%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141225040235+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141225040235+00'00') /Title (The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4541 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is nearly a century and a half since Bernhard Kugler published the last substantial monograph devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second Crusade \()] TJ ET BT 136.328 247.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studien zur Geschichte des zweitenKreuzzugs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.980 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.980 245.673 m 371.972 245.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.972 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), a book which was disadvantaged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being printed in gothic typeface as well as academic German. This is sufficient reason to welcome Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips? account of the same enterprise, but additionally the volume is scholarly and well researched, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting its origins in an undergraduate ?special subject? by its thorough approach to primary sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical debates. The high production values of the book, which includes six clear maps and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of well chosen photographs, are also a credit to the publisher and the author.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The crusade is presented in 14 chronologically sequenced chapters, but before we even reach these and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roman-numbered pages, there are a preface, a prologue and an introduction. Of these, the prologue, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounts the capture of Edessa by the forces of Zengi in December 1144, sets the scene for the action of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade, while the introduction provides a rationale for the whole book. More contextual information fills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first two chapters: chapter one gives the historical background of ?Ongoing contact between the Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East and the West and the development of crusading, 1099-1145?. It is largely a reprise of Phillips? own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defenders of the Holy Land )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 62.601 m 184.328 62.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.328 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and deals summarily with the Military Orders, pilgrimage and papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to crises, with some emphasis on the problematical relationship with Byzantium, particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(752)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 April, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Phillips)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300112740)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Edgington)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.9797 245.9875 371.9717 257.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3357 62.9155 184.3277 74.7955 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7981 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decade before the capture of Edessa. The second chapter discusses the intellectual legacy of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade, which had succeeded in capturing Jerusalem in 1099 and thereby unleashed unprecedented activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the writing of histories, which in turn had given the First Crusaders legendary status which was exploited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the pope in promulgating the Second Crusade. Phillips touches on a matter of terminology which might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be more fully explored: the earliest accounts of the First Crusade were more likely to call the participants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Galli? than ?Franci?, and the ?francification? of the crusading movement is of some interest, not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it has a bearing on how the Second Crusade has been viewed and judged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips? exploration of the papal bull )] TJ ET BT 218.012 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quantum praedecessores)] TJ ET BT 339.656 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, its content, authorship and use, is pivotal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his argument, and has a chapter devoted to it. \(There is also a full English translation of the bull as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix to the book.\) In Phillips? judgement Pope Eugenius III has been unfairly treated by historians, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have allowed Bernard of Clairvaux to overshadow him, and have also accused Eugenius of an unduly slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the news of the fall of Edessa. Phillips makes a convincing case for restoring Eugenius to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of the action, and for measuring his success by the unprecedented scale of recruitment following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quantum praedecessores)] TJ ET BT 155.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It does, however, take him a long time to reach his analysis of the document itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following a discussion of the members of the papal circle who )] TJ ET BT 335.636 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(may)] TJ ET BT 355.628 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have influenced its composition; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversion to Cluny and the First Crusade; the recovery of Tarragona; heresy in France; the canonization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry II of Germany, and the arrival of an Armenian delegation. The analysis of the bull is more incisive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lays emphasis on the idea of replicating the First Crusade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The launch of the Second Crusade?, is actually about floating the )] TJ ET BT 355.292 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(idea)] TJ ET BT 375.956 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the crusade: the expedition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levant will not set out for another 100 pages. Uncharacteristically, the author falters briefly at the beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this chapter: he refers to ?Louis?s brother, Hugh the Great? as a leader of the First Crusade, meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip I?s brother, and shortly afterwards to ?the controversy over the marriage between Raoul of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vermandois and Theobald?s niece? without telling us who these people were or ? tantalisingly ? what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the controversy \(pp. 61?2\). He also claims shortly afterwards that, ?The churchmen at Bourges must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been aware of the centrality of the papacy to the crusade movement,? which raises the question of whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was yet a ?crusade movement? rather than a single, glorious, unprecedented event which the pope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoped to reproduce. The chapter centres on Louis VII?s motivation for espousing the cause of the crusade. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is impossible, however, to discuss recruitment for the expedition without St Bernard, and he duly takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre stage at Vzelay, at Easter 1146, and dominates the following chapter, which is an account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard?s preaching tour in Flanders and Germany. Alongside the minutely reconstructed itinerary is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather more interesting examination of Conrad?s involvement: the traditional view is that Bernard, on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own authority, persuaded and enlisted the reluctant German king, Conrad III, but Phillips? reassessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary evidence restores him as a central and senior figure. Phillips therefore explores Conrad?