%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071414+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071414+01'00') /Title (The Crisis of the Twelfth Century: Power, Lordship, and the Origins of European Government) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4665 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Crisis of the Twelfth Century: Power, Lordship, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Origins of European Government)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Justice being taken away, then, what are kingdoms but great robberies?? ? Augustine, )] TJ ET BT 453.260 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City of God)] TJ ET BT 509.264 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, IV.4.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this new book Thomas N. Bisson is nothing if not ambitious. By his own account it is in part an answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a point made over ten years ago by the late Timothy Reuter in a )] TJ ET BT 354.968 225.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 436.964 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( debate on the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal revolution.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.336 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.336 210.033 m 133.328 210.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 133.328 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There, Reuter asked for a better chronology and geography of exploitative lordship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and Bisson?s reply constitutes nothing less than a new grand narrative of power in Western Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Central Middle Ages: in Bisson?s words, ?how and why the experience of power became that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in medieval Europe? \(p. 17\). The other historical giant conjured by the book?s very title is, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, Charles Homer Haskins, who, with his )] TJ ET BT 259.988 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century)] TJ ET BT 451.652 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, established the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in the minds of anglophone scholars as a time of institutional and intellectual progression. Bisson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book self-consciously takes part in the same ?traditional institutional history?, one of whose strengths was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiarity with the ?generality? of medieval records rather than the narrower focus of ?new? historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and culture. Bisson?s criticism of latter-day scholars as not being interested in power is somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfair: whether it is the study of women or heretical peasants, an interest in power and its experience lies at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heart of modern approaches. But Bisson is right to say that this interest has not yet been systematically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to the subject of traditional history: the dominance of aristocratic men over other men of whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(754)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 April, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas M. Bisson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780961137087)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(720pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theo Riches)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.3357 210.3475 133.3277 222.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7526 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A key argument of the book and where Bisson parts most radically with his institutional historian forebears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that 12th-century sources tell us very little about government or institutions. Instead, they reflect ?not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much what power looked like as what it felt like? \(pp. viii-ix; also p. 12\). A little ironically, perhaps, Bisson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has picked up the theme of newer historiographical trends in concentrating on experience and ?methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devised to bring past societies to life? \(p. viii\) not by applying new methodologies but by reapplying old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones. Bisson has little love for theoretical approaches drawn from sociology \(Foucault, for example, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned only to be dismissed\) and although he describes his method as ?thick description? \(p. 20\), he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes no mention of Clifford Geertz and does not undertake anything much like the cultural exegesis that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geertz pioneered. Instead, Bisson?s ?thick empiricism?, so to speak, constitutes quite simply the gathering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of as much comparable evidence from as many different places as possible; accordingly, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompasses to varying degrees England, Capetian France, Northern Spain, the Empire, Flanders and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Papacy. His understanding of the ?experience of power?, meanwhile, is not some Geertzian search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning through semiotics, but instead the pre-linguistic feeling of violence in all its immediacy, like being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burnt out of house and home by Norman invaders or having your lord?s bailiff stuff shit into your mouth for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to flee the estate. The book thus serves, in part, as a vivid and salutary rebuke to the sometimes rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloodless structuralist and post-structuralist historiography of recent times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his introductory first chapter, Bisson in effect defines ?power? as the exercise of violence, whether en )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masse in battle or war \(Hastings, Investiture Contest, Crusade\) or against individuals \(William Rufus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles the Good\). More generally, it was the power to punish and coerce. The specific version of power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he is interested is ?lordship?, which translates as the affective, arbitrary and unaccountable power of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrimonial aristocracy. Relying very approximately on the Weberian distinction between patrimonial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic domination, Bisson opposes this to ?public order?, which was a royal prerogative gradually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usurped by lesser lords. It is in the second, relatively short, chapter on The Age of Lordship \(875?1150\)? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Bisson sketches these outlines. For anyone interested in the debate over the so-called ?feudal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution?, Bisson offers a familiar picture. The old Carolingian order was a public and regalian one ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single order, beholden to an overall set of standards and characterised by office-holding. The lordship that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced it was private, multiple and subject to no norms but the lord?s whim. It was based on patrimonies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiefs and castles that had quickly multiplied and were therefore much more omnipresent than before. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Bisson, the multiplication of lordships led to an observable increase in complaints about so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?bad customs? and these complaints demonstrate that oppressive structures of domination were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just rearranged but that there was also a qualitative shift in the experience of power, one whose historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance Bisson places on a par with 18th- and 19th-century industrialism \(p. 48\). Most of this evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes from ecclesiastical sources, whether saints? Lives, charters or letters, and it is not always clear what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role ecclesiastical lordship plays in Bisson?s picture. He seems to think it was lighter on its subjects than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lordship of princes, castellans and knights was on theirs, allegedly because abbots and bishops were unable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maintain the aristocratic sociability which undergirded the intensity of bad lordship \(pp. 76, 82?3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bisson?s history \(and geography\) of lordship begins in earnest in the third chapter, ?Lord Rulership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1050?1150\): The Experience of Power?, the beginning of two pairs of chapters which constitute the meat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, the first pair covering roughly 1050?1150 and the second 1150?1220. In the first pair of chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bisson ranges geographically widely to compare how the history of lordship differed between regions while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the underlying problems and themes remained the same. This is one of the great services of this book: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bisson manages to write a history of lordship that both treats Europe as a single culture facing similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems but also to take full account of regional variation. The third chapter, for example, looks at the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of private, affective as opposed to public, official power in different contexts. The attempts of later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11th- and early 12th-century Popes to reform the Church highlight for Bisson a confusion between official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and affective power. The principalities of Northern Spain and the Pyrenees, where royal and comital order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crumbled in the face of the castellans, contrast with the alpine imperial provinces of Bavaria and Lombardy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where even in the absence of the Emperor public order was maintained as an ideal. The Angevin counts put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a faade of public authority, but castellans, advocates and provosts continued to exercise arbitrary )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7682 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence. Their Flemish counterparts, in contrast, maintained real authority by co-opting the newly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourishing ?customs? into their own courts. The examples of Capetian France and Norman England, lastly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a foretaste of the other major argument of the book by looking at how the new lordship took the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place of any notion of royal government. Early Capetian rule was reactive, not active, and the kings issued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileges, not legislation. England superficially seems to have been the most governed, but its public order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was pervaded by lordship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter, ?Crises of Power \(1060?1150\)?, looks at how the tensions described in the previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter played out in various polities where lord-princes came to realise they depended on the goodwill of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their followers: how, so to speak, the structural tensions created by the new lordship manifested themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a political level. Bisson discusses a range of ?critical moments of accommodation between regimes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public order and dynastic lordship? \(p. 196\). He first returns to the Gregorian Reform as an exemplar of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic, but this time extends the discussion into the Investiture Contest to discuss how the crisis put paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of theocratic power, while the reformers? campaigns for restitution ironically allowed clerical lordship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to take even firmer root. The Saxon Revolt is the inevitable candidate for the crisis between private lordship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and royal power in the Empire, although the choice jars somewhat with the earlier imperial examples of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bavaria and Lombardy; consistency would have made the argument stronger. Bisson struggles here, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed contemporaries did, with the paradox of a king imposing rule through the same sort of castle-building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser lords engaged in. If he fails to resolve this ?bitter contradiction? \(p. 221\), it is probably because it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irresolvable. But the Saxon Revolt does demonstrate, as Bisson forcefully argues, that the ?newly garrisoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(castles, whatever their declared purpose, were generators of violence, and )] TJ ET BT 390.896 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(could not )] TJ ET BT 438.896 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be otherwise? \(p. 217, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis in original\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Investiture Contest and the Saxon Revolt are ?usual suspects? when it comes to demonstrating crises in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal power and the same can be said of Louis VI?s campaigns against the castellans of the Ile-de-France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Anarchy of Stephen?s reign in England and, at the comital level, the murder of Charles the Good of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders. To say that these examples, all drawn on by Bisson, are familiar is the opposite of a criticism ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, it is one of the greatest merits of Bisson?s work that it takes familiar stories and places them in a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative. That said, it is in the inclusion of Northern Spain, notably Bisson?s own area of interest Catalonia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the argument really becomes strong. Spain is far too often omitted from surveys of Western European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval history, but including it allows for much more variation in the subjects studied and allows well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known developments to be seen in a fresh light and thus as much less inevitable than they would otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear. As well as striking a balance between regional diversity and pan-European themes, Bisson can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore use the Spanish perspective to show how familiar stories interacted with contingency to develop in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising and thus unfamiliar ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final pair of chapters, ?Resolution: Intrusions of Government \(1150?1215\)? and ?Celebration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persuasion \(1160?1225\)? respectively, have a somewhat different focus. From the start of the book Bisson is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctant to talk about ?government?, believing \(rightly\) that it is an anachronistic concept for the period. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the older generation of historians, above all Haskins, Bisson does not see the lords of the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century worrying overmuch about creating institutions and administrations for the better government of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realms and principalities. But he does perceive the slightest, not always successful, shift in this direction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the end of the century. In the book?s fifth chapter, ?Resolution?, Bisson identifies a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountability in lordship that is most readily perceptible in a change in texts of land accounting. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polyptychs of Carolingian times constituted a prescriptive type of accounting which listed what estates were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed to produce, but provided no way of holding estate managers accountable for actual production and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were too inflexible to account for change over time. By the third quarter of the 12th century, documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin to survive which show a different type of accountancy, a probative one where the agents of the lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to demonstrate what they were receiving from each estate. Bisson is not blind to the limits of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation \(it was not being used to work out how better to exploit material resources, only to hold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provosts and the like accountable for realising the prescribed values of the estates\), but takes it nonetheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to indicate a new attitude towards accountability that sat in tension with the old lordly reliance on fidelity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.636 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.636 74.787 m 556.628 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He works through this idea again on a number of case studies. On the example of England, for example, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.6357 75.1015 556.6277 86.9815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7659 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bisson shows how the previously affective lord-kingship of the Anglo-Norman kings was less available to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Plantagenets as the spread of ?procedural expertise? meant that the kings had to ?respond as of custom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no longer simply as of grace? \(p. 385\). In France, too, Philip Augustus?s lordship is described as ?habitually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managerial, not exploitative? \(p. 413\). Two cases studies act as controls against the progressivist fallacy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however: Catalonia, where the new accountability appeared briefly but failed to take root, and the Papacy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose unique ability to formulate policy in any sense that approximates modern politics shows up even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most ?objective? \(p. 406\) kingships of the day as a long way away from what we might understand as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sixth and final chapter, ?Celebration and Persuasion?, picks up and develops a theme introduced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous chapter: that lords began to take account \(at least in theory\) of wider interests than just their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selfish whims. Bisson begins discussing various ?Cultures of Power?. Here the violent songs of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubadours appear as desperate glorifications of a dying mode of lordship, while both a newly literate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtly discourse and academic moralising struggle with the ?dichotomy between exploitative power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official service? \(p. 443\). The key change is seen not in such hand-wringing, however, but in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a culture of expertise. This is most clear in the issue of law, where at the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th century someone who appealed to Roman law might find their claim nullified by an opponent who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could simply appeal to the parallel norm of custom, ?pitting law against law?. With legal expertise came the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity ?for adjusting customary rules and procedures by reference to equity and \(Roman\) reason? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(460\) and creating what Hannah Vollrath has elsewhere called a ?hierarchy of rights? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.892 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.892 526.467 m 456.884 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 456.884 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where one norm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be argued to be superior to another. But there also arose expertise in procedure ? not just knowing, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowing )] TJ ET BT 79.