%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R 47 0 R 55 0 R 63 0 R 93 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729062610+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729062610+01'00') /Title (Experience and its Modes) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4138 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Experience and its Modes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How far should the practising historian accept the conclusion of the idealist analysis of history carried out by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott in )] TJ ET BT 140.336 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.304 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.304 271.929 m 282.296 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.296 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 299.288 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, probably the most brilliant book on the philosophy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history written in the first half of the 20th century \(even possibly including Collingwood?s )] TJ ET BT 484.988 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History, )] TJ ET BT 76.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1946 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 165.020 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 165.020 243.417 m 179.012 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.012 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 196.004 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\)? As a student of philosophy, perhaps, quite far, for Oakeshott?s analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is both coherent and convincing. But as a practising historian? Hardly at all \(it seems to me\), for it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtful if any practising historian could actually implement many of the conclusions drawn by Oakeshott in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his analysis. Not that Oakeshott himself would have expected the practising historian to make such a choice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for as he remarks in )] TJ ET BT 132.320 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and its Modes)] TJ ET BT 256.628 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it was not his intention in that work to instruct the historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on how history had been written in the past, or how it should be written in the future, but merely to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader with a view of history ?from the outside? \(pp. 86-7\), to determine its character, that is to say, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the standpoint of experience \(p. 88\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(744)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 April, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521311793)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1986)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Macfie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.3037 272.2435 282.2957 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f1) >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 165.0197 243.7315 179.0117 255.6115 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f2) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6630 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott, it may be noted, lectured on history and politics at Cambridge in the 1920s and 1930s, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming, following service in the armed forces in the Second World War and a brief spell at Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor of Political Science at the London School of Economics \(1951?68\). During his life time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1901?90\), he was known mainly as a political thinker, but he is now known almost as much as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosopher of history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.012 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.012 726.051 m 157.004 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 160.004 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Oakeshott argues, broadly speaking, in )] TJ ET BT 252.644 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and its Modes)] TJ ET BT 376.952 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is that the world of experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normally understood as a totality, can also be understood, independently, by way of \(at least\) three modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding, the practical, the scientific and the historical \(in 1959, in )] TJ ET BT 381.968 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voice of Poetry in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conversation of Mankind,)] TJ ET BT 159.680 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Oakeshott added a fourth mode, the poetic, that is to say experience viewed under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the category of the aesthetic, the contemplation of images\). The practical mode of understanding is present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience viewed under the category of use or benefit \(friendly or hostile, advantageous or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantageous\). The scientific mode is experience viewed under the category of quantity \(objective, and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as possible independent of self\). The historical mode is experience viewed under the category of the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(a certain way of reading the present\). Experience here means thought, a world of ideas. Each abstract world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ideas, thus created is, as such and as a world, wholly and absolutely independent of any other. And each, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in so far as it is coherent, is true for itself \(p. 75\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to understand the character of history, the philosopher, in Oakeshott?s view, must first discover the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of postulates that underlies it ? the)] TJ ET BT 235.004 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( differentia )] TJ ET BT 291.008 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the historical mode. In Oakeshott?s opinion the five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important of these are: the idea of past, of fact, of truth, of reality and of explanation. The past, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postulate of history, is not the remembered past. Nor is it the practical \(useful\) past, the fancied \(imagined\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, or the whole past. It is the past conceived ?for its own sake? as a dead past, inferred from the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a past that has survived into the present. The ?historical past?, in other words, is a constructed past, made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up of ?what the evidence obliges us to believe?. It can neither be found nor discovered, nor retrieved, nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recollected, but only inferred. To attempt to construct a history that somehow corresponds to ?what was?