%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 43 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818125922+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818125922+01'00') /Title (Racial Science and British Society, 1930-62) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5268 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Racial Science and British Society, 1930-62)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subject of race and science, particularly in the American context, has produced a number of superlative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in recent years foremost among which are the works of William H. Tucker, author of )] TJ ET BT 481.256 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Politics of Racial Research)] TJ ET BT 186.008 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 209.336 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Funding of Scientific Racism)] TJ ET BT 369.332 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.332 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.332 257.673 m 386.324 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.324 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( An equally absorbing study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy of mention in this context for its illuminating examination of the role played by science and scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in supporting and sustaining the political fight against desegregation in America during the 1950s and 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is John P. Jackson?s )] TJ ET BT 134.348 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science for Segregation)] TJ ET BT 248.996 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.996 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.996 214.905 m 265.988 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There have also been a number of noteworthy contributions dealing with the subject from this side of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic including Dan Stone?s )] TJ ET BT 187.340 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Breeding Superman)] TJ ET BT 282.992 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Elazar Barkan?s )] TJ ET BT 370.292 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Retreat of Scientific Racism )] TJ ET BT 527.948 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nancy Stepan?s )] TJ ET BT 113.996 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of Race in Science)] TJ ET BT 247.628 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to name but a few.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.608 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.608 160.137 m 356.600 160.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.600 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These are now joined by Gavin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schaffer?s erudite monograph, )] TJ ET BT 184.640 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Racial Science and British Society, 1930?62)] TJ ET BT 397.952 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which sheds significant light on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the battle of ideas on the subject of ?race? was waged in a British context, whilst also maintaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breadth to note some of the important international events which battened upon it. Schaffer?s study makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of insightful and illuminating observations though perhaps the overarching one is its discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the passage of scientific authority on the subject of ?race? from biological to social scientific disciplines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as sociology after 1945.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In observing this overarching trend Schaffer?s study is notable for its examination of the reaction and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(742)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 March, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gavin Schaffer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230008922)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(244pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Macklin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.3317 257.9875 386.3237 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.9957 215.2195 265.9877 227.0995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.6077 160.4515 356.5997 172.3315 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7930 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction of members of the scientific community through the lens of the rise and fall of Nazism, the onset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Cold War, the end of segregation in the Deep South, and the birth of the South African apartheid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, all of which helped to define and indeed re-define the scientific study of race. Through this tableaux )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of events Schaffer recounts how science, or moreover its practitioners, allowed their own views to intrude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon their ?objective? scientific work in order to make the simple but engaging point that science and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society have mutually informed and reinforced one another throughout the course of the 20th century. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has never been a ?one way traffic? of ideas from the hermetically sealed laboratory to the ?man in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street?. As Schaffer observes: ?It has often been factors outside science that have driven scholars to write on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race, creating an influential movement of ideas in the opposite direction? from society to science? \(p. 3\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political ideologies and political prejudices from Left and Right have, as Schaffer ably demonstrates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coloured the scientific understanding of ?race? as a concept, helping to determine the stance biologists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others took on the matter. In this sense Schaffer?s is a searching study that says much about the social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political milieu in which certain scientists worked and its impact upon the production of their knowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such observations are of particular import given Schaffer?s argument that key aspects of the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration policy cannot genuinely be understood without reference to the influence both of the prevailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific orthodoxy, which was by no means a cloistered undertaking, and wider social attitudes themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which in many instances helped to mould scientific opinion itself. By taking this holistic approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schaffer?s study has much to commend it. Contrary to several previous studies Schaffer makes a convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case for stating that far from being a period in which race disappeared as a concept the 1930s was a period in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the concept of race was ?reconsidered and rearticulated? \(p. 16\). His dissection of four racial studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that far from dissipating during the inter-war period a ?near total consensus? remained within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific community that the scientific concept of race ?continued to mean