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(how)] TJ ET BT 99.020 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These technicians, whether accountants of the English exchequer or Roman lawyers, worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to procedures that existed outside of themselves and therefore towards a ?social interest? \(p. 468\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater than mere lordly whim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bisson argues that this constitutes the beginnings of a politicisation of power. According to his informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weberian scheme, older lordship was ?social-relational?, ?sociologically personal, affective, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpolitical? and ?passively affective?. Techniques of rule were ?devices for ensuring and imposing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lord?s will? by creating ?affective solidarities? whose discussions were comparatively ?ceremonious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deferential?. In contrast, by the end of the 12th century we see the institutionalisation of accountability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office as well as a discourse focussed on issues and the discussion of ?interests as distinct from rights? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(494\). The development is to be seen, according to Bisson, in the crisis around Count-King Alfonso I of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barcelona-Aragon?s peace initiatives in the 1070s and 1080s and that of John of England and the Magna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carta. The Catalonian peace differed from earlier versions by seeking to impose it on Catalonia as a whole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without regard to aristocratic rights, but in doing so politicised it and made it negotiable. Something similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened with Magna Carta, where John?s failure of affective lordship forced the barons to impose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something resembling administrative power. Neither the irony that the barons only ever wanted affective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lordship \(just better affective lordship\) nor the fact that the consultative provisions of the charter were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly dropped negates the fact that the crisis consisted of a politicised debate about the general interest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the realm. As Bisson goes on to describe, there are other indications of ?the state of the realm? becoming an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?arguable cause? \(p. 539\) at this time, whether in Alfonso IX of Len?s statutes of 1188 or Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustus?s 1220 refusal to revoke a statute without consulting his barons in a parliament. In the assemblies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this period, argues Bisson, we begin to see something new: issues \(notably monetary issues\) depicted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collective responsibility of the assembled participants, rather than merely the interest of the lord, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted by all as such.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book which scholars of central medieval power and society will have to ponder for a long time to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come. Its sheer breadth, its ambition and the lightness with which it wears its scholarship all demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention. Whether it persuades may depend on two areas Bisson might have written more about: the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the source base and the definition of lordship. Granted Bisson?s point that newer research trends cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boast the breadth of their predecessors, one reason for this is a much more acute awareness of how context-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound some of the evidence is. The recent flight into cultural history stems in part from this newly sharp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation for just how wide the gap between rhetoric and reality can yawn. A case in point is the growth )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.8917 526.7815 456.8837 538.6615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 9196 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in accusations of bad customs in the 11th century. Bisson interprets these as reflecting the activities of newly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressive secular patrimonies. He may well be right. But the accusations come overwhelmingly from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical sources and might instead reflect changes in Church attitudes towards its lay allies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies. If the complaints reflect new standards being applied to old traditions, perhaps by a newly assertive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church cut loose from royal oversight, then we are seeing changes not in patrimonial but ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lordship and the narrative of power changes considerably.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.948 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.948 723.795 m 325.940 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.940 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Later on in the book, Bisson?s argument about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of probative accountancy depends on the silence of earlier sources. As Bisson concedes \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(349\), the essentially prescriptive nature of estate management did not change over the period, but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to imagine any prescriptive system working without a checking mechanism. That sources for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter do not survive from before the 12th century does not mean they never existed. In any case, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of changes in the source base would have been desirable.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.944 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.944 652.515 m 374.936 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bisson?s wonderfully evocative language certainly makes it clear what he means by ?the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power?, but his avoidance of theoretical issues makes it less clear what he means by lordship. This has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result that distinctions Bisson wants to make, for example across time, are not as strongly underpinned as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be necessary. Was Charlemagne?s rule really more administrative than William the Conqueror?s or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his court less celebratory than that of Count-King Alfonso I? Maybe, but a more detailed consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relevant Weberian concepts and their later theoretical offspring would be needed to make the point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other distinctions may not be made strongly enough, such as that between lordship among aristocrats and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocrats over peasants.