%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922103012+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922103012+01'00') /Title (War in England 1642-1649) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4479 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War in England 1642-1649)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The New Model Army?s Declaration of 14 June 1647 famously stated that ?We were not a mere mercenary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army, hired to serve any arbitrary power of state?. This phrase, a favourite of historians of the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captures the fateful politicisation of Parliament?s army; an event that ultimately catapulted England into its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dalliance with regicide and republican government. The New Model?s denial that they were mercenary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers, however, begs questions of honour and the nature of ?soldiers for a cause? that has long demanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further enquiry. Ian Gentles? ambitious )] TJ ET BT 225.980 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Model Army )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.968 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.968 214.905 m 347.960 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.960 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be seen as one of the first attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the cultural underpinning of this particular Army. Barbara Donagan?s )] TJ ET BT 410.276 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England 1642?1649 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes further and presents an ambitious attempt to provide a cultural history of warfare in the English Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wars that is informative for non-military historians as well as the educated general reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For non-military historians of the period questions about soldiers and armies have been intrinsically linked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the political revolution heralded by the New Model?s entry into the political sphere in the late 1640s. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has ranged from 1950s and 60s interpretations that, at their most excessive, saw the New Model as a mixture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of soldier soviets and millenarian saints in arms. For the so-called revisionist historians of the 1970s and 80s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most notably Mark Kishlansky and John Morrill, the New Model?s entry into politics came from a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative bedrock: that of an army concerned with the material factor of pay but also the retention of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honour and honour?s legal concomitant, indemnity. In addition to histories that have focused on the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(744)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 March, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Donagan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199285181)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(455pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliot Vernon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.9677 215.2195 347.9597 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7873 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Model, historians led by the pioneering studies of Ian Roy and Ronald Hutton have also examined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royalist armies and soldiery, causing historians to talk of distinct ?royalisms? in the plural rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniform ?King?s Party?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recent decades, military historians of all periods of European history, often unfairly caricatured as having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?toy soldier? approach to history concentrating on tactics, battles and troop formations with the politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken out, have moved away from discussions of pure military concerns to a more encompassing cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the history of warfare. )] TJ ET BT 202.964 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England 1642?1649 )] TJ ET BT 339.632 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be located in this trend towards a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history. In adopting the cultural approach to the history of warfare, Donagan attempts to capture the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background and structure of military discourse in the middle decades of the 17th century to show how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse informed the day to day life of armies and soldiers in England?s ?Mad Warre?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan?s use of sources is impressive, ranging from the printed word such as Richard Elton?s soldier?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manual )] TJ ET BT 72.344 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Compleat Body of the Art Military )] TJ ET BT 261.344 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or William Gouge?s pre-war collection of sermons )] TJ ET BT 508.292 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three Arrowes)] TJ ET BT 105.680 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to visual images such as maps and pamphlet frontispieces. Donagan also draws on a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of manuscript reports of battles and sieges, legal records and soldiers? memoirs. Her use of sources is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always sensitive and appropriate, never falling into the ?one damn fact after another? approach that can often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mar accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 131.324 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit )] TJ ET BT 178.988 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a period. This is helped by a writing style that, whilst densely packed, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never turgid.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike many previous studies, )] TJ ET BT 183.008 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England 1642?1649 )] TJ ET BT 319.676 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompasses a study of the growth of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalist and Parliamentarian military culture over the 1640s. The book itself is structured into five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnumbered sections. The first section ?Before the War? deals with the shared attitudes, beliefs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the English to war and warfare prior to the outbreak of the Civil Wars. Donagan shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military manuals and sermons published in England in the 60 years or so before the coming of civil war had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grappled with the complex question of when war in a Christian society was justified. The causes of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse were the continental European wars of the early 17th century, especially the Thirty Years War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan shows that the stock of rhetorical figures concerning warfare commonly expressed by both sides in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1640s were laid down by the reporting of, and reflections upon, these European wars. The expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print and news media and the reporting of the sorry condition of Protestants in Germany and France meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the facts, as well