%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 34 0 R 61 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141125211547+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141125211547+00'00') /Title (A Nation Upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal's Atlantic Diaspora and the Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4641 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Nation Upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal's Atlantic Diaspora and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a seminal article on Portuguese merchants published 35 years ago )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.624 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.624 264.801 m 379.616 264.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 379.616 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, David Grant Smith suggested \(on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 247\) that emigrants from Madeira ?constituted a sort of gentile Diaspora?, highlighting how family ties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and friendships originating on this small Portuguese Atlantic island ?endured and formed the basis for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of commercial relationships?. Studnicki-Gizbert's book )] TJ ET BT 344.468 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Nation Upon the Ocean Sea)] TJ ET BT 489.452 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his 2001 doctoral dissertation )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.004 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.004 207.777 m 218.996 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.996 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) extends the concept of a diaspora to the thousands of Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who migrated across the Atlantic and infiltrated and settled in Spain and its American empire over the course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries. Whilst in terms of numbers maritime workers apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headed this diaspora \(pp. 42, 61, and 193, note 3, which indicates they represented some 45 percent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(451 individuals whose occupations were specified in the data set compiled for this study\), Studnicki-Gizbert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the Portuguese merchant community in Spanish America who engaged in the Atlantic trade. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author adopts a prosopographical approach to explore the interplay of social relations and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in the development and operation of transatlantic and regional Portuguese trading networks that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spanned the Atlantic world, linking Spanish America, Brazil, Europe, Africa, and Asia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one plots the origins and growth of the relationship between the expatriate Portuguese 'Nation' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish Habsburg monarchy's American empire. Chapter two traces the modes and characteristics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(743)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 March, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195175707)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorraine White)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.6237 265.1155 379.6157 276.9955 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.0037 208.0915 218.9957 219.9715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8460 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese migratory movements to, and settlement in, Spain and Spanish America, and reveals)] TJ ET BT 498.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation of interpersonal relations and the key role they played at all levels. Two central chapters \(three and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four\) provide a fascinating insight into the role of social and business ties in creating and holding together an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive interdependent transnational network of Portuguese trading houses, formed around numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual ? and often interrelated ? merchant families. Chapter five provides an analysis of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published and unpublished treatises on trade relating to the Portuguese and commerce. Chapter six explores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cause and nature of the tensions and opposition to the Portuguese penetration of the American and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish markets in the first four decades of the 17th century, and in particular the persecution of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian \(that is, descended from converted Jews\) merchants in Spanish America prior to the 1640 revolt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal. The epilogue offers a short summary of how the relationship ruptured and underwent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconfiguration following the )] TJ ET BT 178.328 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 216.656 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( secession of Portugal from the Habsburg monarchy in December 1640.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very useful socio-economic study of Portuguese commercial networks that spanned the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Iberia to Spanish America. In spite of the broad chronology suggested by its title, the book?s main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus ? and its greatest value for scholars ? is the structure and operation of networks involving a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese New Christian merchants in the late 1620s and 30s. Like a handful of scholars before who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pieced together details of the commercial transactions and trading networks of Portuguese merchants and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant-bankers )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.984 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.984 554.979 m 136.976 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.976 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Studnicki-Gizbert has mined four rich ? and still grossly under-used ? deposits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records of the Spanish Inquisition located in Lima \(Peru\), Mexico City, Madrid and Lisbon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.644 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.644 540.723 m 488.636 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.636 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They contain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priceless material relating to an individual?s business transactions and personal correspondence that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely, if ever, survived in Spain and Portugal for this period, other than for the nobility.)] TJ ET BT 459.296 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studnicki-Gizbert?s source material is the correspondence, accounts and other commercial papers of a dozen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or so merchants that were seized at the time of their arrest by the Inquisition. Added to this are inventories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the estates of several merchants that were confiscated by the Holy Office. Using the information contained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the accounts and correspondence of over a dozen merchants, and that drawn from a compilation of some 595 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transactions of a single merchant based in Cartagena de Indias \(New Granada\) between 1624 and 1635, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studnicki-Gizbert assembled data sets that enabled him to partially plot the Portuguese commercial network )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spanning the Atlantic around 1630 \(vividly represented in figure 4.2, p. 103\). Similarly, a striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of the commercial networks of an individual merchant based in Lima, Manuel Bautista Perez, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was created through an analysis of his commercial papers for 1618?1635 \(see figure 4.1, p. 99\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, Studnicki-Gizbert has not maintained the scholarly rigour that marked out those earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies. The lapses are quite wide-ranging. First, a few ?picky? points, some of which should have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed by the copy editor: several footnotes lack specific page references where ordinarily these would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected; the index is quite poor, especially in terms of omitting numerous merchants from the listing, or all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the citations for those who are included; and it would have been helpful if the author had compiled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genealogies for the merchants who figure regularly in this study. \(It might also have allowed the author to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify apparent confusions over the identity of some of the individuals he mentions, e.g. p. 83, Doa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guiomar de Brito, the older sister of Sebastian Duarte, who would appear to be the same Guiomar Lopez )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about whom Duarte Rodriguez de Leon ? Sebastian?s brother ? was worried.