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?what really happened?, would be to pursue a phantom \(pp. 102?12\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical fact, Oakeshott declares, in )] TJ ET BT 217.640 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 342.608 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is a conclusion, a result, an inference and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement. As such it belongs, like everything else, to the world of present experience. Like the ?historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past?, it is ?what the evidence obliges us to believe? \(pp. 111?2\). Truth is coherence in a world of present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas. As such it is never a matter of the correspondence of a present world of ideas with a past course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events, or the correspondence of present facts with ?what was?. The truth of each fact depends upon the truth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the world of facts to which it belongs, and the truth of the world of facts lies in the coherence of the facts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that compose it. Each separate fact remains a hypothesis until the whole world of facts is established \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(113\). Historical reality is present experience of the world, comprehended under the category of the past. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenience sake this ?real? world is divided up into ?historical individuals?, namely events, things, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situations and persons, all governed by the ideas of change, continuity and discontinuity. Explanation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly derived from experience. In experience there is always explanation. Historical explanation is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to give a rational account of the world in terms of two of the principal categories of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, change and identity. Such categories as these are not the product of some kind of inductive study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the course of events but the presuppositions of such a study. For without such presuppositions there would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be no historical world, no course of events from which to gather the principles of historical knowledge \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(125\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.0117 726.3655 157.0037 738.2455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f3) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 9647 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the business of the philosopher, Oakeshott declares, in )] TJ ET BT 319.316 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 444.284 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to understand, as far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as possible, the nature of experience. ?Experience? stands for the concrete whole, which analysis divides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into ?experiencing? and ?what is experienced?. Similarly, experience is sometimes divided into thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness, sensation, perception, volition, intuition and feeling. But such divisions, though occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful, are in error, for experience as such admits of no final or absolute division. As for the world of value, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that too is a mode of experience, an abstract world of ideas, an incomplete assertion of reality; while the act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of valuation is thinking, the attempt to make coherent a world of ideas \(p. 274\) ? though for Oakeshott, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be said, most of the time valuation is concerned rather with the practical mode of understanding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Oakeshott then a historically understood past is a past that has not been discovered or found but inferred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the product of an inherently deficient mode of experience. Far from being ?a doubtful story of successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events?, an account of an ?objective? world of past events, waiting to be discovered, unearthed or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recaptured, or an account of ?what actually happened? \(Ranke?s )] TJ ET BT 345.908 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wie es eigentlich gewesen [war])] TJ ET BT 500.564 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed past, wholly deduced or inferred by the historian \(pp. 93?101\). As such history \(the historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood past\) contains no lessons, justifies no meaning and sends no messages. Such interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences belong purely to the practical mode of understanding, which should not be confused with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical \(pp. 102?11, 157?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott did not abandon the philosophy of history, following the publication of )] TJ ET BT 429.668 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1958 he published an essay entitled ?The Activity of Being a Historian?, later published in )] TJ ET BT 484.964 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.688 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.688 502.467 m 87.680 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.680 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 104.672 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and in 1983 he published three essays on history in )] TJ ET BT 358.652 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On History and other Essays.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.312 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.312 502.467 m 514.304 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.304 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadly speaking, in these essays Oakeshott continued to think of history as an autonomous mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the world, but he no longer identified philosophical experience as ?experience without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presupposition, reservation, arrest or modification? \(1933, p. 2\), and history as a defective mode of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, as he had done in )] TJ ET BT 178.304 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes.)] TJ ET BT 306.272 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And where, in )] TJ ET BT 380.588 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 505.556 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to underestimate the importance of language in understanding, in )] TJ ET BT 384.296 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On History)] TJ ET BT 437.960 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he paid it much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention, placing each mode of understanding separately in an autonomous universe of discourse \(1983, p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is commonly believed that )] TJ ET BT 174.344 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and its Modes)] TJ ET BT 298.652 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was largely ignored when it first came out in 1933. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott himself later recalled that ?Nobody took any notice, and it was soon forgotten?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.612 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.612 362.163 m 481.604 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.604 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 498.596 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the first print run, of a thousand copies, took 30 years to sell. But in fact it was quite widely reviewed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by amongst others Susan Stebbing, in )] TJ ET BT 217.688 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mind)] TJ ET BT 243.020 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1934\), S. P. L., in )] TJ ET BT 338.024 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 359.024 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Philosophy )] TJ ET BT 468.692 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1934\))] TJ ET BT 500.684 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 506.684 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. E. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jessup, in )] TJ ET BT 83.684 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy)] TJ ET BT 137.684 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1934\), John Oman, in )] TJ ET BT 252.008 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 273.008 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Theological Studies)] TJ ET BT 420.680 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1934\))] TJ ET BT 455.672 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 458.672 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and R. G. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collingwood, in the )] TJ ET BT 132.692 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Review)] TJ ET BT 224.348 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1934\). Susan Stebbing, in what one student of Oakeshott later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to as a somewhat ?sniffy? review )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.608 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.608 290.883 m 251.600 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.600 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 268.592 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, found many of Oakeshott?s conclusions both confused and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocuous. S. P. L found Oakeshott?s chapter on history ?particularly good? but doubted if the philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute idealism, on which it was based, stood up: ?It has already, in the opinion of many philosophers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been quite sufficiently refuted.? T. E. Jessup found Oakeshott?s exposition of his idealist philosophy, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he sympathized, unhelpful. In particular, he found that Oakeshott failed to safeguard his identification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reality and experience )] TJ ET BT 155.972 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(argumentatively)] TJ ET BT 233.960 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the charge of solipsism; and similarly that he failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequately to reargue the case for a coherence theory of truth. Oakeshott?s tendency, Jessup concluded, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to suppose that the coherence theory of truth was established by an exposure of the difficulties of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence theory. He, Jessup, would have welcomed an attempt to define exactly what sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence was meant. And he would have welcomed a less rhetorical approach to the subject. John Oman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed out that the distinction between subject and object, evident in everyday conversation, was not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily identified as the abstraction of experience that Oakeshott supposed it to be. How far, he wondered, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott?s analysis leave unquestioned the leading principle of the Idealist position, that all reality is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Universal Reason, of which human reason is at once part and pattern. All experience may be idea and idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be judgement, but is not judgement a different act the moment we consciously stand over against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world? Only R. G. Collingwood, the noted Oxford historian and philosopher, responded to Oakeshott?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work with unqualified enthusiasm.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.6877 502.7815 87.6797 514.6615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f4) >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.3117 502.7815 514.3037 514.6615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f5) >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.6117 362.4775 481.6037 374.3575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f6) >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.6077 291.1975 251.5997 303.0775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f7) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8749 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his review of )] TJ ET BT 112.664 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes,)] TJ ET BT 240.632 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in the )] TJ ET BT 323.300 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Review,)] TJ ET BT 417.956 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Collingwood explained that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he intended to expound Oakeshott?s thesis, not to criticize it, as it was so original, so important, and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound that criticism must be silent until its meaning had been long pondered. Nor \(unlike a number of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other reviewers\), did he consider the thesis an essay in system building, copied from Hegel and Bradley. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been arrived at, he suspected, mainly from an intense effort to understand the nature of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge. The chapter on history, the ?real nucleus of the book?, was undoubtedly ?the most penetrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of historical thought? that had ever been written. It was certain to remain a classic in ?that hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost unexplored branch of philosophical research?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collingwood, clearly fascinated by Oakeshott?s work, returned to the subject later in his own )] TJ ET BT 484.616 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. There, after summarizing the arguments of )] TJ ET BT 284.300 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 409.268 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he drew attention to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of problems, which in his opinion Oakeshott had failed to solve. Why, he asked, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott believed that history is an ?arrest? of experience, in effect a backwater of experience, should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history exist at all? Why should philosophy, as concrete experience, tolerate such a thing? Only by mapping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the river of experience itself could Oakeshott answer that question, and this he had failed to do. Were he to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so, he might conclude that history, far from being an accidental feature of experience, was a necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Experience, in other words, understands itself, that is, has features and grasps them. One of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features might be history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second problem associated, according to Collingwood, with Oakeshott?s view of history would be that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian/philosopher should stop thinking that the present is past, once he has understood the philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(error he is making. But he does not do so, which means