%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818084634+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818084634+01'00') /Title (The Problem of Emancipation: The Caribbean Roots of the American Civil War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4497 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Problem of Emancipation: The Caribbean Roots of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(American Civil War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the occasion of his famous address commemorating the abolition of slavery in the British West Indies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivered in Concord on August 1, 1844, Ralph Waldo Emerson highlighted America?s avoidance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery?s implications. ?What if it cost a few unpleasant scenes on the coast of Africa?? he asked, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorically, since that was ?a great way off.? Back home in America, slavery?s realities could be avoided, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by those in the North, at least, and if ?any mention was made of homicide, madness, adultery, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerable tortures,? Americans would simply ?let the church-bells ring louder.? So long as the sugar, coffee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tobacco produced by slaves ?was excellent: nobody tasted blood in it.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.956 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.956 179.265 m 407.948 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.948 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The African coast may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been sufficiently distant to be safely ignored; not so the Caribbean, which in many ways became too close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for comfort as far as America?s slaveholders were concerned and which, in any case, was hardly entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate from the United States. As Edward Rugemer emphasizes at the start of his search for the Caribbean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of America?s Civil War, ?the United States was never a self-contained entity moved solely by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal dynamics of American society,? but was ?firmly embedded in an Anglo-Atlantic world that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcended the political boundaries of nation-states? \(p. 5\). America?s boundaries, indeed, were inherently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?permeable,? admitting an influx of information, individuals and, increasingly, abolitionist influences along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the commercial traffic that linked the colonies of the British West Indies to the United States. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced a transatlantic perspective originally grounded in the slave trade but, by the mid-1830s, directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(751)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 April, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Bartlett Rugemer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807133385)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louisiana State University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baton Rouge, LA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan-Mary Grant)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.9557 179.5795 407.9477 191.4595 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8104 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward the debates over its abolition and the abolition of slavery itself. Any attempt to comprehend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming of the Civil War, therefore, cannot, although too often does, remove the internal dynamics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolitionist agitation and political debate within America from their broader transatlantic context; 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Americans could not avoid the implications of abolition in the West Indies and nor, Rugemer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us, should we. ?White America?s problem with black emancipation,? he stresses, most definitely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?had Caribbean roots? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidence presented here makes Rugemer?s case forcibly and with sophistication; this is a complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quite convoluted story, but one clearly told. Divided into two parts, the first examining the influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British abolitionism on both the West Indies and the United States between 1804 and 1834, the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the impact of West Indian abolition on America, the work draws mainly, though not exclusively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on both secular and evangelical press coverage of abolitionist agitations, emancipation celebrations and, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, slave rebellions in order to track the impact of those communication networks by which the ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print culture of the Anglo-Atlantic world? was established and through which the various, and varying, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives on emancipation were expressed \(p. 36\). Here Rugemer distinguishes between the two different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of communication identified by James Carey, the ?transmission? model and the ?ritual? model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively, in his analysis not just of the news and its dissemination across national borders, but the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which 19th-century Americans interpreted the information received. With newspapers widely, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheaply available following the Post Office Act of 1792, the combination of the postal system and the papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it carried constituted an important national and international bond; indeed, in 1833, the very year that Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally abolished slavery in her colonies, Associate Justice Joseph Story, later most famous for handing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the decision in the )] TJ ET BT 154.340 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amistad)] TJ ET BT 193.676 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( slave-ship rebellion case in 1841, praised the United States? postal service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the efficacy with which it ?brings the most distant places and persons?in contact with each other; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus softens the anxieties, increases the enjoyments, and cheers the solitude of millions of hearts?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.284 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.284 469.443 m 518.276 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1833, the newspapers carried through the mails, as Rugemer shows, hardly softened any anxieties on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of America?s slaveholders, but certainly did cheer the solitude of abolitionist hearts. This is the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his chosen sources; the newspapers of the period constituted, Rugemer proposes, ritual communication, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through which, in Carey?s description, ?nothing new is learned but in which a particular view of the world is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed and confirmed?; in this case, Rugemer argues, the newspapers of the period ?helped to form the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed communities in the American struggle over slavery?