%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141025063550+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141025063550+01'00') /Title (Fighting for the Cross: Crusading to the Holy Land) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4817 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fighting for the Cross: Crusading to the Holy Land)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for the Cross)] TJ ET BT 141.032 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( introduces the subject of crusading by exploring the experiences and ideas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual crusaders travelling to the Holy Land between 1095 and 1291. After a brief narrative history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crusades, the book?s structure follows the journeys of crusaders from the time of their recruitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to their homecoming, seemingly to allow an audience to engage with the rigours and challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posed by the undertaking. The book is aimed primarily at students or at an audience with little/no former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of crusading history. Housley has used case-studies taken from translated material where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible, so that his intended readership can access and learn more about the sources cited in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given his audience, )] TJ ET BT 131.996 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for the Cross?)] TJ ET BT 245.012 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( structure is not conventional. Typically, introductory works on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crusades to the Eastern Mediterranean centre on a narrative history of crusading and the Latin East over a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set period, perhaps interspersed with some thematic chapters. Housley?s work does not follow this pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, in its structure, bears closer comparison to more academic studies focused on individual crusading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions. Powell?s )] TJ ET BT 141.680 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anatomy of a Crusade)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.344 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.344 88.857 m 266.336 88.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.336 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, \(as the name suggests\), breaks down the Fifth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade into its component parts, i.e. recruitment, finance, leadership etc, and dissects them individually. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similar structures can be found in Lower?s )] TJ ET BT 243.644 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Barons? Crusade )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.980 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.980 60.345 m 365.972 60.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.972 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Phillips? )] TJ ET BT 434.312 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Second Crusade: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Extending the Frontiers of Christendom)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(750)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 April, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Housley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300118889)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(356pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300118889)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Morton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.3437 89.1715 266.3357 101.0515 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.9797 60.6595 365.9717 72.5395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7176 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 795.075 m 48.008 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to name but a few. What Housley has done is to adopt this theme-based approach, but to draw his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples from all the major crusades to the Holy Land between 1095 and 1291. In this way, the chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transportation ?Eastward bound? compares the difficulties posed by the First, Second and Third Crusades? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overland marches to the Holy Land against other seaborne expeditions. This innovative structure is effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it allows him to build a clear picture of the general ?practice? of crusading whilst comparing various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions to show developments over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for the Faith)] TJ ET BT 139.028 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s first chapter is a 21-page narrative of crusading to the Holy Land between 1095 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1291. It is written with a clear and engaging style that will assist a reader to grasp almost 200 years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading history in a short space of time. Certainly it is necessary to acquire a firm understanding of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology because the rest of the book constantly includes anecdotes from all the crusades with only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited contextual information. Nevertheless, it might be best for newcomers to this subject to read a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological study of the crusades as a prelude to this work, to give them a firmer grounding in the passage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this narrative in place, chapter two begins to explore the early stages of crusading operations. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the contemporary appeal of crusading, explaining: the medieval preoccupation with sin; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting need for penance; pilgrimage as a penitential act and subsequently crusading as an expression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this process. In this way the author outlines the perceived need for crusading from the grassroots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary society?s fundamental beliefs. This is elaborated by a series of colourful examples that convey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the nature and the intensity of these religious convictions. This approach is highly effective and builds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader?s knowledge, from scratch, to a point where quite sophisticated ideas become accessible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like many of the other chapters, Housley draws attention to the way that contemporary ideas concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading evolved over time. In this chapter, for example, he talks about the initial appeal of Jerusalem at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time of the First Crusade and how this was affected later by: Saladin?s conquest in 1187; its recovery in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1229; and its subsequent fall in 1244. This developmental approach is taken throughout the work and creates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a strong picture of the evolving medieval perception of crusading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three looks at the way that crusaders prepared themselves for their expeditions. Again, colourful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples are introduced, such as Richard I?s quip that he would sell London to raise money for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition if he could. A further strength lies in Housley?s analysis of regional differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusaders and the way these affected the preparation, conduct and popularity of the crusade. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the work, Housley builds a broad picture that charts the development of crusaders? ideas both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the progress of their individual campaigns and in the longer chronological arc of the 12th and 13th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, whilst simultaneously accommodating regional differences and disparities of class. All these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands are explored without any sense of friction or misunderstanding and this chapter really underlines this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key strength.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having covered the early stages of crusading in Western Christendom, the following four chapters head east )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the wars of the Eastern Mediterranean. The first deals with transportation and contrasts the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits of travelling to the Levant on land or by sea. It also discusses the difficulties posed by desertion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logistics. The next section dives immediately into battle, detailing sieges, battles and the use of tactics by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides. It contains a number of case-studies from the various campaigns and evaluates the Franks? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of Muslim battlefield tactics and the way they sought to overcome them. These are supported by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some small, but useful, maps that give context to the written descriptions. This chapter also covers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the Levant before the First Crusade, outlining the significance of the Turkish invasions and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect on the political world of the medieval Levant. To supplement these key topics, Housley then discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the military role played by different forms of personnel within a crusading army, including non-combatants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights, infantry and clerics. He also addresses contemporary ideas concerning chivalry, largely with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the way it affected the Franks? battlefield performance. This analysis is logical and builds a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear picture of the changing military realities of a crusading frontier. It is methodical and filled with lively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, but it also seems that a stage has been missed out.