as the tropes, of warfare had become part of the cultural lexicon of the English when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war broke out in 1642. Added to this was the fashion for printed military manuals and for gentlemen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience some form of military training, whether through the exercises of home grown private militias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Honourable Artillery Company or by real service in the armies of the Continent. Donagan shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how family traditions of service arose amongst gentry and noble families, with many of the commanders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Civil War armies having acquired their skills on the battlefields of Europe in the 1620s and 1630s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan argues that these factors ?conditioned the nation for war? \(p. 52\) even during its long period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace, so that England was to some degree ready for war once it eventually broke out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section of )] TJ ET BT 141.992 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England 1642-1649 )] TJ ET BT 276.656 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled ?The Texture of War? discusses the contingencies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the soldiers? life once war started. Donagan?s main concerns in this section are with logistics, military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology and intelligence. She makes it clear just how inefficient the often poorly equipped armies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War were and how soldiers were often at the mercy of forces beyond their control such as the weather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrain or disease. In light of the highly imperfect nature of early modern military technology, intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became vital to armies from the use of printed maps to hired local knowledge and the information gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from prisoners of war. Donagan suggests that the progress of war meant that spies and intelligence networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became pervasive throughout the country and the continual search for information on the movement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy, led England to become a nation under surveillance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These uncertainties gave rise to the providentialist sensibilities, which readers of the letters and speeches of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell will be aware. Donagan notes that providentialism was as equally widespread amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalists as Parliamentarians who shared a cultural outlook that stressed an interventionist God whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement determined the course of events on the field of battle. Donagan?s handling of providentialism is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunately brief and in light of recent studies such as Alexandra Walsham?s )] TJ ET BT 415.940 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Providence)] TJ ET BT 470.588 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( in Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7596 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 795.075 m 48.008 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Donagan?s book could have discussed the effect of Reformed Protestant cosmology, so pervasive in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War, in greater detail. A further absence from the book is a detailed discussion of the role of army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaplains in maintaining morale and disseminating news although, to be fair, Donagan has covered this topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her 1994article.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.664 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.664 752.307 m 135.656 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third division of chapters in )] TJ ET BT 191.336 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England)] TJ ET BT 268.004 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, entitled ?Slay in Love: The Moral and Judicial Economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Civil War? provides an analysis of the moral and legal framework that civil war soldiers? operated in. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan analyses the unwritten codes of behaviour and conduct concerning military affairs, drawing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and moral norms held by the shared cultural context of a Christian and intellectually Humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside these unwritten codes derived from religion, honour and duty, Donagan charts the chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the formal laws of war set down in writing by the heads of Civil War armies. These looked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to articles of war dating from the reign of Richard I and also drew on the works of continental armies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the articles used by Gustavus Adolphus? army in Sweden?s forays into the Thirty Years War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists such as Gentili and Grotius. Donagan argues, however, that the main development of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws of war were the Earl of Arundel?s articles drafted for the Bishop?s Wars with the Scots and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic realisation that legal structures were necessary in order to ensure military discipline and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mitigate the propensity for civil war to descend into brutality and anarchy. In her discussion of military law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan often draws parallels between 17th-century codes and the development of modern jurisprudence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the laws governing conflict such as the Geneva Convention. This is never done in a teleological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or anachronistic way and provides a useful frame of reference for development of the laws of war during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil Wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In dealing with the codes governing internal discipline Donagan reveals a major theme of her work, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the distinctions between Royalist and Parliamentarian conceptions of warfare. For Donagan the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalist military codes betrayed a ?fussiness? and a less discretionary approach to military justice. In some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects the legal codes exemplified the distinctions between Cavalier and Roundhead of popular myth, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan describing a particular concern in Royalist articles for the suppression of duelling. Donagan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caution as a historian \(often a wise trait in studies of Civil War armies!