presumably that the supposed error is not an error at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all. The only way out of the dilemma is for the historian to suppose that the past is not a dead past but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living past, one which, because it was once thought, and nor merely a natural event, can be reenacted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present and in that reenactment known as past. History thus interpreted would not be a mode of experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on a philosophical error, but an integral part of \(present\) experience itself. What led Oakeshott to rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out this alternative solution to the problem must, Collingwood concludes, be his failure to grasp the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of his assumption that experience contains in itself an element of mediation, thought or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion of reality. In an experience, which is mediation or thought, that which is experienced is real, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced as real. So far as historical experience is thought, therefore, what it experiences or thinks as past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really is past, in the same way that what is perceived as over there can be both perceived/thought of as over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there and be perceived/thought of as over here. The fact that it is over here does not prevent it from being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over there anymore than the fact that a historical experience is of the present prevents it from being of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is generally agreed by students of Oakeshott that the relatively subdued reception of )] TJ ET BT 450.608 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modes)] TJ ET BT 66.008 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the 1930s was due in part at least to the declining influence of the idealist philosophy on which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was for the most part based, as earlier propounded in the 19th century by such philosophers as F. H. Bradley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Bosanquet and T. H. Green.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.972 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.972 248.115 m 223.964 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 226.964 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 240.956 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Oakeshott himself notes this decline in )] TJ ET BT 433.280 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when he remarks that many of his readers would probably condemn a philosophy based on Hegel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Phnomenologie des Geistes)] TJ ET BT 172.664 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Bradley?s )] TJ ET BT 246.980 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Appearance and Reality)] TJ ET BT 362.960 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( out of hand, such was the ill repute into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it had fallen \(p. 6\). An alternative explanation for the work?s subdued reception may lie in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originality and profundity of the views expressed there)] TJ ET BT 296.972 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 299.972 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to which Collingwood drew attention at the time)] TJ ET BT 535.964 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One way or the other, in the post-Second World War years interest in )] TJ ET BT 369.944 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and its Modes)] TJ ET BT 494.252 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed, and in 1966 the work was republished, this time in both England and America. There followed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of books and articles on Oakeshott?s philosophy of history, in all of which )] TJ ET BT 424.976 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figured prominently. These included works by William H. Dray, David Boucher, Robert Grant, Harwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wells, Steven Anthony Gerencser, Preston King, Terry Nardin, Luke O?Sullivan, and Paul Franco.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.936 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.936 119.811 m 523.928 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 526.928 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dray, in particular, questions whether Oakeshott?s view of history, as a distinctive mode of enquiry, clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishable from the scientific and the practical, stands up. King similarly wonders whether the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of understanding, historical, poetic, scientific and practical, are as distinct as Oakeshott supposes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, is not the past implicit in all intellectual endeavor? Boucher concentrates on grounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott?s philosophy of history in the context of the 19th-century concerns of British Idealism, as does )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.9717 248.4295 223.9637 260.3095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f8) >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.9357 120.1255 523.9277 132.0055 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f9) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 8344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franco in his chapter on idealism. Finally, O?Sullivan, in a sort of intellectual biography of Oakeshott, based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a recently assembled archive of his work, places Oakeshott?s ideas on history in the full context of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic ideas of 19th-century British and European idealism, in which Oakeshott?s thought is said to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly rooted, may, according to Gerencser, be briefly summarized as follows: That there is only one true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substance, the absolute or reality as a whole. Nothing that is real can be excluded. All that is real combines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to form a single complex whole. That truth consists of coherence. A proposition is only true if it is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmony \(consistent\) with the whole of reality, since the criterion of truth is reality. That the identity of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object is discovered only in its relationship to the whole, the concrete universal. An identity both qualifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is qualified by the whole. That reality is essentially mental or spiritual in nature. Only the sentient, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, can be considered real. And finally that mind and its objects are indivisible, harmoniously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related within the absolute. All these ideas, according to Gerenscer, have a place in Oakeshott?s work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though some, he admits, receive more emphasis than others do.