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for taking the cross, as well as the circumstances in the imperial territories which worked against his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence on crusade. The Cistercian Radulf?s rabble-rousing activities in the Rhineland at this time, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequent attacks on the Jews, are described with a sense of proportion which has not always been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained in their regard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recruitment achieved, Phillips applies to the participants the prosopographical approach pioneered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constable and implemented by Riley-Smith for the First Crusade.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.676 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.676 217.347 m 363.668 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.668 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He has identified 350 individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusaders ? about half as many as Riley-Smith classed as ?certainties? for the First Crusade, but this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicable by the relative shortage of narrative accounts of the Second Crusade. Unfortunately, the names )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pedigrees are presented one after another in a single long paragraph, and they would be more easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted and assimilated as an appendix. The examination of the participants? motives in going on crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are more clearly analysed: besides the papal indulgence, there were strong strands of family tradition, kin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association and patronage, as well as pious and acquisitive reasons. The same chapter deals with practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparations for the expedition, which included both raising funds and providing for the safety of land and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kin left at home during the absence of the head of family. The kings, Louis and Conrad, had not only these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns, but also diplomatic, strategic and logistical decisions to make. A description of these and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial surrounding the kings? departures occupies chapter seven, which also has the first statement of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key idea of the book, that the crusade was by this point conceived as a war on three fronts: in the Levant, in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.6757 217.6615 363.6677 229.5415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7646 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Baltic against the pagan Wends, and in the Iberian peninsula against the Moors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, little has been said about Iberia before this, which makes the transition to the next chapter, ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest of Lisbon?, quite a leap. This, the only entirely successful campaign of the Second Crusade, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively well recorded in two narrative accounts, yet it continues to be debated among historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the siege of Lisbon was planned, or the result of quick thinking on the part of the Portuguese duke, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afonso Henriques, when the combined fleet from the Rhineland, Flanders and England put in in north-west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain. Phillips produces a number of arguments for a planned rendezvous, though some of them are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing than others. Setting out in May, for instance, is adequately explained by the long and hazardous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journey across the bay of Biscay \(where they were scattered by a storm even then\) and through the straits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibraltar into the Mediterranean, and the short sailing season: they needed to arrive in the Levant before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autumn equinox. On the other hand, more weight could be given to other navigational factors, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attraction of restoring Lisbon to Christian hands as a haven where water and other supplies could be taken on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during future expeditions. Quite simply, we do not know enough about the leadership of the combined fleet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do more than speculate. It is quite possible that the English command, who seem to have taken the lead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had some prior communication with the Portuguese, while the Rhineland and Flemish segments had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded to undertake the siege. There were certainly tensions between the Anglo-Normans on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand and the Rhinelanders and Flemings on the other, and the evidence of the ?Lisbon letter? is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cologne contingent, at least, believed themselves to be en route for the Holy Land, not opening up a second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front in the war on the infidel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following two chapters revert to Conrad and Louis and their journeys overland to Constantinople and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Asia Minor. The German army?s cataclysmic defeat at Dorylaeum \(scene of a famous victory in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First Crusade\) is followed by an attempt to calculate the percentage casualty rate. Since the overall numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the expedition are no more than an estimate \(earlier in the same chapter\), the use of decimal points in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculations seems gratuitous, but a figure of c.17% is suggested. The defeat of Louis? army is not subjected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a similar calculation, though the narrative sources are superior. Finally, the remnants of the two armies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrived in the crusader states. Phillips maintains plausibly that to this point the goal of the expedition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained Edessa. In probably the best known, and certainly the most discussed, episode of the crusade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis seems to have changed his mind during a stay with his wife Eleanor?s uncle Raymond at Antioch. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary gossip is duly scrutinized, though it is worth restating that what happened \(or did not happen\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is less important than what people were saying. At all events, Louis headed south to Jerusalem where he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendezvoused with Conrad, and at the council of Palmarea, in June 1148, in concert with the secular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical powers of the kingdom, they agreed to attack Damascus. This decision has been much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticized, both at the time and retrospectively, but more recently there have been persuasive rationalizations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Phillips discusses fully. A further tactical decision taken at Damascus, to move the crusaders? camp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the western side of the city to the south-eastern, is also defended, though Sibt ibn al-Jauzi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation ? that the crusaders, encamped in the orchards, ate too much fruit and made themselves ill ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits a mention.