%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818091654+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818091654+01'00') /Title (Oliver Cromwell: New Perspectives) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4525 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell: New Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1990 John Morrill edited a collection of essays entitled )] TJ ET BT 313.988 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 528.320 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.320 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.320 286.185 m 545.312 286.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 545.312 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was based on the premise that Cromwell was too complex and difficult a subject to be best summed up by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single biographer, and so should be tackled by a team which represented the best current experts in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of his personality and activities. That assembled for the volume was indeed formidable, drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the top academic scholars in subjects which corresponded to component parts of Cromwell?s career. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result was still slightly disappointing. John Morrill?s own essay was the one which genuinely broke new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground, by carrying out original research into the life of the future Protector before he became a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure; the rest mostly presented the spectacle of first-rate historians working through the standard edition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s letters and speeches and trying to find new things to say about him by providing insights into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his words and contextualisation of them. None the less, some very valuable points were made by all, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main import of the book was to define the man as scholars collectively viewed him at that point in time. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure who emerged was very much the one depicted in the biographies which followed in the next 16 years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Barry Coward, Peter Gaunt, John Morrill and Martyn Bennett: essentially Cromwell as he represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, in his recorded words, with historical background built around them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, nearly two decades after the Morrill collection, another edition of essays has been published which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts collectively to reappraise the man; and it makes a clear contrast with its predecessor. Most of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(746)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 March, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Little)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230574205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(52.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Hutton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.3197 286.4995 545.3117 298.3795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7463 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors are drawn from outside the mainstream university system, and the cadre of long-established leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of the period. Most, accordingly, are relatively young, and in the process of establishing reputations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The institution at the centre of them is the History of Parliament Trust, which has done more than any other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the past decade, to rekindle dynamism in the study of the high politics of the 1640s and 1650s in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a time at which it seemed that the brightest young historians might be seduced away into social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural topics. Four of the nine contributors are employed by the Trust, including the editor, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indefatigable Patrick Little, who provides two of the essays himself as well as the introduction, and has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published an edition of new work on the Interregnum, and co-written a monograph on it, during the past two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. This book therefore promises new voices, and also two new approaches, which both depart markedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from those adopted by John Morrill?s volume. The first is that each contributor takes an episode or short-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term sequence of events in Cromwell?s career, rather than an aspect of that career as a whole, so that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities can be considered in more depth and richer context. The second is to avoid making his own words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basis for an assessment of him, and instead to judge him also by his actions and by the views of him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken by those with whom he interacted. It remains to be considered now how well these promising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives work in practice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first essay, by Simon Healy, goes over much of the ground covered by John Morrill in 1990, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s murky earlier life, concentrating in particular in his dealings with property. In the process he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructs a story of how Oliver, reaching his 30s, sold up his patrimonial estate at Huntingdon in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation of receiving a more valuable one at Ely from his maternal uncle. Finding that he was not going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to come into it as soon as he hoped, he attempted to speed up the process by having the old man declared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insane. This failed, and Cromwell was punished \(it seems with remarkable mildness\) by being forced to wait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two years after his uncle did die before gaining full possession. He then rapidly liquidated much of it to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him a cash reserve which helped launch his political and military career in the national crisis of 1640?2. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a wonderful tale, which perfectly fits traits of the man?s personality as many have observed it later: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restlessness, impulsiveness and ruthlessness: it also reinterprets his famous letter of 1638, in which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaks of his fervent Puritan faith, as an attempt to mend his fences with godly relatives after his bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour. Unfortunately, as Healy himself scrupulously points out, every bit of it is based on circumstance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and supposition, so it could be a brilliant piece of historical deduction or of historical fiction. Indeed, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter leaves us knowing less than many of us thought we did before. Healy throws out the celebrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony of the physician Theodore de Mayerne, that he has treated Cromwell for clinical depression, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing that it need not refer to Oliver at all. Morrill had given us a coherent portrait of successive stages by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Cromwell was ?made?, by a series of formative experiences. Healy largely deconstructs these to leave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question open of when the mature man was formed, if indeed he needed formation at all: he may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been born in 1599, but as far as historians are concerned he only really appears with that letter of 1638. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formative experiences are a matter for conjecture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impression, of a Cromwell who was much the same person before achieving fame as he was after, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced by Stephen Roberts?s essay on his parliamentary activities in the early Long Parliament, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his military career began. The consensual view of these, since the Morrill collection was published, has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a reliable supporter of the party which favoured radical reform of the English Church and strict limitations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the power of the King, well-connected but something of a maverick and outsider. In particular it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed him as a rash, gauche and violent speaker, as much an embarrassment as an asset to his political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders and allies. Roberts retains the loyalty to the party of radical reform and the maverick behaviour, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes all else. He uses a close study of the parliamentary records to show convincingly that Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushed himself into the limelight from the start, and, while never becoming really prominent, got himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrusted with ever more important and numerous duties by the Commons. He was certainly provocative but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never inept, and never incurred the censure of the House; by the time that he departed to join the war, he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already a practised and effective politician. The stock image of him at the debut of his national career, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rustic boor, turns out either to be a royalist caricature or else something of an act put on by Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, to foster a public image as a plain, blunt and honest man of the \(well-heeled\) people. We cannot tell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how much of each figured in its creation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7506 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. L. Sadler is the only contributor to examine the man?s military career, focusing on its most obscure phase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a local leader in the Fenland. Here he matches it against the complaints made by an anonymous and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed opponent, that Cromwell had taken full credit for victories that were actually shared with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders, that his rule as governor of the Isle of Ely had been oppressive, and that he had pushed from power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men \(like the complainant\) who would not support his aim of obtaining a right for radical Protestants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship outside the national Church. As Sadler shows, the charges fit the known facts of Oliver?s activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this time; and one might add that his letters throughout the war exhibit an unrelenting promotion of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself and his political and religious cause, of Independency. As Sadler comments, however, the charges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make it understandable why some people saw him as a self-seeking dissembler, without actually proving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him one. Indeed, the evidence does not even allow us to tell how far he set out deliberately to steal glory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from colleagues and how far that work was done for him by London journalists seeking a single hero. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that he learned to manage the press as adroitly as he had learned how to operate in Parliament; but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more; and neither does it determine how ruthless he was in disempowering opponents of his religious aims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Baker and Kirsten MacKenzie examine his relations with two key political groups, respectively the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levellers and the Scottish Covenanters. Both extended over several years, both fluctuated between enmity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and alliance, and both ended in hostility, as Cromwell played a leading part in crushing the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned. He was, however, a much more natural ally of the Levellers than the Covenanters, because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former were always in favour of the liberty of conscience that he sought, and the latter immovably opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to it. His only periods of co-operation with them, indeed, came when they each had common enemies who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented, at that moment, a greater threat, and were never free from tension. It is noteworthy in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context that MacKenzie accuses Cromwell of playing up his own part in an early military operation at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense of that of a Scottish commander, and of wantonly encouraging a religious radical to disobey his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more orthodox senior officer: precisely the sort of charge levied against him by his Fenland critic. With the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levellers, by contrast, the periods of co-operation were longer than the ruptures: although Cromwell was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always less keen on political reforms than they, both proved capable of moving towards the other?s position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at key moments. Baker makes a good case that what he found completely unacceptable about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, causing a major rift in late 1647 and a permanent one in early 1649, was when they or their allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to incite Cromwell?s army to mutiny against its leaders. This threatened both his personal power-base )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the effectiveness of the armed force that made his ideological commitments viable. Naturally, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to disentangle the two, but many of the details of his dealings with Leveller leaders ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments that he made and the impressions that he tried to convey ? also seem lost beyond certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd Bowen takes the book into Wales, with the reminder that Cromwell?s family name had been changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Williams in the early 16th century, and that the older one remained as an alias in legal documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during his youth. His paternal lineage came from Glamorgan, and although it was apparently chance that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victorious Parliament turned him into a major landowner there and in Monmouthshire, it was not that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used his new property to sponsor local religious radicals to whom he was already acting as patron. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable aspect of his ancestry was that it gave him an almost certainly bogus claim to descent from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various early medieval Welsh kings and lords. This was flaunted in the heraldry at his funeral, but also, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly, displayed both on the Protectorate?s official coat of arms and on his personal seal. While it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suited Cromwell to pose as a man of the people, or at least of the mere gentry, for much of the time, he could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not resist also flaunting the only eminence that his lineage could bestow. This links to Andrew Barclay?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay on the Protector?s court, which makes a splendid job of relatively little evidence to come down on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side of those historians who have emphasised the regal style of the regime. Indeed, the only exception to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter now seems to be Cromwell?s disinclination to be visually portrayed as a king. The key moment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition here is established by Barclay as the decision of the Protector?s Council to allot him two former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal palaces as residences, which itself demanded the establishment of something like a monarch?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household to occupy them. The two most important contributions of this chapter are its proof of the success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that resulted ? by the time of his death those around Oliver were acting like genuine courtiers ? and details of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the staff whom he installed. Overwhelmingly, he chose his own relatives and civilian political leaders, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7800 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignoring both old friends from his East Anglian past and army officers; which suggests that he had lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in his roots and was trying to distance himself from the soldiers on whom he actually depended, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to make himself appear more acceptable to the bulk of the population.