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.976 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.976 612.003 m 357.968 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.968 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to O?Sullivan and Franco, the sort of history Oakeshott was attacking, in )] TJ ET BT 440.300 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modes)] TJ ET BT 66.008 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was mainly the scientific and the pseudo-scientific, popular at the time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.960 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.960 571.491 m 433.952 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 436.952 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 456.944 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such may well have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the case. But in the chapter on history, in )] TJ ET BT 259.316 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and its Modes)] TJ ET BT 383.624 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is clear that Oakeshott?s primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern was to challenge the more conventional \(popular and academic\) view of history, as the study of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?objective? world of past events, what actually happened, Ranke?s ?)] TJ ET BT 362.936 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wie es eigentlich gewesen [war]? )] TJ ET BT 526.592 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waiting there in the past to be discovered, unearthed and recaptured. According to this view, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of the historian, not to think but to recall, not to construct but to receive, not to create but to exhume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 92?3\). It is the business of the historian, in other words, to reconstruct, from the remains of the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particles of data, empirical facts\), an account of past events that somehow corresponds with those events. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But ? so Oakeshott?s argument goes ? there is no such ?objective? world out there, waiting to be discovered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is known in history is not ?what was?, ?what really happened?, of which we can know nothing. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?what the evidence obliges us to believe?. There are no two worlds ? the world of past happenings and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of present knowledge of those events ? there is only one world, and it is a world of present experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 107 ?8\). A course of events independent of experience, untouched by thought and judgement, is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossibility. And even supposing ?what really happened? had some sort of independent existence, how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could the historian know that the present world he had constructed corresponded to it? He could not \(p. 108\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How far then, it might reasonably be asked, should the historian accept the implications of Oakeshott?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idealist analysis of history, as put forward in)] TJ ET BT 247.328 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 375.296 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? As a philosopher, perhaps, as I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already suggested, quite far, as Oakeshott?s analysis is both coherent and convincing. Who after all \(except )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly the dyed in the wool realist\) could possibly argue with Oakeshott?s basic assumptions, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience \(consciousness\) is the foundation of all understanding; that truth consists not of correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but of coherence; that an identity both qualifies and is qualified by the whole; that reality, or at least the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality we can ever know, is essentially mental; and that mind and its objects are, in human experience at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, harmoniously \(or inharmoniously\) related within the whole? And who could possibly argue with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that to understand history, as a philosopher understands history, one must first understand the postulates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that support it; that the historical past ? ?what the evidence obliges us to believe? ? is a product of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian?s present; and that history, as it is written, is not something discovered but constructed, not found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but inferred? Nor, it may be noted, will the historian find much support for the realistic view of things ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing, independently of the mind of the observer, ?objective?, and possibly measurable: the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from conformity, the supposed ?convergence? of theory, the argument from inference and so on ? if he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consults a standard encyclopedia of philosophy. There he will find that the latest authorities on the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end up discussing, not the ontology of things, but the language in which they are discussed. The historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, thinking as a philosopher, might well accept Oakeshott?s idealist argument more or less in full. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, as a historian? That surely is a different matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historian as a historian is, I think, bound to reject Oakeshott?s analysis on three, possibly four, grounds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, that for the actual historian, as distinct from Oakeshott?s model historian, all history is practical \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Oakeshott sense of the term\), as he cannot effectively detach himself from his own ego \(self, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.9757 612.3175 357.9677 624.1975 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f10) >> endobj 52 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.9597 571.8055 433.9517 583.6855 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f11) >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 58 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 8339 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjectivity, instinctive drives, intentionality, will to power\), no matter how hard he might try to do so. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott himself admits, in )] TJ ET BT 175.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 299.984 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, practice is seen by most people as a disposition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reigns supreme in the entire realm of experience \(p. 248\). Even the most detached philosopher would find it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult ? some would argue impossible ? not to submit. ?Objectivity?, for the historian, that is to say, is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspiration, not an accomplishment. Secondly, that Oakeshott?s view of history, as an autonomous mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding, which constructs a ?historical past?, somehow independent of the actual past, inferred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logically and dispassionately from ?what the evidence obliges us to believe?, is for all practical purposes too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrictive a view. Even a Benedictine monk would find it difficult to submit to so strict a discipline. And it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes no allowance for the imaginative element in historical construction and no allowance for the poetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element that Oakeshott analyses so well in )] TJ ET BT 240.992 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voice of Poetry in the Conversation of Mankind)] TJ ET BT 492.308 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.308 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.308 666.771 m 515.300 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.300 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, rigorously applied such an approach might even produce, not a philosophically sound history, but an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnatural monstrosity And thirdly, that the conventional historian, unlike Oakeshott?s philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, inhabits, most of the time at least, the ?real? world, inhabited by ?real? people, who remember and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record a ?real? past, in which events occur ?objectively?, in a comprehensive and intelligible manner. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian to depart from this ?real? world of human experience, humanly described, in the living \(or for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that matter the dead\) language of the community he inhabits, would be for the historian to abandon all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with the world of actual experience Oakeshott supposedly describes. For the historian, in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word, history is simply not a philosophical subject. \(A fourth reason might be that Oakeshott himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered that it was the business of the historian, not to consider the validity of history philosophically, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a world of experience, but merely to establish truth or coherence in the world of history itself: ?A view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of history from the outside may be an exercise which affords interest for the otherwise idle, but it can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result in no extension of our knowledge of the character of history?\) \(p. 87\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The supposition that all history is practical history has, it has to be admitted, substantial implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott?s analysis of history. For at a stroke it would abolish history as an autonomous mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding, which constructs a ?historical past?, made up of ?what the evidence obliges us to believe?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All that would remain from the wreckage would be the practical mode of understanding \(where in any case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott places most history\) and the scientific \(and of course later the poetic\). Henceforth the Oakeshott )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model, of an ?objective? sort of history, somehow detached from the practical, would survive only as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal to be aimed at by the philosophically ambitious, but not, alas, one that the conventional historian would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever be expected to realize.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The everyday language of a community, it may be noted, which in most cases incorporates concepts of past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, truth, reality, explanation and such like, is not some kind of philosophical construction, designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the world of understanding rational and coherent. It is the product of an evolutionary process that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been tested in the ?real? world for possibly thousands of years. As such it is not something to be wantonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid aside, either by the historian or the philosopher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of historians have remarked on the somewhat odd character of the philosophically sound model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history identified by Oakeshott in )] TJ ET BT 198.344 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 323.312 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But none perhaps has done so as penetratingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Gertrude Himmelfarb, the American historian, in ?Does history talk sense??. There she describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime Oakeshott imposes on the historian as ?austere and difficult?, in one sense ?exceedingly modest?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in another ?exceedingly ambitious?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.648 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.648 203.091 m 247.640 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 250.640 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET BT 270.632 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, according to Himmelfarb, so austere is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott?s regime that it makes the writing of history almost impossible. It is not so much a prescription )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the writing of history as a prescription for its non-writing. In setting up as an ideal the kind of history that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?has never been written? Oakeshott may be guilty of the fallacy of rationalism that he himself has diagnosed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so brilliantly elsewhere \(in )] TJ ET BT 165.332 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rationalism in Politics)] TJ ET BT 275.348 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 279.344 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 285.344 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott, as a philosopher of history, in short, makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nietzsche ? with whom Himmelfarb compares Oakeshott ? look positively benign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What this short account of Oakeshott?s )] TJ ET BT 225.320 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 350.288 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reveals, I suppose, with regard to history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least, is the unbridgeable gulf that apparently exists between two of the principal ways of understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world: the philosophical, habitually followed by Oakeshott and other such philosophers of history, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject the world of thought to investigation and analysis, and the popular and conventional, as followed by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.3077 667.0855 515.2997 678.9655 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f12) >> endobj 60 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.6477 203.4055 247.6397 215.2855 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f13) >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R ] /Contents 64 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Length 11260 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most academic historians and others who, as ?nave? realists, accept the world more or less as it is, or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it seems to be, as reflected in ordinary language and consciousness. Inevitably perhaps, the philosophical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as instanced by Oakeshott, tends to destroy the popular and conventional, despite the occasional efforts made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by philosophers, such as Oakeshott, to accommodate both. In such a world, it seems to me, the popular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional can only survive ? as they evidently do ? by ignoring