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.680 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.680 257.859 m 131.672 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 131.672 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Without being defeated in battle, the forces withdrew ignominiously, and the crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Levant was effectively at an end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile in Europe, campaigns against the Wends had been granted crusading status. Phillips discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their context and commission, concluding that while from the papal perspective they were not successful at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this stage, in the eyes of local leaders there were reasons to maintain the status quo, which ensured a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profitable tributary relationship. The future emphasis was to be on conversion and subjugation. Crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileges were also granted to Genoese forces attacking the Iberian towns of Almera, Jaen, Tortosa, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lrida. This initiative is put into the dual contexts of the Moorish occupation of Spain and Genoese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in earlier crusades, and Phillips concludes that for this theatre of war the Second Crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked an important stage of development. It remains only to look at the consequences of the crusade in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter discussing its aftermath: a legacy of criticism and low morale in Western Europe, and increased ill-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling towards the Byzantines. It took the capture of Jerusalem in 1187 to rouse western forces en masse for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another major crusade, while anti-Byzantine feeling led to the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade. Difficult though it is to extract anything positive from the failures of the Second Crusade, Phillips )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.6797 258.1735 131.6717 270.0535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6347 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that its prosecution, and especially )] TJ ET BT 236.996 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quantum praedecessores)] TJ ET BT 358.640 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was important in the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holy war theory and the crusading movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout this complex narrative Phillips has deployed an impressive array of evidence, which is fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referenced in endnotes and listed in a comprehensive bibliography. The index is usefully provided with sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entries. There are one or two points to make about primary sources. Firstly, the use of the )] TJ ET BT 465.944 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chanson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(d?Antioche)] TJ ET BT 88.676 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as evidence for anything in the first half of the 12th century is problematical, since it exists only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a version which cannot be dated before )] TJ ET BT 237.296 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c.)] TJ ET BT 245.624 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1200 \(pp. 26?7\). The same goes for )] TJ ET BT 419.252 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Chtifs)] TJ ET BT 472.928 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, only part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which probably originated at Raymond of Antioch?s court, and which is generally agreed to describe the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legendary exploits of survivors of the massacre at Civetot \(not the 1101 crusade\) \(p. 208\). Niketas Choniates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is referred to by his first and second names in the same paragraph, which is disconcerting and possibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading \(pp. 197?8\). These are minor points in the context of Phillips? achievement in bringing together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strands and layers of this complicated history to make a coherent whole. He has thus succeeded in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second stated aim of giving ?a more detailed and accurate analysis of the successes and failures of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various campaigns than has hitherto been attempted? \(p. xxv\). How far his first aim, ?to relate the story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crusade in an accessible fashion?, has been achieved is difficult for an academic colleague to gauge, but I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly found some of the densely detailed passages hard to assimilate, and I suspect this may apply to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general readership too. There is probably still room for a ?popular? history of the Second Crusade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernhard Kugler, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studien zur Geschichte des zweitenKreuzzugs)] TJ ET BT 369.644 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stuttgart,1866\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.976 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.976 489.459 m 505.964 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Phillips, )] TJ ET BT 152.360 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defenders of the Holy Land: Relations between the Latin East and the West 1119-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1187)] TJ ET BT 88.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.664 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.664 460.947 m 220.652 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Riley-Smith, )] TJ ET BT 174.356 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First Crusaders, 1095-1131)] TJ ET BT 329.696 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.016 446.691 m 481.004 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Gabrieli, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arab Historians of the Crusades )] TJ ET BT 281.024 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1967\), p.62.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.348 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.348 432.435 m 440.336 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and wishes to thank the reviewer for her thoughtful, constructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and generous comments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 337.155 m 240.992 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/feb/02/featuresreviews.guardianreview8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 308.643 m 418.616 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.616 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 305.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 287.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 287.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/752)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 286.137 m 322.316 286.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3730)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14310)] TJ ET BT 34.016 217.960 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/feb/02/featuresreviews.guardianreview8)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.9757 489.7735 505.9637 501.6535 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6637 461.2615 220.6517 473.1415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.0157 447.0055 481.0037 458.8855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.3477 432.7495 440.3357 444.6295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 337.4695 240.9917 349.3495 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14310) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 308.9575 418.6157 320.8375 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/feb/02/featuresreviews.guardianreview8) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 286.4515 322.3157 298.3315 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/752) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000005359 00000 n 0000005469 00000 n 0000005578 00000 n 0000009139 00000 n 0000009267 00000 n 0000009351 00000 n 0000009380 00000 n 0000009508 00000 n 0000009544 00000 n 0000009573 00000 n 0000009699 00000 n 0000009735 00000 n 0000009819 00000 n 0000017853 00000 n 0000017883 00000 n 0000018011 00000 n 0000018047 00000 n 0000018131 00000 n 0000025830 00000 n 0000025860 00000 n 0000025988 00000 n 0000026024 00000 n 0000026150 00000 n 0000032550 00000 n 0000032678 00000 n 0000032733 00000 n 0000032861 00000 n 0000032916 00000 n 0000033044 00000 n 0000033099 00000 n 0000033227 00000 n 0000033282 00000 n 0000033409 00000 n 0000033510 00000 n 0000033637 00000 n 0000033764 00000 n 0000033892 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33987 %%EOF