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.304 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.304 371.907 m 345.296 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.296 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These ?imagined communities?, to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benedict Anderson?s phrase, were hardly national, however; they not only ?transcended political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries? but were both constructed by and operated within an Anglo-Atlantic context, drawing together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slaveholders of the West Indies with those of the South, New England?s abolitionists with ?their British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts? \(p. 38\). Although newspapers were distinctly partisan organs in the 19th-century United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, their efficacy as tools of party was limited by the need to cross constituencies: a slaveholding South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a North that, increasingly, distanced itself from slavery even if it was hardly radically abolitionist in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlook. As a result, it was in the press that some of the most vigorous debates over slavery were aired and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(via the press that ?the place of slavery in the national life? was most ?consistently challenged? \(p. 41\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The broader context of much of the newspaper coverage of slavery derived, Rugemer explains, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saint-Domingue uprising of 1791 and the establishment, in 1804, of Haiti; specifically the interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this event in the work of Bryan Edwards, whose )] TJ ET BT 267.980 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Survey of the French Colony of St. Domingo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1797\) ?became the standard proslavery interpretation of the Haitian Revolution throughout the antebellum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period? \(p. 43\). Edwards?s identification of abolitionist agitation, in particular the activities of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolitionist society, the )] TJ ET BT 148.688 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amis des Noirs)] TJ ET BT 221.360 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as the main source of the rebellion reinforced the fears of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and British slaveholders? alike that abolitionists were dangerous insurgents, contra the abolitionist position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which argued ?that insurrections arose from the injustice and brutality of slavery and that rebellions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishments for the sin of slaveholding? \(p. 44\). Complicating, and informing the reactions of both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves themselves and the white communities to the Haitian Revolution, the later Easter Rebellion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbados \(1816\) and the Demerara rebellion \(1823\) was the issue of the mission to the slaves, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived reinforcement of the abolitionist message via Evangelical missionaries \(p. 53\). Within the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, therefore, by the 1820s, slaveholders were not only familiar with the Edwards thesis but were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.2837 469.7575 518.2757 481.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.3037 372.2215 345.2957 384.1015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8105 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded by the examples of other slave uprisings, including that in Charleston in 1822, that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causal link between abolitionist agitation and slave rebellion. Their resultant concern, Rugemer argues, must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be differentiated from ?the general fear of slave insurrection that has characterized the slaveholding mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across time and space?, something that many scholars, he charges, focussed as they have been on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American South alone, have ?failed to appreciate.? \(pp. 66?7\) The growing opposition to abolition in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American South of the 1820s and 1830s was specific to that time, and derived from a space, the West Indies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which American slaveholders dimly, but with increasing clarity, began to perceive a wall; one with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing on it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rugemer pursues the American reaction to the Edwards thesis in part through the writings of South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolinian Robert Turnbull, whose publications in the )] TJ ET BT 296.672 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charleston Mercury)] TJ ET BT 394.328 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 1823 onwards revealed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the fear of slave rebellion constituted ?the emotional root of states rights theory? among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of the white South \(p. 83\). At the same time, from close analysis of American newspaper coverage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the West Indian rebellions, Rugemer identifies a more general shift in focus: between the Easter Rebellion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1816 and the Demerara rebellion seven years later, northern papers had tripled the extent of their coverage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of events in the West Indies; some southern publications, by contrast, particularly the )] TJ ET BT 446.300 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charleston Mercury)] TJ ET BT 543.956 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had gone strangely quiet on the subject, revealing, Rugemer proposes, South Carolina?s outlier position in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the South as a whole at that point. By the early 1830s, however, with the Nat Turner uprising in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southampton County, Virginia in 1831 and, in the same year, a revolt in Jamaica, followed by Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of slavery in 1833, what Rugemer terms an expanded ?liberated space? had opened up in the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic world, expressed via three crucial developments in 1829: first, the publication of Robert Young?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopian Manifesto)] TJ ET BT 132.356 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and David Walker?s )] TJ ET BT 236.324 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World)] TJ ET BT 453.332 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; second, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration of free African Americans from Ohio to British Canada West; and third the recognition by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government that free coloureds of St. Lucia and Trinidad were the ?legal equals? of whites. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within this new ?geography of freedom? that the future conflict over slavery in the United States would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted, its battle-lines drawn up, in effect, for the Civil War that came nearly 30 years later \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of Rugemer?s work makes a strong case for a reassessment, indeed a heightened appreciation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the influences of both slave rebellions and British emancipation in the West Indies on the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate over emancipation. Of course, the bare bones of the discussion of the impact of, for example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saint-Domingue uprising will be familiar to scholars through the work of, among others, David Brion Davis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose most recent work, )] TJ ET BT 156.992 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inhuman Bondage)] TJ ET BT 245.312 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, emphasizes the importance of the Haitian Revolution which, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the words of Frederick Douglass in 1893, constituted ?the original pioneer emancipator of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?, even as the imagery of its horrors as described so graphically by Edwards ?hovered over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antislavery debates like a bloodstained ghost?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.652 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.652 314.883 m 270.644 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 270.644 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What Rugemer brings to our knowledge of the shock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?waves of fear,? to use Davis?s phrase, that emanated from Saint-Domingue is a nuanced and quite specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification of the reverberations such waves produced throughout the Atlantic world but especially in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, and more narrowly in an American South on the cusp of becoming the dominant slave society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that world. By deriving from the destruction of those slave societies that surrounded it both economic gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, more crucially, the evidence to bolster an anti-abolitionist argument, the South?s stance on slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted away from the necessary evil paradigm toward the idea of slavery as, in John C Calhoun?s famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase, a ?positive good?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section seeks to assess the influences of West Indian emancipation in action, as it were, in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the consideration of two individuals, William Ellery Channing and Robert Monroe Harrison, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part via an examination of the First of August celebrations in the North and the ongoing influence of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition on the American emancipation debate after 1840. The selection of Channing as a case-study is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructive; he was a, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 176.324 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 190.988 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prominent Unitarian theologian of the period, who, in 1835, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambivalent about the balance between antislavery, which he generally supported, and abolitionist radicalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he rather distrusted. Yet within just under a decade and influenced, Rugemer argues, both by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of British West Indian emancipation and his earlier personal experiences on St. Croix, Channing?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final public address in 1842 revealed his ?conversion? to abolition, a ?now unqualified endorsement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation in the West Indies?. Channing?s earlier, more moderate position, as described here, bears )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6517 315.1975 270.6437 327.0775 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7839 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with some of the arguments proposed on the other side of the Atlantic by, notably, William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson; in particular Channing?s optimistic belief that the ?intelligence, virtue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and power? of the South?s slaveholders would in time remove the ?greatest of moral evils and wrongs? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was slavery \(p. 155\). Wilberforce?s brother-in-law, James Stephen, of course, was never convinced ?that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest of the master were really so involved in the well being of the slave?, and Channing gradually came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a similar understanding.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.008 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.008 723.795 m 176.000 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 176.000 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His conversion was, as Rugemer stresses, ?critical? precisely because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Channing was such a well-known moderate; by 1842, his attacks on slavery, his calls for constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, his urgings for northerners to look beyond the hysteria of Edwards?s thesis, and his representation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British abolition as a lesson for the United States on the safety and blessings of immediate emancipation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both informed and reflected a shift in northern public opinion away from the proslavery argument that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rugemer argues, became increasingly dismissed as ?groundless froth that spewed from the mouth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave power? \(pp. 178?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The loss of moderate support such as Channing?s could not but impact on the South, and the positive image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of West Indian emancipation was countered by, among others, Robert Monroe Harrison, American consul to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamaica between 1831 and 1858, whose dispatches ?developed a portrait of a disastrous emancipation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamaica? \(p. 181\). Harrison?s attempts to construct and sustain a climate of fear in America as far as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation was concerned relied on a combination of the terror of slave insurrection leavened with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthy dose of Anglophobia that proposed not just possible British interference with American property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights in their slaves, but a more diffuse imperial ambition that threatened America?s independent existence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Rugemer clearly has little patience with Harrison?s ?dire missives? from Jamaica, he nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that these had an impact, informing the views of leading proslavery thinkers such as Calhoun in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the arguments in favour of Texan annexation, of expansion generally, as the sole means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuring slavery?s survival and the nation?s stability \(p. 204\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By this point, the point at which, Rugemer notes, most Civil War historians start their journey along the road )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to disunion, the antislavery constituency in the North and its proslavery equivalent in the South were already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds apart, and this was made nowhere more explicit than in the dramatic growth of the First of August )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrations, commemorating the British parliament?s Act of Abolition in the Caribbean. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originating from the ?radical wing of the abolitionist movement,? First of August celebrations spread both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographically and ideologically in terms of the constituencies they attracted until, by the eve of the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, they were a ?fixture in the summer calendar? \(p. 257\). Whilst Rugemer is careful to note that the mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebration of the First of August ?does not necessarily signify the first manifestation of abolitionism in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community,? it does ?indicate a new level of dedication to the movement? and, more crucially, ?signals a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community decision to identify with transatlantic abolitionism,? and to take seriously the lessons it had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer; the fact that neither slaveholders nor the northern public absorbed such lessons, Rugemer concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, in some measure at least, responsible for the armed conflict that came to America in 1861 \(p. 249\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a finely-crafted study, and, it must be said, a very beautifully-crafted book, for which the publisher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably must also take some credit, that delineates an Anglo-Atlantic world in transition, a world, to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clich, turned upside down and restructuring itself along both revolutionary and, in the case of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American South, to borrow Manisha Sinha?s concept, ?counter-revolutionary? lines.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.276 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.276 217.347 m 454.268 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.268 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet, ultimately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the African-American perspective is implicit in every line of this work, African-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers a critical part of the research base, and noted leaders such as Frederick Douglass central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the Atlantic revolutionary and the American national traditions, this is nevertheless a story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of how and why white men fell out. Whether the men in question are behaving badly by contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards, in the case of slaveholders and their spokesmen, or well, in the case of abolitionists, this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bifurcated Anglo-Atlantic world that is under scrutiny. As a consequence, although Rugemer has uncovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beating heart of that world very well, some of its extremities are missing, and some of the nuance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to our understanding of the abolitionist/antislavery and the antiabolitionist/proslavery positions is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not wholly absent, slightly marginal to the main narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To take one minor example, the case of Bryan Edwards: in this study, the significance of Edwards?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence is not underestimated, nor should it be; yet the complexities inherent in an individual whom David )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.0077 724.1095 175.9997 735.9895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.2757 217.6615 454.2677 229.5415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 9567 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brion Davis )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.348 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.348 795.075 m 109.340 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.340 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( described as ?a man of liberal views? who accepted the idea of ?an inter-racial society in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way that Jefferson never could? is here sometimes, and I stress sometimes, rendered as no more than a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving apologist for slavery whose ?poisoned pen? not only detailed an anti-abolitionist perspective but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwrote the entire proslavery agenda \(p. 177\). In some ways, of course, the Edwards thesis did precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, and Rugemer?s focus is, of course, not on the man, but on the impact of his writings. Still, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juxtaposition between Edwards?s thesis and its target, the abolitionists, the latter come across as rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforwardly on the side of the angels; only at one point, and briefly, does Rugemer hint that they, too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have had a self-serving agenda in his discussion of the ?sanctifying experience? of persecution within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Christian tradition and the ?immortal quality? it bestows upon the persecuted \(p. 131\). The Caribbean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, too, sometimes pulls Rugemer away from any consideration of internal, to the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors, such as the reaction to northern emancipation which was, after all, an on-going process for much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier period under discussion here. Joanne Pope Melish has, for instance, explored the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Englanders managed to absolve themselves from the stain of slaveholding in the century prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War, but the impact of the Anglo-Atlantic perspective on this process, or vice versa, is absent here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the relationship between the Anglophobia highlighted in the discussion of Robert Monroe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison might have been counterbalanced by some consideration of the Anglophilia exhibited by many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolitionists, and indeed by Frederick Douglass himself \(detailed in a recent study by Elisa Tamarkin; but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is certainly not grounds for criticism that Rugemer has not looked at a work that was in press at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time his was\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.012 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.012 526.467 m 115.004 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 115.004 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The focus on the print culture of the Anglo-Atlantic world, in short, provides a valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure for but also, perhaps, sometimes limits the direction of this