\) means that she does not speculate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much into the cultural and political reasons as to why these differences in legal code existed. One is tempted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see such divisions in the neo-chivalric culture of many parvenu lords and knights on the Royalist side and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Parliamentarians, the concepts of war inculcated into officers in the sermon driven exercises of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attending places such as London?s Artillery Garden. Of course, such neat and stereotypical explanations are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always prone to challenge, but Donagan?s narrative of real differences in the Royalist and Parliamentarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military codes do give rise to questions for historians that are at present not fully answered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If law, as modern jurisprudence sometimes holds, is a code of normative behaviour, its transgressions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate how such norms operated. Donagan charts the development and application of Civil War military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(codes through the administration of justice in \(mainly Parliamentarian\) courts-martial. Of note is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reticence, as time went on, for courts-martial to order the more gruesome punishments such as riding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wooden horse or having the neck tied to the ankles, and to focus on restorative justice for wronged civilians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donagan argues that, alongside the predictable failures of legal process when conspiracy \(as in Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sexby's court-martial\), hot blood or negligence prevailed, an ultimately pragmatic and conscientious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to military justice developed as the period progressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, as Donagan points out, shared a high level of xenophobia common to many European countries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern period. The role of foreigners in Civil War armies, who were recruited to provide both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary expertise and manpower, is dealt with in one of the best chapters of )] TJ ET BT 410.264 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England)] TJ ET BT 486.932 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Donagan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that xenophobia was not the only source of problems for foreign soldiers, who also suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detriment due to the absence of patrons to provide support during war's inevitable troubles. The main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners involved in the English conflict, however, were not continental mercenaries but soldiers from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Celtic nations that bordered England. Donagan contrasts the differing attitudes of English commanders to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh, Scots and Irish combatants. Of particular interest is the discussion of the attitude of the Cornish, an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 795.3895 48.0077 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.6637 752.6215 135.6557 764.5015 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7637 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ostensibly English but distinct people, whose Royalist zeal gained them a reputation for barbarism amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentarians. Predictably, Irish Catholic soldiers and their female camp followers were put outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection of Parliamentarian military law by the Ordinance of 24 October 1644. This legislation denied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Catholics the right of quarter, although Donagan shows how even this ordinance was pragmatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to suit Parliament's cause by granting mercy to Irish turncoats during the siege of Liverpool.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth section of )] TJ ET BT 137.996 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England 1642?1649)] TJ ET BT 271.664 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,?The Protagonists? pertains to those involved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting of the war itself, looking at the social and cultural structures of the Royalist and Parliamentarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies, officers and soldiers. In an interesting analysis of what made a good officer, Donagan stresses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of honour, which she admits is a ?slippery and elusive? concept but uses case studies to exemplify how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the language of honour played itself out in the practice of warfare. The concept of honour also affected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of foreign military experts, who, whilst essential to civil war armies, were considered to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers? of fortune \(even if they were not\) and therefore implicitly dishonourable. As well as good officers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were, of course, bad ones and Donagan brings out the differences between headstrong duelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalists that were, in some cases, literally out of control and more tempered Parliamentarians. Such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction is never allowed to run into caricature and Donagan?s case study of the Royalist Catholic Colonel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Henry Gage?s siege breaking sortie at Basing House illustrates how an officer could marshal his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character to obtain his set military objectives and save the lives of most of his men. Donagan?s treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the soldiery, focussing on transgression of military law and practice such as desertion, straggling and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing sides shows how Civil War armies were often fluid and ineffective. However, Donagan does give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive examples of the soldiery?s resolute bravery in face of disaster. Her references to the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprentice Nehamiah Wharton?s sight-seeing adventures whilst a Parliamentarian soldier remind us that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War was not all trudge and military discipline could present participants with an expansion of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world that would not have been possible under peacetime conditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final division of chapters contains a comparative case study of the First Civil War siege of Boarstall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House, a minor Buckinghamshire fortification, and the more infamous Second Civil War siege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colchester. In so doing, Donagan applies the findings of the previous sections of )] TJ ET BT 424.304 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England 1642?1649)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The discussion of Boarstall brings out its Royalist governor Sir William Campion?s concerns for honour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sir Thomas Fairfax?s adherence to honour codes but his steely determination to ensure that the Royalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not take military advantage of these codes. Of particular interest are the negotiations concerning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of the pregnant Lady Campion, showing how wives and other women could become pawns in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requirements of honour and quarter found in Civil War sieges. Donagan also brings out the problems of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war in a society where lines of patronage and family connections were essential for peacetime social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability. These networks both operated to mitigate the potential horrors of the siege as well as inculcating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns and suspicion that former friendships