the philosophical. By, that is to say, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian not taking account of the analysis of historical understanding contained in such books as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes)] TJ ET BT 158.984 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and continuing to believe that his/her task is the ?resurrection of what once had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been alive? \(p. 107\). Such at least is the outcome, of this, my short ?reappraisal? of Oakeshott?s impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott, )] TJ ET BT 161.000 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience and Its Modes )] TJ ET BT 288.968 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1933\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.288 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.288 615.507 m 437.276 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.276 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15])] TJ ET BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. G. Collingwood, )] TJ ET BT 161.360 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of History )] TJ ET BT 258.020 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1946\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.668 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.668 601.251 m 390.656 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 393.656 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16])] TJ ET BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See David Boucher, ?The creation of the past: British idealism and Michael Oakeshott?s philosophy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history?, )] TJ ET BT 121.676 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory, )] TJ ET BT 221.672 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23, 2 \(1984\), 193?214; Luke O?Sullivan, )] TJ ET BT 421.988 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott on History)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Exeter, 2003\); and Paul Franco, )] TJ ET BT 223.652 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott: An Introduction )] TJ ET BT 400.964 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.288 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.288 558.483 m 533.276 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.276 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17])] TJ ET BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott, ?The Activity of Being a Historian? in )] TJ ET BT 348.644 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rationalism in Politics)] TJ ET BT 458.660 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1962\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(137?67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 529.971 m 156.332 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 159.332 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([18])] TJ ET BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott, )] TJ ET BT 161.000 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On History and Other Essays )] TJ ET BT 305.324 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1983\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.972 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.972 515.715 m 437.960 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.960 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([19])] TJ ET BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan, )] TJ ET BT 124.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott on History)] TJ ET BT 226.676 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 82.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.676 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.676 501.459 m 313.664 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.664 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([20])] TJ ET BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid, p. 83.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.688 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.688 487.203 m 169.676 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 172.676 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([21])] TJ ET BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevil Johnson, ?Michael Joseph Oakeshott?, )] TJ ET BT 282.320 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Proceedings of the British Academy)] TJ ET BT 454.964 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 80 \(1993\), 407; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan, )] TJ ET BT 124.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott on History)] TJ ET BT 226.676 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 82; Franco, )] TJ ET BT 302.336 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott)] TJ ET BT 393.320 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 6-7, 24-5. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.312 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.312 458.691 m 521.300 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 524.300 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([22])] TJ ET BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William H. Dray, ?Michael Oakeshott?s theory of history?, in )] TJ ET BT 363.968 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Experience)] TJ ET BT 478.616 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Preston )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King and B. C. Parekh \(Cambridge, 1968\); Boucher, ?The creation of the past? \(1984\); Robert Grant, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott )] TJ ET BT 115.676 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1990\); Harwell Wells, ?The philosophical Michael Oakeshott?, )] TJ ET BT 469.952 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Ideas, )] TJ ET BT 147.344 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55, 1 \(1994\), 129?45; Steven Anthony Gerencser, )] TJ ET BT 389.300 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Skeptic?s Oakeshott )] TJ ET BT 510.284 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 2000\); Preston King, ?Michael Oakeshott and historical particularism?, in )] TJ ET BT 452.300 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thinking Past a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Problem: Essays on the History of Ideas )] TJ ET BT 260.996 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2000\), pp. 84?119; Terry Nardin, )] TJ ET BT 470.960 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Philosophy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Michael Oakeshott )] TJ ET BT 170.336 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Philadelphia, PA, 2001\); O?Sullivan, )] TJ ET BT 356.000 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott on History)] TJ ET BT 458.660 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and Franco, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott)] TJ ET BT 155.000 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.000 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.000 344.643 m 211.988 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.988 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([23])] TJ ET BT 42.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerencser, )] TJ ET BT 118.652 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Skeptic?s Oakeshott)] TJ ET BT 236.636 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, chapter 1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.952 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.952 330.387 m 349.940 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.940 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([24])] TJ ET BT 42.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan, )] TJ ET BT 124.016 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott on History)] TJ ET BT 226.676 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 12; Franco, )] TJ ET BT 302.336 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott)] TJ ET BT 393.320 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 46?7, 52?3. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.976 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.976 316.131 m 535.964 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.964 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([25])] TJ ET BT 42.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott, )] TJ ET BT 161.000 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voice of Poetry in the Conversation of Mankind )] TJ ET BT 415.316 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1959\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.640 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.640 301.875 m 553.628 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([26])] TJ ET BT 42.816 274.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gertrude Himmelfarb, ?Does history talk sense? in )] TJ ET BT 311.300 274.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New History and the Old )] TJ ET BT 455.300 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1987\), p. 214.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 259.107 m 191.000 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.000 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([27])] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([28])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 215.263 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 197.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 197.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/744a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 196.089 m 327.644 196.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 171.112 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4399)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f2)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f4)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f5)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f6)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f7)] TJ ET endstream endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.2877 615.8215 437.2757 627.7015 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t1) >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.6677 601.5655 390.6557 613.4455 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t2) >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.2877 558.7975 533.2757 570.6775 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t3) >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 530.2855 156.3317 542.1655 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t4) >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.9717 516.0295 437.9597 527.9095 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t5) >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.6757 501.7735 313.6637 513.6535 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t6) >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6877 487.5175 169.6757 499.3975 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t7) >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.3117 459.0055 521.2997 470.8855 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t8) >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.9997 344.9575 211.9877 356.8375 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t9) >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.9517 330.7015 349.9397 342.5815 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t10) >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 86 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.9757 316.4455 535.9637 328.3255 ] >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t11) >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.6397 302.1895 553.6277 314.0695 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t12) >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 259.4215 190.9997 271.3015 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t13) >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 196.4035 327.6437 208.2835 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/744a) >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 94 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Length 2507 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f8)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f9)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f10)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f11)] TJ ET BT 34.016 738.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f12)] TJ ET BT 34.016 724.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#f13)] TJ ET BT 34.016 709.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 695.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t2)] TJ ET BT 34.016 681.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([18] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t4)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([19] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t5)] TJ ET BT 34.016 637.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([20] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t6)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([21] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t7)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([22] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t8)] TJ ET BT 34.016 594.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([23] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t9)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([24] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t10)] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([25] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t11)] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([26] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t12)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([27] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/macfiea.html#t13)] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([28] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 95 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000370 00000 n 0000000407 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000004841 00000 n 0000004950 00000 n 0000005060 00000 n 0000005169 00000 n 0000008730 00000 n 0000008858 00000 n 0000008942 00000 n 0000008971 00000 n 0000009099 00000 n 0000009225 00000 n 0000009254 00000 n 0000009382 00000 n 0000009508 00000 n 0000009592 00000 n 0000016275 00000 n 0000016305 00000 n 0000016433 00000 n 0000016559 00000 n 0000016664 00000 n 0000026364 00000 n 0000026394 00000 n 0000026520 00000 n 0000026646 00000 n 0000026676 00000 n 0000026804 00000 n 0000026930 00000 n 0000026960 00000 n 0000027088 00000 n 0000027214 00000 n 0000027244 00000 n 0000027372 00000 n 0000027498 00000 n 0000027589 00000 n 0000036391 00000 n 0000036421 00000 n 0000036549 00000 n 0000036675 00000 n 0000036705 00000 n 0000036833 00000 n 0000036959 00000 n 0000037050 00000 n 0000045447 00000 n 0000045477 00000 n 0000045605 00000 n 0000045732 00000 n 0000045762 00000 n 0000045890 00000 n 0000046017 00000 n 0000046108 00000 n 0000054500 00000 n 0000054530 00000 n 0000054658 00000 n 0000054785 00000 n 0000054815 00000 n 0000054943 00000 n 0000055070 00000 n 0000055245 00000 n 0000066559 00000 n 0000066687 00000 n 0000066813 00000 n 0000066941 00000 n 0000067067 00000 n 0000067195 00000 n 0000067321 00000 n 0000067449 00000 n 0000067575 00000 n 0000067703 00000 n 0000067829 00000 n 0000067957 00000 n 0000068083 00000 n 0000068211 00000 n 0000068337 00000 n 0000068465 00000 n 0000068591 00000 n 0000068719 00000 n 0000068845 00000 n 0000068973 00000 n 0000069100 00000 n 0000069228 00000 n 0000069355 00000 n 0000069483 00000 n 0000069610 00000 n 0000069738 00000 n 0000069865 00000 n 0000069993 00000 n 0000070089 00000 n 0000070154 00000 n trailer << /Size 95 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 72714 %%EOF