%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420154532+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420154532+01'00') /Title (Defying Empire. Trading with the Enemy in Colonial New York) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1807 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Defying Empire. Trading with the Enemy in Colonial New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(740)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 March, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas M. Truxes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300118407)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Middleton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Edward Braddock?s failure to capture the French Fort Duquesne and his defeat at the Battle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monongahela on 9 July 1755 is often cited as a turning point in the European contest for North America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to what the English called the Seven Years? War \(1756?63\). Braddock?s routing by a French force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of some 30 soldiers backed by several hundred Algonquian and Iroquoian warriors demonstrated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of not only Native American allies but also the backwoods for any power intent upon controlling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continent. Located at the mouth of the Hudson-Champlain corridor, a little over 300 miles south of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montreal, New York City was on an almost constant war footing in the 1740s and 50s: fears of imminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French or Spanish attack fed city residents? fears of slave rebellion in 1741?2; defense costs featured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly in provincial debate, and opposition to the governor?s plans for a military expedition to Canada )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked four fiercely contested mid-century assembly elections. And yet, for all this, the land war scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(menaced the city: French raiding parties never made it further south than Saratoga and Albany during King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George?s War \(1740?8\), and fighting around Lakes George and Champlain, though fierce, never directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened the city. The militia drilled, incessantly. But even at the height of hostilities New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed only 300 men per annum to the provincial muster, out of a population of some 18,000. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city residents experienced the land war more often through oral and printed reports of military engagements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the raids conducted by Rogers? Rangers, and other tales of derring-do on the inhospitable but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercifully distant frontier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Thomas Truxes reminds us in his gripping account of mid-century colonial trade, seaborne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threats of invasion and limits on trade were a constant threat in what was one of the leading port towns in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century Atlantic World. New York?s prosperity and its future depended on access to the imported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods and colonial and European markets provided by the maritime trade. Such had been the case since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch West India Company officers and earliest independent traders first established New Amsterdam, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its fort and defenses facing outwards towards enemies arriving via the Atlantic rather than inwards at foes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the interior. These Dutch origins remained influential a century or so later. Although New York?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(export trade remained smaller than Boston or Philadelphia, its long-established contacts in major European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial centers and the busy Caribbean entrepots of Curaao and St Eustatius bolstered the value of city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade. In the year that Braddock was defeated on the Monongahela River, New York merchants established a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Exchange from where they managed their cargoes and brokered deals relying diverse ethnic, religious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and familial networks boasting a global reach. Wars were good for business: in 1750 the city?s merchant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleet comprised 157 vessels, a combined tonnage of 6, 400 tons; 12 years later, on the eve of England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory over France, New York boasted 477 vessels or 19,500 tons. How much of this increased trade was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted between colonial merchants and Britain?s French and, later, Spanish enemies is difficult to say. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We have a clearer idea of who was involved. One significant group were the Irish merchants, the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Truxes?s earlier work. They were disproportionately represented in the core group of the 125 or so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants he identifies as predominant in the trade with the enemy and who provide the focus for )] TJ ET BT 506.264 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 69.344 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: men who considered themselves loyal and devoted subjects, who outfitted British expeditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the French, and who celebrated imperial victories and lamented defeats even as they made handsome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profits by trading with the enemy. Loyalty was all very well but, as Truxes has it, ?business was business? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 10 chapters, excluding introductory and concluding sections, are stitched together around the narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ambitious but hapless informer, George Spencer. His attempts to profit from fines levied against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smugglers lead to lengthy legal wrangles and eventually his ruin. We first meet Spencer, a failed wine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant, in the prologue: it is October 1759 and he has exposed the illegal trade in provisions and specie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the French sugar islands, hoping thereby to earn a hefty reward. The response of the city?s merchant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite who, of course, are all deeply implicated in the trade was immediate. In a coordinated campaign they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured control of Spencer?s outstanding credit notes, totaling the then astronomical sum of 4,000 pounds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But before having him jailed for debt, they stirred up the mob who bound the informer to a cart and paraded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him around the town while delivering liberal beatings. Later, languishing in the city jail, Spencer plotted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downfall of his powerful opponents initiating no fewer than 17 different legal proceedings against them in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first three months of 1760 \(p. 110\). His creditors \(and now persecutors\) refuse to accept his offers of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7975 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collateral in return for release. Anticipating rewards totaling 20,000 pounds, Spencer chances his remaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital and pursues the case. By the autumn of 1761 he can no longer afford a room in the genteel section of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the jail and fears for his life at the hands of two of its more salubrious inmates. In January 1762, after 813 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days, he is finally freed and flees to London where he continues with his case. In 1764 he offers to return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York and prosecute the smugglers in return for a pension. Two year later, and with eerie prescience, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposes that the English ministry introduce a tax on foreign tea while cheapening the East India variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would, he believed, ?greatly appease the clamors of the people?. He returns to the colonies, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia not New York, and sues his lawyer who has sold the luckless litigant?s remaining property in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York to cover his legal fees; the lawyer, it transpires, was also an investor in the illegal trade. Losing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his case and any hope of imperial favor, Spencer returns to the colonies in 1767, as a clergyman, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally establishing himself in the wine trade in England and dying a man of moderate means in 1784.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer?s misadventures capture the pervasive colonial participation in smuggling and imperial impotence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the level of local enforcement which animate )] TJ ET BT 265.292 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defying Empire)] TJ ET BT 341.612 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. At times Truxes?s New York reminds one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the classic Ealing comedy, )] TJ ET BT 177.992 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whiskey Galore)] TJ ET BT 254.972 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where landing illicit spirits becomes a community project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed by an isolated and toothless official. The first chapter sets out the importance of merchant trade on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eve of the Seven Years War and the difficulty raised by the arrival and provisioning of the English naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force and thousands of ordinary seamen. By chapter two the city is effectively under occupation with local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants having to run the gauntlet of Admiral Sir Charles Hardy, provincial governor 1755?7. Hardy tries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to clamp down on the illegal trade, before he is dispatched for the war leaving the more amenable Lieutenant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Governor James DeLancey in charge. Imperial officials are never able to do more than plug the gaps in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement, not least because of the endless nooks and coves in which larger vessels could rendezvous with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller craft to load and unload cargoes. In the next three chapters Truxes presents the myriad of ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which determined city merchants pursued their commerce. As the naval conflict drove French shipping from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seas, neutrals and British vessels ? loyal but sailing with ?Frenchified bottoms? \(chapter three\) ? were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left to trade with the wealthy sugar islands including entrepots at Curacao and St Eustatius which rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the ?cross roads of the Caribbean? \(p. 66\). The empire responded with legislation, Embargo and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flour Acts, which restricted the movement of ships and goods and levied heavy fines for wrongdoers but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, since they were only applied to colonial traders, were considered prejudicial and unjust by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonists. In response New York?s traders raised their game, focusing their energies on markets at Monte )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cristi, on the northern coast of Santo Domingo \(chapter four\), where Americans exchanged colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products for French goods with Spanish, Dutch and Danish neutrals. There seemed no end to the merchants? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemes to dupe the authorities: traders employed ?privateers? to ?capture? their vessels and return them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York as ?prizes?; they drew spurious distinctions between treacherous direct supply of enemy forces in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ohio Valley and the merely profitable ?indirect? trade with the French sugar islands; and they sailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under ?flags of truce? \(chapter five\), ostensibly engaged in prisoner exchange but really shipping cargoes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and from the Caribbean. All of which maritime shenanigans Truxes integrates carefully into a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing the unfolding of the Seven Years War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In June 1760 James DeLancey died and was replaced by the lieutenant governor and staunch defender of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal prerogative, Cadwallader Colden. Colden?s two year term, prior to the arrival of Robert Monckton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincided with William Pitt?s push for victory against the French which prompted firmer measures against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial smugglers. Even as English victory at Montreal and the ascension of George III inspired patriotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrations and promises of allegiance, the New York merchants continued their commerce with the enemy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one even employing a vessel named for the )] TJ ET BT 244.640 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Earl Of Loudon)] TJ ET BT 320.648 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As far as the merchants were concerned trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the French in the markets held at Monte Cristi Bay for sugar, indigo, and coffee at bargain prices had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no military ramifications. Indeed, in their view, it enriched the British nation and indirectly paid for the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These and other seemingly duplicitous positions the colonists maintained in the teeth of a campaign \(chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eight\) to end the trade seen by London as providing succor to French and, by then, Spanish enemies. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign, and the book, culminates in the trial of leading city traders and in particular Waddell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham, the ?personification of New York's wartime swagger? \(p. 157\) by the resolute Attorney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General, John Tarbor Kempe, and the newly installed governor, Robert Monckton \(1762?5\). Kempe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monckton were determined to make an example of Cunningham and his co-defendants for breaches of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7982 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flour Act and levied a fine of 1500 pounds which, in a roundabout way, led to the case of )] TJ ET BT 467.612 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forsey v )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham)] TJ ET BT 96.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with which students will be familiar from the debate over the royal prerogative in the build up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to New York?s revolution. Following the capitulation of France and Spain in January 1763, Kempe returns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to court intent on further prosecutions. His failure in the face of obstructive local officials and uncooperative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses emphasizes the empire?s limited range of tactics for law enforcement, beyond the military option )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which offended the colonists? keen sense of their rights and liberty. In this way Truxes brings us to the eve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the imperial crisis that developed into the American Revolution, demonstrating that many of the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to imperial regulation, enforcement, colonial commercial ambitions and highly developed sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights were all rehearsed in this earlier controversy concerning trade. In the post-war world British war debts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an activist ministry precluded a return to the preceding era of ?salutary neglect?. The writing was on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wall, or so it seems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers will already have gathered that )] TJ ET BT 226.628 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defying Empire)] TJ ET BT 302.948 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a rattling-good tale told well. Stan Katz, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies one of the quotes for the puff on the back cover, judged the book not only valuable political history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also great material for a TV mini-series. The book is beautifully crafted: Spencer holds the action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together and the chapters open with anecdotes and insights which are then contextualized and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications teased out in a model of historical writing. The findings are supported by solid research in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usual primary and secondary sources for study of the 18th-century city and some less familiar material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn from the Division of Old Records in the New York County Court Archives on Chamber Street. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Truxes?s skill is in spinning these sparse legal sources and a well-known and pretty humdrum theme ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smugglers carrying on their trade in the face of exasperated authorities ? into such an engaging yarn. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are some 20 maps, addressing new themes rather than hackneyed reproductions, which situate the reader and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasize the city?s maritime character and connections to the Caribbean trade. Swathes of what we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today as Lower Manhattan have been reclaimed from the sea and contemporary residents of 85th and First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avenue may be alarmed to learn that in 1760 their apartment block bordered the East River. The publisher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should also be commended: while some presses seem happy to publish large, underworked, and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreadable tomes for sale to university libraries, Yale demonstrates that it is possible to market smart, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concise, attractive and reasonably priced texts. Truxes deserves a wide readership and, in part because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publisher, he is likely to have one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More critically, it would have been good to hear Truxes?s thoughts on the meaning and broader implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his protagonists? attitudes and behavior. As noted at the outset, )] TJ ET BT 352.988 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defying Empire)] TJ ET BT 429.308 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deals with the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants? seemingly questionable commerce in a rather off hand manner ? business was business ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Truxes leaves it to the reader to decide the merchants guilt or innocence, reinforcing the sense that there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no issues worth further inquiry. All participants in the narrative text are similarly driven by personal interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ambitions: Spencer, no less than the smugglers he exposes, and even Governor Hardy who quits in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search of better career prospects on the battlefield. The only men guided by principle or ideology are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials who impose heavy-handed