carefully-articulated thesis. That is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest neither that its conclusions are invalid nor its argument unconvincing; it is a most persuasive work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that repositions the American debates over emancipation where they clearly belong, in a broader Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic context. When it came to the problem of emancipation, Rugemer has clearly shown that, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paraphrase John Donne, America most certainly was not an island; if the response to that problem was, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emerson had suggested in 1844, to simply let the church bells ring louder, in the aftermath of abolition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West Indies neither slaveholders nor their opponents needed to ask for whom those bells tolled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Waldo Emerson, )] TJ ET BT 179.336 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Address delivered in Concord on the Anniversary of the Emancipation of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negroes in the British West Indies)] TJ ET BT 228.344 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, August 1, 1844, accessed at: <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.756 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.756 346.899 m 434.744 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James W. Carey, )] TJ ET BT 148.328 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communication as Culture: Essays in Media and Society)] TJ ET BT 422.648 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Rev. ed., New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\); Joseph Story, )] TJ ET BT 166.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, a Preliminary Review of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Constitutional History of the Colonies and States, before the Adoption of the Constitution)] TJ ET BT 511.388 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1833\) vol. 3, p. 1120 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.116 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.116 289.875 m 228.104 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carey, )] TJ ET BT 98.672 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communication as Culture)] TJ ET BT 228.680 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.680 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.680 275.619 m 315.668 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Brion Davis, )] TJ ET BT 160.676 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World)] TJ ET BT 480.320 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\), pp. 158?74; 159?60; and Douglass quoted at p. 158.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.660 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.660 247.107 m 401.648 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Stephen quoted in David Brion Davis, )] TJ ET BT 282.668 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1770?1823)] TJ ET BT 118.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, 1975\) p. 418.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.652 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.652 218.595 m 301.640 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manisha Sinha, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapel Hill, NC, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.344 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.344 190.083 m 237.332 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis, )] TJ ET BT 98.012 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Problem of Slavery)] TJ ET BT 190.664 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.185, 195.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.664 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.664 175.827 m 310.652 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Pope Melish, )] TJ ET BT 166.676 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and ?Race? in New England, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1780?1860)] TJ ET BT 118.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, 1998\); Elisa Tamarkin, )] TJ ET BT 297.644 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglophilia: Deference, Devotion, and Antebellum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America)] TJ ET BT 104.672 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.660 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.660 133.059 m 242.648 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 108.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jsh/summary/v043/43.4.prior.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 78.291 m 337.040 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.040 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 74.959 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 57.179 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 57.179 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/751)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 55.785 m 322.316 55.785 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.3477 795.3895 109.3397 807.2695 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.0117 526.7815 115.0037 538.6615 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.7557 347.2135 434.7437 359.0935 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.1157 290.1895 228.1037 302.0695 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.6797 275.9335 315.6677 287.8135 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.6597 247.4215 401.6477 259.3015 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 247.6517 218.9095 301.6397 230.7895 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.3437 190.3975 237.3317 202.2775 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6637 176.1415 310.6517 188.0215 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.6597 133.3735 242.6477 145.2535 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 78.6055 337.0397 90.4855 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jsh/summary/v043/43.4.prior.html) >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 56.0995 322.3157 67.9795 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/751) >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 67 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Length 335 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3729)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jsh/summary/v043/43.4.prior.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 68 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000680 00000 n 0000005229 00000 n 0000005338 00000 n 0000005448 00000 n 0000005557 00000 n 0000009118 00000 n 0000009246 00000 n 0000009330 00000 n 0000009359 00000 n 0000009487 00000 n 0000009523 00000 n 0000009614 00000 n 0000017771 00000 n 0000017801 00000 n 0000017929 00000 n 0000017965 00000 n 0000017995 00000 n 0000018123 00000 n 0000018159 00000 n 0000018243 00000 n 0000026401 00000 n 0000026431 00000 n 0000026559 00000 n 0000026595 00000 n 0000026686 00000 n 0000034578 00000 n 0000034608 00000 n 0000034736 00000 n 0000034772 00000 n 0000034802 00000 n 0000034930 00000 n 0000034966 00000 n 0000035127 00000 n 0000044747 00000 n 0000044777 00000 n 0000044904 00000 n 0000044940 00000 n 0000044970 00000 n 0000045098 00000 n 0000045134 00000 n 0000045262 00000 n 0000045317 00000 n 0000045445 00000 n 0000045500 00000 n 0000045628 00000 n 0000045683 00000 n 0000045811 00000 n 0000045866 00000 n 0000045994 00000 n 0000046049 00000 n 0000046177 00000 n 0000046232 00000 n 0000046360 00000 n 0000046415 00000 n 0000046543 00000 n 0000046598 00000 n 0000046723 00000 n 0000046836 00000 n 0000046962 00000 n 0000047057 00000 n 0000047122 00000 n trailer << /Size 68 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 47509 %%EOF