\) In relation to the merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their families who figure prominently \(e.g. Manuel Bautista Prez and his family, together with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother-in-law Sebastian Duarte and his family\), Studnicki-Gizbert could have filled out their biographies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further: a simple check of secondary sources \(for e.g., the indices of Boyajian, Braudel )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.248 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.248 200.835 m 467.240 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 467.240 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of Cross?s article )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.320 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.320 186.579 m 173.312 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 173.312 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) could have provided additional information about their movements and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business interests and activities and, in the case of Prez, an assessment of his fortune \(half a million pesos\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1635.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is some evidence of limited language competence in Spanish and Portuguese \(e.g. p. 5 ?La Nao?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pp. 52 and 110, where ?swarming? would seem a more apt translation than ?boiling?\), alongside a lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of familiarity with Portuguese names. Names are mostly ?castilianized? in relation to spelling and the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accents, but they have not been standardized ? sometimes not even for the same individual \(e.g. pp. 111 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(197, Simn Vez de Sevilla/Simon Baez de Sevilla ? surely one for the copy editor!\). More serious, a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiarity with place names in Portugal, coupled with defective geographic knowledge ? e.g. pp. 53?5, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.9837 555.2935 136.9757 567.1735 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.6437 541.0375 488.6357 552.9175 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.2477 201.1495 467.2397 213.0295 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.3197 186.8935 173.3117 198.7735 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8569 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Sarzedas \(not Carcedas, as stated\) and Castelo Branco are mistakenly located in Alentejo, instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the province of Beira; and p. 49 where the author appears to think that ?La Raya? refers only to the Alentejo, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than to any borderland area ? actually cast doubt on the reliability of the author?s analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provenance of migrants in his data set ?Portuguese migrants to the Indies? \(see p. 194, note 34, where 114 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals of the total 561 whose provenance is known are said to hail from the Alentejo; also p. 199, note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20, which places more than 20 individuals in the sample from Castelho Branco in the Alentejo\). Regrettably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the migrant data set is not reproduced in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At times the author appears too ready to take his sources at face value, without questioning their reliability. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, while Israel justifiably declares that a claim by a Spanish official that ?there were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese than Castillians? in Veracruz \(Mexico\) is surely a wild exaggeration )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.944 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.944 654.771 m 434.936 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.936 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Studnicki-Gizbert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidently repeats the assertion of its governor that ?? in Puerto Rico [the Portuguese Nation] came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outnumber the Castilians? \(p. 26\). Rather worrying for the unwary reader is the unsatisfactory representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of background historical events \(particularly in the Epilogue\), and some factual errors \(e.g. p. 23, where Joo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II is referred to as King Manuel?s father\). The omission of the relevant volumes of J. Verissmo Serro?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invaluable )] TJ ET BT 87.008 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histria de Portugal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.016 583.491 m 204.008 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 204.008 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and sparse use ? a single citation! ? in the epilogue of R. Valladares?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superb )] TJ ET BT 69.008 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Rebelin de Portugal. Guerra, Conflicto, y Poderes en la Monarqua Hispnica, 1640?1680)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.992 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.992 569.235 m 545.984 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 545.984 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can perhaps explain these infelicities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major concern, however, is the indiscriminate use and recurring confusion over who constituted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Nation? ? at times it is the entire Portuguese expatriate community on both sides of the Atlantic \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather bizarrely for a study that focusses on the Atlantic, not migrants to Portuguese Brazil\), then it those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish America, then merchants in general, then, more specifically still, merchants of New Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin. Such lapses, along with the insistence throughout that the Portuguese expatriate communities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their families were a ?special? case, suggest the author?s rather limited familiarity with an early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?society of orders?, and his failure to make full use of the Portuguese and Spanish sources and literature on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity that he cites in the bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Studnicki-Gizbert?s fascinating detail of the structure and operation of the Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial networks, and examination of the domestic foundations of expatriate Portuguese trading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities on both sides of the Atlantic, admirably complement the findings of the earlier studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boyajian, Smith, and Hordes )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.012 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.012 359.907 m 196.004 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 196.004 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the articles of Hordes, Israel, and Cross.