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Patrick Little?s contributions are significant, especially the second. The first considers Cromwell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with Ireland, up to the time that he launched his invasion of it in 1649. It emphasises how much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial stake he had in that venture, having donated a large part of his capital to funding the suppression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholic rebellion that broke out there in 1642. This outlay was supposed to be secured against land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confiscated from the rebels, but, as Little emphasises, was a huge gamble because those rebels might either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(win the struggle or obtain a negotiated peace. Indeed, it almost ruined him because the Civil War prevented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any effective action in Ireland and consumed Cromwell?s wealth further; only the grant of the Welsh estates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushed through by friends, saved him from financial collapse. Little proves that he never lost interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovery of Ireland, up to the moment when he undertook the job himself, and that he kept himself well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed on it. The essay also stresses, however, that his material interest in it was itself propelled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological fervour, in that his bitter hatred of Roman Catholicism, the other face of his evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism, caused him to plunge into the venture to crush the Irish rebels in the first place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little?s other contribution focuses on the offer of the crown to Cromwell in 1657, demonstrating beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt that before it was made the government orchestrated a campaign of disinformation to persuade the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army that a Spanish invasion linked to a royalist uprising was imminent. This seems to have been intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to distract the soldiers and prevent them from going into mutiny against the initiative. Little argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasively that Cromwell was fully involved in the ploy, as part of an initial readiness to assume the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown, and only turned against that plan when he discovered how many godly people opposed it and came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see it as a sin. The first contention seems sound: there were other policy initiatives at the time, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readmission of Jews to England, in which the Protector?s wishes were embodied in an adroit publicity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign accompanied by careful political manoeuvres. However, the extent to which his decision to reject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingship more reflected his religious conscience or his fear of losing his traditional constituency of support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must remain anybody?s guess. Jason Peacey rounds off the book with a successful defence against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s successor as Protector, his son Richard, against traditional charges of laziness and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexperience. He shows well how the younger Cromwell spent the first half of the Protectorate learning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ropes of local government and service as an MP, and the second half taking his place in national affairs. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twin problems were that he was given too little time to establish himself in the latter role, and that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely lacked his father?s religious radicalism, and so spiritual kinship with the army on which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended for survival.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is time to sum up, and here I declare a personal interest. I am predisposed to praise much of this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because many of its themes have already been aired in my own work: the need to avoid taking Cromwell at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own evaluation )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.676 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.676 274.371 m 141.668 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.668 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the innate ruthlessness and slipperiness with which he functioned as a politician )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.960 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.960 274.371 m 547.952 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the intelligence and ability of his son Richard.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.660 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.660 260.115 m 289.652 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.652 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I am not concerned that none of the contributors have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticed this, for apart from the essential immodesty of such a reaction, those authors have tended to distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves from previous writers on Cromwell as a whole, as part of their claim to novelty. It does, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, make me the more ready to accept and applaud Patrick Little?s overview, that the book goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further than its predecessors in convincingly portraying the great Protector?s radicalism, his restlessness, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habit of taking up and dropping allies, his commitment to religious Independency, his self-promotion and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly excessive enjoyment of the trappings of power. I also accept Little?s balancing comment, that none )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this vitiates Cromwell?s genuine piety, consistent commitment to liberty of conscience, and essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorruptibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would only add two comments to the picture. The first is that the book also provides the most effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait to date of the man?s devious, manipulative, opportunistic and ruthless qualities, which explain so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of his success and also the deep distrust and hostility which he aroused in many contemporaries. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also, however, highlights very starkly, the limitations of traditional political history and biography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repeatedly I have suggested that its authors run up against an absence of decisive evidence when attempting )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.6757 274.6855 141.6677 286.5655 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.9597 274.6855 547.9517 286.5655 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.6597 260.4295 289.6517 272.3095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 3271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reconstruct Cromwell?s motivations and intentions, and sometimes even his behaviour. If this is true of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure so well recorded, both in his own words and those of others, what hope is there for most of the rest?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Morrill, )] TJ ET BT 130.352 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 344.684 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.008 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.008 715.299 m 479.996 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Hutton, )] TJ ET BT 141.020 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Debates in Stuart History)] TJ ET BT 264.020 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.680 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.680 701.043 m 420.668 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutton, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Debates)] TJ ET BT 142.676 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 166.004 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Republic)] TJ ET BT 265.340 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.000 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.000 686.787 m 421.988 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutton, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Restoration : a Political and Religious History of England and Wales, 1658?1667)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.664 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.664 658.275 m 196.652 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.157 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/515/991.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 577.251 m 309.008 577.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.008 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 573.919 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 556.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 556.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/746)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 554.745 m 322.316 554.745 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 529.768 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3723)] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] 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