%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001220417+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001220417+01'00') /Title (Eat My Dust: Early Women Motorists) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4537 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eat My Dust: Early Women Motorists)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgine Clarsen has produced a fascinating account of women motorists in the first three decades of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(automobile age. Her crisp and elegant prose takes the reader on a speedy trip over a wide range of terrain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicating the importance of the car in the cultural politics of the early 20th century. In doing so, her book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves as a reminder to cultural and social historians that they should attend to this iconic vehicle?s role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more diligently. Whilst acknowledging her debt to Virginia Scharff?s pioneering work on gender and the car )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the USA, Clarsen pursues a variety of issues and themes that have not been explored fully in the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work that has been inspired by Scharff.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.308 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.308 200.649 m 236.300 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.300 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Clarsen does so by taking a transnational approach to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, examining women motorists in Australia, Britain, the USA, as well as British colonial Africa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cumulatively, this approach adds complexity and depth to the findings of each case study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Complementing the influence of Scharff is the work of Clarsen?s compatriot, the sociologist Judy Wacjman.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 131.625 m 48.008 131.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The latter?s influential thesis delineates the fashion in which the social construction of technology, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine, limited women?s involvement in practices such as motor mechanics. To engage in this activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required women to divest themselves of attributes that society deemed appropriately feminine. Or as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering female motorist put it \(anticipating the work of Wacjman\): `I wonder why no tool ever looks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really at home in a woman?s hand?? \(p. 17\) Notably, Clarsen has had personal experience of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between women and technology, having worked as an apprentice motor mechanic in the 1970s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(748)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 April, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgine Clarsen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801884658)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean O'Connell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.3077 200.9635 236.2997 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 131.9395 48.0077 143.8195 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7575 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At that point, she assumed herself to be part of a pioneering group of young women who were breaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down gender barriers that had prevented earlier generations of females from taking part in similar activities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because to do so would have been deemed unwomanly. Ironically, then, the young Clarsen effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted the early 20th century view that even the term ?women motorists? suggested that they ?were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplementary to the main game? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following trails of evidence left in newspapers, motoring magazines, advice manuals, autobiographies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels, the book examines how females asserted their role in the early automobile culture, not simply as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owner drivers, but as taxi drivers, motoring instructors, garage owners, and mechanics. She also examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the car?s role in the politics of the suffrage movement, as well as in the wider cultural politics of class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender, and race. This enables an exploration of the extent to which these female motorists? words and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions were ?creative acts? that were part of a ?political quest? to ?alter women?s lives in fundamental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far-reaching ways?, that should be situated in the history of feminist activism: even if the language and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings employed by many of her subjects were not explicit always in that respect \(p. 8\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, many of Clarsen?s subjects were not ?pure feminist heroines?, and indeed many are featured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily exploiting their class and racial positions. Thus we meet the American Hilda Ward, author of )] TJ ET BT 521.936 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Girl and the Motor)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.684 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.684 569.235 m 142.676 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.676 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who recorded her particular annoyance that chauffeurs ? her social inferiors ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumed to have better motoring knowledge: ?costly machines should not be entrusted to the detrimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands of unscrupulous hirelings!?, she opined \(p. 28\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The assumption of social superiority was the most obvious tactic to be essayed by privileged women when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laying claim to technical mastery of a new technology in which women?s bodies were widely viewed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being out of place. However, the success of this strategy was not always guaranteed. The accomplished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian racing driver Joan Cuneo, for example, was banned by the American Automobile Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from competing against men. In London, when Sheila O?Neil became a taxi driver, in 1908, she was refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a license to operate from public ranks and reporters quipped that her training as a nurse would be useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when she knocked over pedestrians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Neill?s story is one of those in the book that indicates that women were not simply leisure motorists: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many viewed the new technology as a route to employment