trade regulations that are clearly out of kilter with the patterns and aims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial commerce. And yet, as Truxes notes at various points in the book, the smugglers considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves loyal subjects and patriots and this begs alternatives to this instrumentalist, and arguably neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical liberal, characterization. Part of the problem may be that we learn very little about the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures beyond their trade interests. Their political and cultural lives and loyalties are largely uninvestigated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Truxes seems similarly unconcerned with connecting his study to other studies of merchant commerce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pre-Revolutionary political culture. I may have missed it, but I don?t recall a reference to Cathy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matson?s study ? )] TJ ET BT 120.344 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Merchants and Empire. Trading in Colonial New York )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.024 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.024 172.323 m 400.016 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? examining attitudes towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercantile regulations and, ultimately, the crisis in imperial relations. This is curious in a book so well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sourced in recent and classic secondary studies, not least because Matson?s difficulties in pinning down a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent economic ideology might be invoked to sustain Truxes?s view of merchants as single-minded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men of trade. Missing too, is any comparative perspective between, say, Truxes?s merchants and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described by Thomas Doerflinger or David Hancock in Philadelphia \(although the latter is thanked in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgements\), or exploration of how these merchant?s perception of their interests related to concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for honor, virtue, and loyalty to the crown ? all subjects of long-established and recent studies.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.0237 172.6375 400.0157 184.5175 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 5914 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author \(and his publisher\) may counter that they did not set out to write a book for a graduate seminar, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferring to stay close to the action and tell the story. Nevertheless, one of the most striking and unresolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images one is left with at the end of the book is that of the loyal smuggler: the traders who declared their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance while trading with the enemy and, in Truxes?s terms, defied the empire. Does the merchants? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position appear contradictory because we don?t fully understand the subtleties of their own view of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political subjectivity? If so, readers may want to turn to recent studies of colonial loyalties such as Brendan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McConville?s, )] TJ ET BT 107.348 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Kings? Three Faces)] TJ ET BT 225.008 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.008 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.008 697.539 m 242.000 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.000 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Were they, perhaps, articulating a different sense of empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on prosperity and interdependency rather than more narrowly and hierarchically conceived ambitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that drove Britain?s contest with France? In which case specialists might see parallels between city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants? thinking and the alternative visions of empire uncovered by scholars such as Christine Desan )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 540.932 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 540.932 654.771 m 554.924 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Daniel Hulsebosch.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.996 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.996 640.515 m 154.988 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 154.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the end Truxes?s disinterest in the deeper meaning of merchant commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies and imperial loyalties makes it difficult for him to connect his study in anything but a perfunctory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to the crisis over imperial regulation and colonial interests. With these limitations in mind, specialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and general readers alike will want to read this elegant rendering of mid-century merchant trade and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superb telling of a complex and gripping tale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cathy Matson, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Merchants and Empire. Trading in Colonial New York)] TJ ET BT 400.364 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.356 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.356 517.971 m 546.344 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brendan McConville, )] TJ ET BT 171.008 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The King's Three Faces: The Rise and Fall of Royal America, 1688?1776)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapel Hill, NC, 2006\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.344 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.344 489.459 m 240.332 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Desan, ?Remaking constitutional tradition at the margin of the empire: the creation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative adjudication in colonial New York?, )] TJ ET BT 294.320 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and History Review)] TJ ET BT 412.652 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 257 \(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.644 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.644 460.947 m 528.632 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Hulsebosch, )] TJ ET BT 161.000 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constituting Empire: New York and the Transformation of Constitutionalism in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic world, 1664?1830)] TJ ET BT 210.692 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.020 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.020 432.435 m 387.008 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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