 0000016443 00000 n 0000016534 00000 n 0000022571 00000 n 0000022601 00000 n 0000022729 00000 n 0000022765 00000 n 0000022795 00000 n 0000022919 00000 n 0000022955 00000 n 0000023074 00000 n 0000031843 00000 n 0000031873 00000 n 0000032001 00000 n 0000032037 00000 n 0000032067 00000 n 0000032195 00000 n 0000032231 00000 n 0000032261 00000 n 0000032389 00000 n 0000032425 00000 n 0000032553 00000 n 0000032608 00000 n 0000032736 00000 n 0000032791 00000 n 0000032917 00000 n 0000032972 00000 n 0000033077 00000 n 0000035029 00000 n 0000035156 00000 n 0000035211 00000 n 0000035339 00000 n 0000035394 00000 n 0000035521 00000 n 0000035622 00000 n 0000035750 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35845 %%EOF