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.620 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.620 359.907 m 434.612 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.612 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To its credit, this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly expands our knowledge of Portuguese New Christian merchants and their trading networks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic world in the 1620s and 30s. For this reason, it will provide rich pickings, not just for scholars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern Iberia, but also for social and economic historians of early modern Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Author response pending.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 226.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. G. Smith, ?Old Christian merchants and the foundation of the Brazil Company, 1649?, )] TJ ET BT 497.648 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hispanic American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 246.332 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 54 \(1974\), 233-59.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.320 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.320 211.107 m 396.308 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 198.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Studnicki-Gizbert, ?Capital?s commonwealth: the world of Portugal?s Atlantic merchants and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle over the nature of commerce in the Spanish empire, 1492-1640? \(PhD, Yale, 2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.268 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.268 182.595 m 551.264 182.595 l S BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 168.339 m 78.008 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notably, James C. Boyajian, )] TJ ET BT 204.344 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese Bankers at the Court of Spain, 1626?1650)] TJ ET BT 465.008 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Brunswick, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1983\), and two unpublished PhD theses by David Grant Smith, ?The mercantile class of Portugal and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brazil in the seventeenth century: a socio-economic study of the merchants of Lisbon and Bahia, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1620?1690? \(PhD, University of Texas, 1975\) and Stanley M. Hordes, ?The crypto-Jewish community )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of New Spain, 1620?1649: a collective biography? \(PhD, Tulane University, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.956 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.956 97.059 m 519.944 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namely, the Archivo General de la Nacin, Lima; Archivo General de la Nacin, Mexico City; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archivo Histrico Nacional, Madrid; and \(according to the sources cited for figure 4.2 on p. 103\) the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.316 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.316 54.291 m 343.304 54.291 l S endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.9437 655.0855 434.9357 666.9655 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 190.0157 583.8055 204.0077 595.6855 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.9917 569.5495 545.9837 581.4295 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.0117 360.2215 196.0037 372.1015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.6197 360.2215 434.6117 372.1015 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.3197 211.4215 396.3077 223.3015 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.2677 182.9095 551.2637 194.7895 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 168.6535 78.0077 180.5335 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.9557 97.3735 519.9437 109.2535 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.3157 54.6055 343.3037 66.4855 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 6263 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Braudel, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization & Capitalism 15th?18th Century, II: The Wheels of Commerce)] TJ ET BT 482.012 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982\), pp. 161 and 618, note 84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.004 780.819 m 273.992 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. E. Cross, ?Commerce and orthodoxy: a Spanish response to Portuguese commercial penetration in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Viceroyalty of Peru, 1580?1640?, )] TJ ET BT 246.980 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Americas)] TJ ET BT 313.304 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 35 \(2\) \(1978\), 151?67, at 154?5..)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.608 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.608 752.307 m 531.596 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. I. Israel, ?The Portuguese in seventeenth-century Mexico?, )] TJ ET BT 360.608 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jahrbuch fr Geschichte von Staat, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas)] TJ ET BT 275.012 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11 \(1974\), 2-32, reproduced \(and the version cited )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herein\) in J. I. Israel, )] TJ ET BT 166.652 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empires and Entrepots. The Dutch, the Spanish Monarchy and the Jews, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1585?1713)] TJ ET BT 118.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1990\), pp. 311?31, at p. 318. . )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.332 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.332 695.283 m 369.320 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, vol. 2, )] TJ ET BT 162.332 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Formao do estado moderno \(1415?1495\))] TJ ET BT 382.640 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and vol. 3, )] TJ ET BT 439.304 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(O Sculo de Ouro )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1495?1580\) )] TJ ET BT 129.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Pvoa de Varzim, 1980\); vol. 4, )] TJ ET BT 289.988 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Governo dos Reis Espanhis \(1580?1640\) )] TJ ET BT 496.304 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Pvoa de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Varzim, 1979\); and vol. 5, )] TJ ET BT 194.000 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Restaurao e a Monarquia Absoluta \(1640?1750\) )] TJ ET BT 452.984 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Pvoa de Varzim, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 638.259 m 149.000 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Valladares?s superb )] TJ ET BT 177.320 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Rebelin de Portugal. Guerra, Conflicto, y Poderes en la Monarqua )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hispnica, 1640?1680 )] TJ ET BT 176.348 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Valladolid, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.004 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.004 609.747 m 321.992 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See note 3 above.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.664 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.664 595.491 m 208.652 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. M. Hordes, ?The Inquisition as economic and politcal agent: the campaign of the Mexican Holy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office against the crypto-Jews in the mid-seventeenth century?, )] TJ ET BT 372.944 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Americas)] TJ ET BT 439.268 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 39 \(1\) \(1982\), 23?38; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel, )] TJ ET BT 96.668 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(op. cit)] TJ ET BT 126.668 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.; and Cross, )] TJ ET BT 189.668 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(op. cit)] TJ ET BT 219.668 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.668 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.668 552.723 m 282.656 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 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