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 795.3895 48.0077 807.2695 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7105 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Housley?s analysis jumps straight from travel to battle without considering the intermediate stages. A factor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had a deep impact on the progress of a number of crusades was the diplomatic contacts between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusaders and the Franks in the Levant. During the Second Crusade, for example, the behaviour of the prince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Antioch and Eleanor of Aquitaine was a vital factor affecting the subsequent expedition. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversies took place during a number of further campaigns including those of Philip of Flanders 1177, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Third Crusade, the Fifth Crusade, Frederick?s Crusade and the Barons? Crusade. Housley does cover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations between crusaders at a later point, particularly between King Richard I of England and Phillip II of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, but the important diplomatic dynamic with the Levantine Franks is generally overlooked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapter, ?The Needs of the Flesh?, explores the crusaders? physical demands. It considers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues posed by the need to feed tens of thousands of crusaders in hostile territory and the effect that famine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disease had upon the progress of these operations. Within this examination, it is shown how the desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquire plunder may not indicate avarice, but rather be a necessary element of gathering supplies. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of this chapter lies in the way it forces a reader to confront the practical realities of crusading, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging them to engage with the problems posed by these campaigns and the attempts made to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcome them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven, ?Storming Heaven?, examines the way that crusaders interpreted their actions through their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious faith. It begins by discussing the many stories found in chronicles in which an individual is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported to have conducted an act of pure piety. In relation to these accounts, Housley informs his audience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there are moments when they should set aside the scepticism they might feel about such tales and view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crusaders on their own terms. This example is indicative of the ongoing challenge within this work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is to understand the crusaders on their own terms. The considerable context offered throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book and the continual references made to the prevailing attitudes of the medieval period support this end. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given that students have to make the leap from our modern capitalist and largely secular society to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply pious 12th century, this approach is vital and well executed. This chapter then engages with some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imagery used by crusaders and chroniclers to explain their expeditions. It draws attention to the parallels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made between the Israelites and their struggle to hold the Holy Land and the wars of the crusaders. Within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these descriptions Housley uses occasional Latin phrases, for example, )] TJ ET BT 376.952 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christi milites)] TJ ET BT 445.304 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. On these occasions he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally explains what these terms mean, allowing a reader both to engage with phrases common to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic usage and preparing them for other works where such terms might be used as a matter of course. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He then covers the monastic and liturgical aspects of crusading and how they changed over time as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theological explanations given for victory and defeat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters concern the crusaders? world view and the way they interpreted Islam and the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisations they encountered. The first of these sections begins by exploring contemporary Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preconceptions concerning Muslims and the ?Saracens?. It then shows how these views developed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, influenced by crusade propaganda and cross-cultural contact. The following chapter examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusaders? perceptions of the Middle East in the medieval period and how they interpreted their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surroundings geographically and spiritually. Cumulatively, these chapters offer a very detailed and evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayal of common views held by participants. From this foundation, a student would be well prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with the imagery and ideas contained in most primary texts and would be able to see how a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts that might sound very strange to a modern audience would have fitted together to form the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval world view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter deals with the crusaders? return journey and their reception by family, friends and fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countrymen. It also considers the longer term effects of a crusading expedition, with reference to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialisation and remembrance and the way that such commemorative acts shaped future crusading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions. This analysis underlines the importance of the First Crusade and its immense impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian world as a whole and crusading in particular. Throughout this chapter, and at various points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book, Housley draws upon a range of different types of source including stained glass and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture, demonstrating the importance of an inter-disciplinary approach to this subject.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 5433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With a book of this kind the overriding issue for a teacher of history is always: ?Given the range of high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality introductory materials available, would I recommend this work to my own students?? In this case the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer is definitely ?Yes?. Housley has clearly thought very carefully about his audience and his work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes allowance for their lack of familiarity with the medieval period and, starting with basic principles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(builds a compelling and rich picture of the experience of crusading. The written style and use of suggestive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and colourful case-studies makes the work a compelling read, while its scholarly authority is absolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solid. The text is supplemented by a range of maps, colour and black/white illustrations and a timeline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provide further valuable context. In general, )] TJ ET BT 280.952 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for the Cross )] TJ ET BT 390.968 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings together a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different themes, time-periods, regions, ideas and personalities and shows how they interacted with one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. This takes place within an innovative and highly-effective structure. In the analysis above, a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of minor queries have been raised; however, these should not detract from an extremely valuable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective piece of work that )] TJ ET BT 168.968 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(will)] TJ ET BT 186.980 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( help students to engage with this period, while motivating them to learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James M. Powell, )] TJ ET BT 152.348 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anatomy of a Crusade: 1213?1221)] TJ ET BT 321.008 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.336 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.336 546.483 m 500.324 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Lower, )] TJ ET BT 143.660 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Barons? Crusade: a Call to Arms and its Consequences)] TJ ET BT 433.328 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 517.971 m 118.004 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Phillips, )] TJ ET BT 152.360 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom)] TJ ET BT 450.680 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 489.459 m 149.000 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 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330.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/750)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 328.905 m 322.316 328.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 303.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3727)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=24688)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/05/26/ehr.ceq124.short)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.328 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=404289&sectioncode=26)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.3357 546.7975 500.3237 558.6775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 518.2855 118.0037 530.1655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << 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