might cause a combatant to turn his coat at a critical time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The siege of Colchester was one of the most notorious sieges of the Civil War. Donagan elegantly ties up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threads of the whole book in the chapters devoted to Colchester, showing the Royalists continuing concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for honour and the Parliamentarians determination to crush what was considered to be a taking up of arms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the clear will of God. As at Boarstall, Fairfax refused the civilian townspeople relief and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of famine, fire and fleeing women trapped between Parliamentarian and Royalist front lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings out the sense of horror that contemporaries judged the siege. As well as narrating the military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logistical course of the siege, Donagan explores the role of printed propaganda to show how warfare of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different kind was conducted in the nascent public sphere. This was especially so in London; a City which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself wavered in its support for Parliament?s ever more expensive and politically radical war. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the rise of news culture as a tool of propaganda is also touched upon by Donagan showing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the Parliamentarian forces fired pamphlets into the town narrating the events of the Royalist collapse in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second Civil War in order to crush the besieged garrison?s morale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exploration of the siege of Colchester concludes with an analysis of the summary execution of Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Lisle and Sir Charles Lucas. This discussion brings out the competing concepts of honour, legality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cruel necessity that the Second Civil War threw up as well as the thought processes of Fairfax?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireton?s implementation of victor?s justice. Donagan again stresses the importance of propaganda, both by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 5047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed word and local myth in the construction of the memory of one the most notorious domestic incidents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England?s troubles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Donagan ends the book with a wide ranging conclusion that seeks to integrate her study of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture into the wider social and political history of mid 17th-century England. Donagan concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the Civil War, the concept of law remained a fundamental and ever present normative structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English culture. This was of particular concern to soldiers promised indemnity who found themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1650s prosecuted in civilian courts for acts committed in the name of their commanders or Parliament. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been interesting if Donagan had brought this into focus by a brief discussion of the rule of law in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cromwellian campaigns in Ireland. A further criticism is that not enough attention is given to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political implications of the rise of military culture for the decade of Republican rule that followed after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological cut off date for the book. However, these are both minor quibbles. )] TJ ET BT 423.272 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in England 1642?1649)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an impressive study of the culture of war and warfare in England?s mid 17th-century crisis and one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that advances a new military history of this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Gentles, )] TJ ET BT 125.000 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 146.000 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Model Army)] TJ ET BT 229.988 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( in England, Ireland and Scotland, 1645?1653)] TJ ET BT 453.320 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.968 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.968 546.483 m 559.628 546.483 l S BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 532.227 m 90.344 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Walsham, )] TJ ET BT 168.320 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Providence)] TJ ET BT 222.968 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( in Early Modern England )] TJ ET BT 352.628 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1999\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.276 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.276 517.971 m 485.264 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Donagan, ?Did ministers matter? War and religion in England, 1642?1649?, )] TJ ET BT 473.936 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Studies)] TJ ET BT 134.360 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(33\), 1994, 119-56.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.348 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.348 489.459 m 284.336 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 434.691 m 154.700 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 406.179 m 270.668 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 402.847 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 385.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 385.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/744)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 383.673 m 322.316 383.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 358.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3721)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_military_history/v073/73.2.carlton.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.240 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=402716&sectioncode=26)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.9677 546.7975 559.6277 558.6775 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 532.5415 90.3437 544.4215 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.2757 518.2855 485.2637 530.1655 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.3477 489.7735 284.3357 501.6535 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 435.0055 154.6997 446.8855 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_military_history/v073/73.2.carlton.html) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 406.4935 270.6677 418.3735 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=402716§ioncode=26) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 383.9875 322.3157 395.8675 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/744) >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000005154 00000 n 0000005263 00000 n 0000005373 00000 n 0000005482 00000 n 0000009043 00000 n 0000009171 00000 n 0000009255 00000 n 0000009284 00000 n 0000009412 00000 n 0000009448 00000 n 0000009513 00000 n 0000017439 00000 n 0000017530 00000 n 0000025179 00000 n 0000025209 00000 n 0000025335 00000 n 0000025371 00000 n 0000025401 00000 n 0000025529 00000 n 0000025565 00000 n 0000025630 00000 n 0000033320 00000 n 0000033446 00000 n 0000038546 00000 n 0000038674 00000 n 0000038729 00000 n 0000038855 00000 n 0000038910 00000 n 0000039038 00000 n 0000039093 00000 n 0000039221 00000 n 0000039276 00000 n 0000039403 00000 n 0000039565 00000 n 0000039692 00000 n 0000039823 00000 n 0000039951 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40046 %%EOF