something?. However, doubts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the ?origins and importance? of the concept were increasingly being expressed, which, Schaffer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed represented something of a ?sea change? \(p. 25\) even if it did not signal a sudden diminution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biological thinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To illustrate his case Schaffer explores the history of the book )] TJ ET BT 334.964 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Europeans)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.284 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.284 414.675 m 422.276 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.276 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( written by Julian Huxley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and A. C. Haddon \(though they were not is sole authors\), which was published in 1935 and is generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as a radical assault on Nazi racial theory, which indeed it was. However, its message was ?not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical as may appear at first glance? \(p. 39\) notes Schaffer. The authors themselves struggled to dismiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely the idea of mental inferiority based on ideas of ?race? or indeed the dangers of ?miscegenation?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed whilst )] TJ ET BT 102.008 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Europeans)] TJ ET BT 172.328 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents an important moral challenge to the implications of Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rassenhygiene )] TJ ET BT 108.332 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schaffer does not shy away from concluding that authors were themselves ?uncertain? about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absolute scientific validity of the arguments they themselves were making which were as political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral as they were scientific. The overarching anti-racial message of )] TJ ET BT 368.252 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Europeans)] TJ ET BT 438.572 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( drove critics such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biologist Reginald Gates to distraction. However, as Schaffer ably demonstrates Gates?s critique was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced just as much by his own racism, anti-Semitism and pro-Nazism and was later to become a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure in the battle to confer a scientific veneer on the politics of segregation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Setting aside the vast political and moral differences between such scientists Schaffer demonstrates that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when considering the question of race itself, the views between these two seemingly polarised scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremes did not differ appreciably on the questions of physical and psychological attributes or indeed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent dangers of race-mixing. The disputes between the progressive and conservative camps had as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do with politics as they did with science and ?rather minor scientific differences ere utilised in an attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reset the racial views of the nation? \(p. 48\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even before the end of the Second World War when moral opprobrium surrounding Nazi racial policies had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become near universal it was the progressive camp that had gained the upper hand largely because their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?trump card? ? the one that defined the fault line between progressive and conservative science ? was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was no longer a scientific certainty with regards to the idea of race. The apparent triumph of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive ideals did little to contest the core ideas of innate racial difference, however, which continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeate science, society and policy. This was perhaps due to the conceptual limitations of progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science itself argues Schaffer. It could go so far and no further. Its luminaries did not and indeed perhaps )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 408.2837 414.9895 422.2757 426.8695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7422 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not, despite bold projects such as )] TJ ET BT 225.332 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Europeans)] TJ ET BT 295.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, provide daring and dynamic leadership on the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of race largely because they shared so many of its basic premises with their conservative rivals, namely that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial difference existed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would take the Second World War for a further shift to take place. Indeed whilst Britain?s progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biologists undermined Nazi racial theory even for the radicals amongst them the idea of completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissing the idea of group racial inheritance for instance ?was a step too far? \(p. 74\). Whilst they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortable arguing that race was an idea ?)] TJ ET BT 242.948 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mostly)] TJ ET BT 274.280 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in the minds of people, and which had been richly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abused by the Nazis, they could not rid themselves of the idea altogether. ?They wanted to help the nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beat Hitler,? observes Schaffer. ?They did not want to destroy race totally as a biological category? \(p. 74\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That they were unable to do so is implicit in the stance of leading biologists towards the treatment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internment of enemy ?aliens? between 1939 and 1945 and the wartime utilisation of black British subjects in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe neither of whom were able to escape from hoary though widespread racial stereotypes which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to bedevil the implementation of a more enlightened government policy. Ultimately, notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schaffer, science proved most vociferous in its leadership on the issue of Jewish refugees than on the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the desirability of a black presence in Britain. The latter was to increasingly come to the fore with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onset of mass immigration from Britain?s colonies and former colonies in the post-war period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schaffer?s discussion of how racial conservatives like Arthur Keith and Reginald Gates continued to keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the torch alight during the aftermath of the Holocaust is instructive. So too is his discussion of the markedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more successful strategy pursued by the admittedly more liberal-minded C. P. Blacker, head of the Eugenics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society to steer his organisation through the hard days that confronted the organisation in the immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aftermath of the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith and latterly Gates, who was a vocal opponent of the progressive stance, were left marginalised even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the end of the 1930s. Gates was unable or more likely unwilling to admit that authority in science was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing from geneticists to social scientists or indeed to acknowledge that science had become increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicized to the detriment of those who held views considered retrograde by both the academe and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider general public. Gates blamed his loss of prestige on a malign Jewish conspiracy against him. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Ultimately, Gates was not under attack from within his own discipline but had fallen victim to a new social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific authority,? posits Schaffer. ?The very parameters of Gates?s research agenda isolated him and led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to criticism even before his racist conclusions compounded his troubles? \(p. 105\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an ironic reversal of fate the post-war period saw many left-wing scientists, appalled by the emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of Stalinism and the corruption of science by Trofim Lysenko and the purge of orthodox Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geneticists, move to disconnect politics from science. ?It taught them the hard way that there were good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons to keep science and politics apart? \(p. 118\). From the other side of the fence it was a lesson that all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the most die-hard racist conservative scientists like Gates had learned in the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following on from an expertly told examination of the tortured travails of British biologists as they wrestled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the construction of the UNESCO statements on race Schaffer moves on to discussing the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three further international issues on the thinking of British scientists of race: segregation in the US, apartheid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Africa and Commonwealth immigration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gates who had become something of an isolated figure in the immediate period experienced an Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer in the 1950s through his interaction with American segregationists who were battling to uphold Jim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crow. Schaffer?s analysis of the transformation of his fortunes and indeed those of an associated clique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative racial scientists came in the early 1960s through the journal )] TJ ET BT 386.288 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mankind Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 479.276 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting. This is in large part due to Schaffer?s judicious use of Gates?s personal papers, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminates much about this scientific nexus that had previously only been viewed from the other side of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic. Whilst the author rightly notes both the importance of )] TJ ET BT 360.320 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mankind Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 453.308 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and indeed its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receipt of monies from the segregationists in the United States, the bond, both financially and editorially was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even stronger and deeper than is indicated here. Apartheid South Africa provided a similar impetus to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science to support, reinforce and ultimately to justify pre-existing racial social structures though the impact )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7723 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the latter is not as fully explored, from the conservative side at least, as is the connection with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregationist South.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the themes underpinning Schaffer?s work is the complex interaction between popular attitudes, racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science and government policy. This he charts from 1905, reconstructing the debate, scientific and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise, that surrounded the 1919 Aliens Amendment Act. This was informed by a widespread belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entry of foreigners would damage the racial fibre of the nation, a fear heightened by the Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. Both the parliamentary debates and indeed science itself ?mirrored growing social concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about racial difference and the need for British racial preservation? \(p. 10\). Such a dynamic coloured the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing of most other government legislation aiming to limit immigration which was similarly suffused with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial stereotypes and particularly the preponderance of ideas that racial intermixing could jeopardise white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British racial stock. Turning to consider post-war Commonwealth immigration Schaffer shows that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parameters of the debate in which legislation was framed had hardly shifted in half a century save for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding that certain things were best left unsaid if one was to avoid controversy. Indeed the premises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1962 Commonwealth Immigration Act owed more to eugenic thinking than it did to the now prevalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social science though its framers would have been loath to admit it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Schaffer does not disagree that by and large conservative racial biology has been in ?retreat? for much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 20th century his nuanced study reveals that the nature of this retreat was ?slow, uncertain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisive? \(p. 170\). As Schaffer notes ?race will remain an influential idea for some time to come, entrenched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in our social psyche? and that ?because scientists function within this discursive terrain it seems probable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, in one guise or another, race will remain with them as long as it remains with us? \(p. 171\). There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every indication that it will.