opportunities. In pre-1914 Britain, a small army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women established driving schools, repair shops, and worked as chauffeurs. They provided a ready )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource of skilled drivers and mechanics that was drawn upon during the Great War. The national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergency then swelled their ranks, as British women encouraged their middle-class sisters to follow them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onto the road and into the business and economic opportunities that the car offered. Clarsen regards this as of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most crucial dynamics in her account car culture in Britain, as privileged women saw that the car not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only allowed them to circulate more freely in the public sphere, but was also as a tool through which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redefine female identity in the world of work. Feminist organizations set up schemes for women to obtain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training in taxicab driving, as part of their wider right to work campaigns. By the end of the 1920s, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scattering of professional women motorists that Clarsen describes had lost their public profile, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she feels that they had made a significant contribution to the feminist struggle to redefine everyday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of femininity and masculinity, particularly in the UK and Australia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A striking theme throughout the work is the role of the female body as a site of struggle in the automobile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture: a culture that required a new technical, social and bodily vocabulary. The book is insightful on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s battles to deport themselves appropriately. Their comportment on the road was a ?speaking act? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that resisted the view of many observers that their actions were at odds with natural feminine attributes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They strove to present energetic, competent female bodies, which negated weakness and were well suited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the technical and purposive world of automobile technology, and capable of travelling safely not only in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British countryside but in remote areas of Africa, Australia, and the USA. Thus Clarsen provides great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the acts of dress, deportment and even the meanings of getting dirty: something that carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different social messages that were heavily predetermined by class and gender. Wearing masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing at the wheel was part of a strategy of deportment designed to assist women in being taken seriously, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as people who were legitimate participants in the world of motoring work. The autobiographical sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mined by Clarsen indicate the extent to which the women she studies were aware that they were being )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.6837 569.5495 142.6757 581.4295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7219 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely monitored whilst out motoring. They also provide colourful evidence of the energetic sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodiment that women experienced at the wheel, as well as the delight they took in the liberty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobility that the car presented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This aspect of the automobile culture was common in each of the three major nations studied by Clarsen. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other respects there were important differences in terms of women?s engagement with motoring. In the USA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great War did not bring about the level of gender dislocation experienced in Britain and had less impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on gender and the car culture. The form of ?female masculinity?, associated with 1920s London bohemia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in particular with the Radcliffe Hall novel )] TJ ET BT 258.644 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Well of Loneliness)] TJ ET BT 368.312 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was also not a strong factor in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States. More influential was the role of the automobile in defining an American democratic consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic, with potentially empowering links between feminism and consumer culture being expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcefully. The USA also appears to have had a lower incidence of the female entrepreneurship involving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motor cars that Clarsen discovered for Britain in the years on either side of the Great War. There was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, significant commercial exploitation of the feats of female motorists in the USA, as motor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies sponsored women?s transcontinental trips for their own publicity purposes. These journeys were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often linked by the press to the suffragette movement, as women?s political and motoring aspirations were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly associated as part of the dynamic of social and political change. Clearly, images of the independent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobile female motorist chimed a strong symbolic chord. Feminist organisations also recognised this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolism, arranging a number of motorised suffrage tours in the 1910s and, thereby, linking the ability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women drivers to navigate the difficult back roads of the USA with their entitlement to political rights. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarsen argues that those involved in these campaigns made a deliberate choice to exploit the connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between consumer and political cultures. However, this was again an exclusionist strategy that removed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many women from the language of political entitlement that was being expressed via car ownership \(p. 101-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most significant in Australia was the role played by female motorists in the cultural symbolism of nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building, particularly their role in the construction of a vision of a new white society in an old country. As in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, women, such as Alice Anderson, established female operated repair shops in inter-war Australia, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their visibility was also to decline in the 1920s as the tone of Australian gender politics became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative. Importantly, as the motor related industries became more institutionalised, mechanical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge became formally masculinised and associated with working class men. Thus greater cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance was achieved by those Australian women who motored into the forbidding terrain of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outback. The trips of these heroines were widely reported in the popular press and provided a sense for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers that, if women could make these trips around the nation, the country was securely under white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination. In one telling advertisement for motor oil \(one of many fine illustrations reproduced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book\), Mrs Marion Bell ? who drove around Australia with her young daughter in 1925?6 ? is featured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving as an Aboriginal man is seen retreating in trepidation from Bell?s automobile. Such motorists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolised a new form of femininity whilst also re-affirmed white possession of the land, via their sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological superiority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The progressive nature of the first three decades of motoring, as described by Clarsen, did not continue in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s. In a more conservative climate, a younger generation of women were less able or willing to advocate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender equality in public spaces. Clarsen believes that increasingly critical voices were heard on the topic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the woman driver, as evidenced by a rise in ?humorous? stories about them. She sees the 1950s and 1960s as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly guilty decades in this respect. The less privileged women motorists of the mid 20th century did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have the social cache of their predecessors, with which to effectively dismiss these criticisms. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the USA women became the key drivers, in terms of household duties, in mid-century, they usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relinquished the driver?s seat to their husband for longer trips. Thus in the 1930s ?competent female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motoring had become, in large part, a practice without a discourse? \(p. 163\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would have been useful to learn more about Clarsen?s sources for some of these final claims. It is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, for example, how she has assessed the nature of women motorist jokes, or what methods she has used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contrast those from the Edwardian years with those of the 1950s. I am sure her conclusion is accurate: but )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 3733 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it would be interesting to see how the claim was calculated and perhaps, also, how the jokes and stories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differed from those from earlier years, such as those told by reporters about female taxi driver, Sheila )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Neill. Clarsen is correct to conclude that changes in ?women?s engagement with cars from the 1930s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond can only be clarified by careful empirical research?. The question for social and cultural historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is: where is that research? The significance of the car - and access to it - for late 20th-century femininities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and masculinities can not be understated and, yet, historians have hardly raced to take up the challenge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researching this theme. It is time that they did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Scharff, )] TJ ET BT 148.328 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taking the Wheel: Women and the Coming of the Motor Age)] TJ ET BT 439.628 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 629.763 m 118.004 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judy Wacjman, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feminism Confronts Technology)] TJ ET BT 299.000 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.324 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.324 615.507 m 434.312 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilda Ward, )] TJ ET BT 126.332 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Girl and the Motor)] TJ ET BT 239.000 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cincinnati, OH, 1908\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.324 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.324 601.251 m 410.312 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v051/51.1.clarke.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 546.483 m 349.016 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/3/726.extract)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 517.971 m 296.996 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.996 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 514.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 496.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 496.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/748)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 495.465 m 322.316 495.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 470.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3725)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v051/51.1.clarke.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.288 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/3/726.extract)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 630.0775 118.0037 641.9575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.3237 615.8215 434.3117 627.7015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.3237 601.5655 410.3117 613.4455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 546.7975 349.0157 558.6775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v051/51.1.clarke.html) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 518.2855 296.9957 530.1655 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/3/726.extract) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 495.7795 322.3157 507.6595 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/748) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000537 00000 n 0000000633 00000 n 0000005222 00000 n 0000005331 00000 n 0000005441 00000 n 0000005550 00000 n 0000009111 00000 n 0000009239 00000 n 0000009323 00000 n 0000009352 00000 n 0000009480 00000 n 0000009516 00000 n 0000009545 00000 n 0000009671 00000 n 0000009707 00000 n 0000009791 00000 n 0000017419 00000 n 0000017449 00000 n 0000017577 00000 n 0000017613 00000 n 0000017678 00000 n 0000024950 00000 n 0000025069 00000 n 0000028855 00000 n 0000028982 00000 n 0000029037 00000 n 0000029165 00000 n 0000029220 00000 n 0000029348 00000 n 0000029403 00000 n 0000029530 00000 n 0000029645 00000 n 0000029772 00000 n 0000029879 00000 n 0000030007 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30102 %%EOF