%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141126085155+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141126085155+00'00') /Title (Suicide in the Middle Ages. Volume I: The Violent against Themselves) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1914 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Suicide in the Middle Ages. Volume I: The Violent against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Themselves)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Murray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198205395)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(514pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199553112.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Houlbrooke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why attempt the history of suicide? Leaving aside the rare episodes of mass self-destruction by such people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as sect members and warriors determined to die rather than fall into the hands of their enemies, suicides have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never made up more than a tiny m inority of any known human population. A rate of 25 per 100,000, or one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in four thousand, counts as high in the late twentieth century. Yet the subject has attracted an increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of attention from social historians driven to enquire what motives underlay so drastic a response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human misfortune, and to what extent those motives changed in the course of time. As Alexander Murray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, suicide is an extreme reaction to situations which many other people besides those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately take the ir own lives find hard to bear. Each self-killer is a promontory of mankind, feeling an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anguish which may differ only in degree from that felt by countless fellow human beings. Suicides provide 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searchlight into otherwise elusive areas of private emot ion' \(p. 11\). Historians and sociologists writing about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suicide since mile Durkheim transformed its study in 1897 have seen its incidence as a barometer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful social pressures and forces. So much for the general considerations which have dr awn historians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of suicide. But the 'first idea' or hypothesis which 'provoked and shaped this project' \(p. 7\) was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that material progress, and the diminution of physical dangers, may have exacerbated the 'problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the soul' which underlie suicide. Of this idea more must be said in the discussion of Murray's provisional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is only the first part of a planned trilogy. It deals with suicides themselves, their motives, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other immediate circumstances of their deaths. The second volume will deal with medieval law, religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions concerning suicide, the third with the exploration of suicidal emotions by psychologists, poets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pastors. The historian of medieval suicide faces a far more difficult task than his colleagues charting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in more recent periods. The most obvious problem lies in the acute dearth or absence of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sorts of material \(censuses, registers of deaths or burials, bills of mortality, newspaper reports, records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of inquests and criminal proceedings\) which survive in increasing quantities from the centuries after 1500. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This difficulty has simply enhanced the relish of his chosen subject's challenge for Alexander Murray, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharpened his ingenuity in exploiting the available sources. Built in marshy ground, his edifice sits on three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great piles: chronicles, judicial re cords, and religious narratives, above all from England, France, Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Italy. A large proportion of his book is taken up by the careful assessment of his sources. How did a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular text come into existence? What were its author's chief concerns and motives? What are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discernible biases in texts of its class? What were the conventions which shaped them? How did ostensibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('factual' narratives of suicide develop and achieve the forms in which they have come down to us? What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiates the various types of record of suicide, and what do they have in common? This ongoing critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appraisal alternates in steady rhythm with a succession of 'portraits' or stories sufficiently detailed to give us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a vivid picture of a particular suicidal person and event.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval accounts of suicide describe it as a private deed which its perpetrators did their best to conceal. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often difficult to prove, and commonly the subject of discreet allusion by means of euphemism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphor and circumlocution. Suicide was widely felt to be too terrible to talk about, and though the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(suicida)] TJ ET BT 68.684 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was coined as early as c. 1178, it was not accepted into general use, and seems to have vanished until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well after the end of the Middle Ages. Chronicles, largely devoted to the deeds of the great and famous, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely reticent on this subject. In what Murray calls 'whispers' about the deaths of the high born, self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing was mentioned obliquely, or given as one of two or three alternative explanations of a particular d )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eath. Only the suicides of men such as 'the fallen favourite or functionary' who had risen above his station )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then encountered sudden disgrace, were likely to be reported unambiguously in the 'ordinary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream historical chronicle' \(p. 81\). Less re ticent were the chronicles of towns and religious houses. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sorts of crimes and punishments figure largely in the former, and anything affecting monastic property rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the latter. Both took note of what appeared to be spectacular divine punishment s: atrocious weather, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, following the suicides of town inhabitants or failure to treat their corpses with appropriate severity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chronicles of all sorts nevertheless provided only about 6 per cent of the 560 entries in Murray's 'Register of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reco rded Suicidal Incidents' \(pp. 423-69\) which went into his statistical exercise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great bulk of his cases come from judicial records, and of these cases a large majority, 354, are English. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Murray explains, the English crown was unique among medieval monarchies in its success in imposing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7830 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the principle that )] TJ ET BT 118.340 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(any )] TJ ET BT 138.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent d eath within his kingdom was )] TJ ET BT 325.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prima facie)] TJ ET BT 380.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a crime against the king and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore a matter for investigation by royal justice. In France, the fragmentation of the Carolingian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy had left the exercise of first instance High Justice in the hands o f about a thousand seigneurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts, the overwhelming majority of which have left no records. \(Murray lists about twenty-three incidents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in town and abbey registers.\) By a vigorous development of appellate jurisdiction and by insistence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its pow er to remit excessively harsh penalties the later medieval French monarchy took cognisance of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing mass of cases originating in lower courts. The examples of suicide so far discovered in such French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal archives as those of the Paris )] TJ ET BT 203.648 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parlement )] TJ ET BT 256.640 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless amount to a mere fraction of the cases found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the surviving English eyre and coroners' rolls, though they provide fuller 'portraits' than the English sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do. Within the Empire, the monarchy exercised no effective jurisdiction over suicide. Many German town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts, on the other hand, did investigate all violent deaths, including suicides, as breaches of the Town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peace. Nearly fifty cases appear in Murray's register, by far the largest group from any class of continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial r ecord.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A very detailed canonization process, the only one mentioned in Murray's register, links the chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to judicial evidence \(of which this sort of process is an exceptional type\) and those devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miracles and )] TJ ET BT 98.000 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exempla.)] TJ ET BT 140.984 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The story is on e of the most vivid of Murray's 'portraits'. The investigation concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas of Tolentino \(1245-1305\) an Italian Austin friar. Among the evidence considered was the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giacomuccio Fatteboni, a 55 year old peasant who had suddenly hanged himself in 1320. Anguished prayers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Nicholas had been followed by Giacomuccio's return to life. Nobody, least of all Giacomuccio himself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could explain his suicide attempt convincingly. Some thought he had been out of his mind. Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murray speculates that marital incompatibility was the trigger. His wife nevertheless prayed fervently that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be spared so shameful a death. She knew that suicides ended up in the town ditch - a clear indication that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giacomuccio's case was by no means unique.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Religious sources', especially saints' lives, sermons and didactic treatises, yielded about 14 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instances of suicidal behaviour in Murray's statistical sample. Of all his sources, these in general give the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fullest accounts of feelings, motives and circumstances. Several give glimpses of unhappy personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of love or family life which were seldom mentioned in judicial records. Some throw light on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings of religious melancholy and despair, especially among the inmates of mona steries. Since the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes of such narratives were to point a moral or to illustrate the power of a saint, they often omitted such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details as the name of the individual concerned, or the date of the incident. The memory of miraculous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events was some times kept alive in various different versions of a basic narrative. In analysing clusters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this sort, Murray tells the 'story of a story' as part of the process of examining a miracle's 'credentials' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting as close as possible to the original eve nt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume ends with some 'quasi-statistical' \(p. 352\) analysis of cases in Murray's register of suicides. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily recognises \(p. 350\) that so far as the Middle Ages are concerned the difficulties facing statisticians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are usually 'so big as almost to block the way to statistics at all'. Yet his conviction of their importance, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('version of the faith of Durkheim' makes him try to clear the path. Several of the questions he poses can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be answered from English judicial sources, and some of them f or only a few years of the long period \(1000-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1500\) subject to scrutiny. The penultimate chapter demonstrates the impossibility of supplying the 'Absolute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Numbers' to which its title refers. The Essex eyre roll of 1285 points to an annual suicide rate of 0.88 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100,000 since 1272. That figure is based on the assumption that the Eyre had picked up all suicides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurring over the previous thirteen years. Murray concedes that the assumption is an unrealistic one. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to determine what sort of multiplier ought to be used in order to bring that figure into line with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more modern statistics. Another significant statistic, apart from the overall suicide rate, is the suicide: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homicide ratio. The averages worked out from a number of series of coron ers' and eyre rolls range from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1:27 and 1:39, pointing to a far higher level of inter-personal violence, or a far lower level of suicide, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both, than prevailed in some later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century societies for which Murray gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figur es. The longest single series of coroners' rolls exploited, containing the largest number of deaths, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to Wiltshire between 1340 and 1384, was however excluded from the above figures. It yielded a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ratio of 1:17, and the 1249 Wiltshire eyre one of 1:13. Some criminal registers of French abbatial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7660 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdictions give figures close to those for Wiltshire, but Murray believes that these registers under-recorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The statistics presented in the last chapter, 'The Person and the Act', relate to a larger range of variables. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figures for distribution by sex show that males were nearly always in a majority among recorded suicides. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The majority calculated from Englis h legal sources, 74 per cent, is the same as for all sources used in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study taken together. There are naturally variations between different types of record, but the broad picture is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very similar to that presented by modern sources, at least prior to 1 950. Only English legal sources include a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of data concerning personal wealth large enough to provide the basis for useful statistics. They show a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear predominance of the poor and destitute, which is again what one might expect in the light of data from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later centuries. The reasons for suicide most frequently mentioned in legal sources \(but in only a relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small proportion of cases\) were madness, disease, and imprisonment or accusation. These also appear in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary sources \(chronicles, sa ints' lives, etc.\), but among a much wider range of motives, including despair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 47.012 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tristitia,)] TJ ET BT 85.364 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( love or bereavement, shame and disgrace. Hanging was by far the commonest recorded method, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by drowning and 'blades'; the rese mblance between the figure presenting these data and one based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a large volume of late nineteenth-century statistics is very close. According to English legal sources, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months of the year during which suicide was commonest were December, July and Apr il \(in that order\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December and April also appear as dangerous months in a very much smaller set of cases recorded in French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal sources. The April peak may have been due to the growing shortage of food in late winter and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring, the July one \(ex clusively male\) to exceptionally heavy field work at that time of year. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps the clearest and most significant conclusions of a fascinating chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No reader can fail to be struck by the spaciousness of this volume. Its author seems to have been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipient of a plenary dispensation from word limits. Most other scholars who have worked with the sorts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source which yield stories or 'portraits' can only envy Murray the scope allowed him for scrupulous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed assessment of his material and the unfolding of engrossing narratives. Reading social history can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes be hard work, like hacking and sweating one's way through the dense undergro wth of a dark, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowded wood. Guided by Alexander Murray, an immensely knowledgeable historian and consummate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story-teller, the reader canters through rolling park land, enjoying broad vistas and well-spaced stands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timber.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to suggest that all is neat and tidy within Murray's domain. Some of his efforts at categorization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear loose or even inconsistent. The story of Giacomuccio Fatteboni, for example, appears in a chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to judicial sources, but in the register at the end of the book it is assigned to the 'Religious Sources' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section. A story of a young Santiago pilgrim is headed 'A Man )] TJ ET BT 337.148 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Loses )] TJ ET BT 367.484 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Woman' \(my emphasis\). Yet this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrim had already renounced his lover, albeit reluctantly; the po int of the story was that the devil made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him believe that he could not atone for his past sins save by self-mutilation and suicide. It might have fitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better in a chapter exploring the theme of religious despair. Alexander Murray quite clearly and fairl y warns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his readers that his register of suicides makes no claims to completeness. But the process of selecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records, especially English court rolls, seems to have been a somewhat haphazard one. Few fifteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English judicial sources seem to have been used. All readers need to consult the great register of suicidal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidents with circumspection, noting that it was still being expanded )] TJ ET BT 369.668 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(after)] TJ ET BT 392.336 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the gates were closed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical purposes, and that a list of addenda, beginning six pages after the end of the main register, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes a number of cases 'accidentally omitted'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These knots in the woodwork of a splendid edifice hardly impair its integrity. The early modernist may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however have one fairly serious misgiving about the drift of Murray's argument. Both his account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of his project in the introduction an d a more extended discussion in the penultimate chapter indicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his attachment to the notion that suicidal impulses have probably strengthened since the Middle Ages. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the provisional explanations offered in the two passages differ sharply from one ano ther. Progress has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made everybody happy, he remarks in the introduction. 'The absence of physical challenge can sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even add to people's unhappiness. That may be why "problems of the soul" ... have become more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspicuous in the twent ieth century' \(p. 8\). In his penultimate chapter, however, Murray looks forward, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as far as the twentieth century, but only to the sixteenth, and produces very different explanations for what )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5767 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he believes to have been a dramatic rise in suicide at that time. He notes the enormous increase in verdicts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(felo de se)] TJ ET BT 79.340 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Tudor records already observed by such historians as Roy Hunnisett, Simon Stevenson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Macdonald. In Nuremberg too there was a massive growth in the reported incidence of suicide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the sixteenth century. Why should this have happened? The fullest explanation of these developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet offered, at any rate for England, by Michael Macdonald in )] TJ ET BT 334.940 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sleepless Souls: Suicide in Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 74.684 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\) emphasizes abov e all the greatly enhanced efficiency of Tudor government and its vigorous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to uncover the causes of all violent deaths. Murray is convinced that such arguments provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only part of the answer. He points to the growing volume of sixteenth-cen tury complaint about suicide, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely impact of 'tough' government on the social tensions which encouraged it, and the disruptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, along with its enhancement of onerous lay religious responsibilities. The Protestant reformers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murr ay suggests, spread among the laity habits of religious introspection once confined to the monastery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not clear from Alexander Murray's comments on post-medieval suicide whether he regards the sixteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century rise in its recorded incidence as a particularly severe but passing episode, or the prelude to a long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term upward trend characteristic of modern societies. Michael Macdonald's carefully constructed graphs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates and numbers of suicides show that increases in )] TJ ET BT 287.636 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(recorded )] TJ ET BT 333.956 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suicide in early modern England were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained. The rate of suicide calculated from King's Bench inquisitions, for example, fell steadily after a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peak in the early 1570s. Professor Macdonald, in the most comprehensive analysis so far published, reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the identifiable motives of suicide in the early modern period were in very broad terms similar to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fo und by Alexander Murray in medieval sources. Although some enemies of the godly certainly claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were exceptionally prone to suicidal melancholy, Macdonald concludes that the claim was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated. In any case such religious melancholy was impl icated in only a very small minority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded suicides. On the other hand Macdonald frequently mentions poverty and material immiseration as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important elements of the context of suicide. If indeed suicide rates increased during the sixteenth century \(s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omething we are unlikely ever to know for certain\), this might have been due more to the fall in living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards than to the traumas caused by the Reformation. It seems curious that Alexander Murray plays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the role of material conditions when some of the statistics in his own last chapter seem to underline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their importance. The consistent preponderance of the poor and destitute among reported suicides, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rising trend of suicide during the hungry months of late winter and early spring are the cl earest examples. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to test for the late middle ages a hypothesis concerning the effects of material immiseration on suicide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates, one would turn to those terrible years of the early fourteenth century when medieval population, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching its high w ater mark, pressed hard on resources, and England experienced between 1315 and 1322 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the worst agrarian crisis of its history. But perhaps insufficient records survive for this purpose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 297.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 279.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 279.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/75)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 278.121 m 316.316 278.121 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 253.144 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/930)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 278.4355 316.3157 290.3155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/75) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000002626 00000 n 0000002735 00000 n 0000002845 00000 n 0000002954 00000 n 0000006515 00000 n 0000006643 00000 n 0000006727 00000 n 0000006792 00000 n 0000014435 00000 n 0000014500 00000 n 0000022383 00000 n 0000022448 00000 n 0000030161 00000 n 0000030245 00000 n 0000036065 00000 n 0000036193 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36287 %%EOF