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would have been interesting to follow Schaffer?s train of thought on the subject for another few decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond 1962 when his monograph ostensibly draws to a close. In particular it would have been interesting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read his treatment of the interaction of science and society during the heated debates over race and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence that had been brewing since the late 1960s, in part a backlash to the marginalisation of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas in the immediate post-war period, and which came to the fore during the controversy that accompanied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the publication of Richard J. Herrenstein and Charles Murray?s book, )] TJ ET BT 371.288 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bell Curve)] TJ ET BT 443.948 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.948 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.948 388.419 m 460.940 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another point of interest, to this reviewer at least, would have been an examination, in the broader context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of how British scientists have responded to debates about race and immigration as they have shifted further, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though not exclusively, from the scientific to the cultural sphere, something which is briefly touched upon in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the epilogue. Neither comment is meant as a criticism. The parameters of Schaffer?s book are clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined and extremely well argued. If such musings by this reviewer reveal anything it is simply the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant potential for further study highlighted by Schaffer?s work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schaffer?s meticulously researched, balanced and thought-provoking intellectual history of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between science and society is one that makes a raft of important observations on the interaction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, politics, society and governmental policy with regards to ?race? and scientific thinking on race. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is very warmly recommended and deserves a wide readership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 188.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 157.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William H. Tucker, )] TJ ET BT 161.000 157.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Science and Politics of Racial Research)] TJ ET BT 373.640 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Urbana, IL, 1994\); )] TJ ET BT 473.612 157.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Funding of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 143.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund)] TJ ET BT 342.980 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Urbana, IL, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.616 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.616 142.083 m 493.604 142.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 129.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John P. Jackson, )] TJ ET BT 146.348 129.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case Against Brown Vs Board of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 114.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Education )] TJ ET BT 116.348 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 2005\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.984 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.984 113.571 m 287.972 113.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 100.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Stone, )] TJ ET BT 120.344 100.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain)] TJ ET BT 64.016 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Liverpool, 2002\); Elazar Barkan, )] TJ ET BT 229.976 86.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 72.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the United States Between the World Wars )] TJ ET BT 329.672 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1992\); and Nancy Stepan, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 57.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800?1960)] TJ ET BT 326.648 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.972 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.972 56.547 m 461.960 56.547 l S endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.9477 388.7335 460.9397 400.6135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.6157 142.3975 493.6037 154.2775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.9837 113.8855 287.9717 125.7655 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.9717 56.8615 461.9597 68.7415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 2694 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julian S. Huxley and A. C. Haddon; with a chapter on Europe overseas by A. M. Carr Saunders, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Europeans)] TJ ET BT 134.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1935\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.660 780.819 m 269.648 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, )] TJ ET BT 271.304 767.957 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(T)] TJ ET BT 278.636 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(he Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Life)] TJ ET BT 132.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.980 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.980 752.307 m 303.968 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 671.283 m 154.700 671.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://shm.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/2/410.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 642.771 m 279.692 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.692 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 639.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 621.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 621.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/742)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 620.265 m 322.316 620.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 595.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3719)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_world_history/v021/21.4.kim.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://shm.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/2/410.full?keytype=ref&ijkey=4DSvoxWeFkDXyz8)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.6597 781.1335 269.6477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.9797 752.6215 303.9677 764.5015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 671.5975 154.6997 683.4775 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_world_history/v021/21.4.kim.html) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 643.0855 279.6917 654.9655 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://shm.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/2/410.full?keytype=ref&ijkey=4DSvoxWeFkDXyz8) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 620.5795 322.3157 632.4595 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/742) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000360 00000 n 0000000397 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000005987 00000 n 0000006096 00000 n 0000006206 00000 n 0000006315 00000 n 0000009876 00000 n 0000010004 00000 n 0000010088 00000 n 0000010117 00000 n 0000010245 00000 n 0000010281 00000 n 0000010310 00000 n 0000010438 00000 n 0000010474 00000 n 0000010503 00000 n 0000010631 00000 n 0000010667 00000 n 0000010751 00000 n 0000018734 00000 n 0000018764 00000 n 0000018892 00000 n 0000018928 00000 n 0000018993 00000 n 0000026468 00000 n 0000026573 00000 n 0000034349 00000 n 0000034379 00000 n 0000034507 00000 n 0000034543 00000 n 0000034671 00000 n 0000034726 00000 n 0000034854 00000 n 0000034909 00000 n 0000035035 00000 n 0000035090 00000 n 0000035202 00000 n 0000037949 00000 n 0000038064 00000 n 0000038192 00000 n 0000038247 00000 n 0000038375 00000 n 0000038430 00000 n 0000038557 00000 n 0000038712 00000 n 0000038839 00000 n 0000038976 00000 n 0000039104 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39199 %%EOF