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.316 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.316 526.467 m 168.308 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 168.308 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bisson notes the similarities \(p. 47\), but one way of squaring his emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lords? arbitrary violence with the more consensus-oriented anthropological approach of historians like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen White and Gerd Althoff is to note that many of the ?rules of the game? applied only between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocrats.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.336 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.336 483.699 m 100.328 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.328 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That does not of course mean that such rules stayed the same )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.272 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.272 483.699 m 413.264 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.264 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but what sometimes gets lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in discussions of medieval aristocratic society is just how, so to speak, )] TJ ET BT 374.660 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(racist)] TJ ET BT 401.996 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it was: these men \(and women\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that the great majority of their subjects were inferior and legitimately open to abuse simply by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtue of their birth. How lordship was experienced vis--vis fellow aristocrats is another question and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sustained engagement with the various definitions of lordship would have clarified the issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These reservations are, however, a measure of how daring a book Bisson has written. Few other books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manage to use Europe?s regional variation so elegantly to elaborate on coherent pan-European themes whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoiding any impression that developments were inevitable. Its contribution to the debate over changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lordship and government will be massive. It will undoubtedly serve to pull historical interest back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of medieval experience: the exercise of power and its effect on life and limb.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Reuter, ?Debate: the ?feudal revolution??, )] TJ ET BT 313.964 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 395.960 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 155 \(1997\), 187?93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.280 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.280 277.875 m 553.268 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a rather different, but complementary, view of the development of bookkeeping, see Hagen Keller, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Vom ?heiligen Buch? zur ?Buchfhrung?: Lebensfunktionen der Schrift im Mittelalter?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frhmittelalterliche Studien)] TJ ET BT 200.348 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 26 \(1992\), 1?31. Keller is only one German historian whose work )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides potentially fruitful points of contact with Bisson?s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.676 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.676 220.851 m 406.664 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Vollrath, ?Konfliktwahrnehmung und Konfliktdarstellung in erzhlenden Quellen des 11. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jahrhunderts?, in )] TJ ET BT 149.000 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Salier und das Reich)] TJ ET BT 268.988 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Stefan Weinfurter,\(3 vols., Sigmaringen, 1991\), iii, p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(293. Bisson?s contrast between debatable ?interests? and arbitrary ?rights? reflects that made by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vollrath between a rationally justifiable ?hierarchisch gegliederten Rechtsordnung? and the feud, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where any injury to someone?s ?Rechtstand? \(i.e. the sum of that person?s rights, possessions and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honours\) demanded immediate reparation through revenge.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.620 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.620 135.315 m 402.608 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bisson?s is by no means the only recent overview to neglect the institutional church, as Ian Wood has )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed out in the context of the early Middle Ages: ?Review article: landscapes compared?, )] TJ ET BT 510.932 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 146.996 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 \(2007\), 235?7. Indeed, one of the great as-yet unlearnt lessons of Susan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s )] TJ ET BT 122.348 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted)] TJ ET BT 395.636 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\) is the importance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ecclesiastical lordship ought to have in any understanding of medieval power relations in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.332 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.332 49.779 m 156.320 49.779 l S endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.9477 724.1095 325.9397 735.9895 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.9437 652.8295 374.9357 664.7095 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.3157 526.7815 168.3077 538.6615 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3357 484.0135 100.3277 495.8935 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.2717 484.0135 413.2637 495.8935 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.2797 278.1895 553.2677 290.0695 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.6757 221.1655 406.6637 233.0455 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6197 135.6295 402.6077 147.5095 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3317 50.0935 156.3197 61.9735 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 4708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See already Reuter, ?Debate?, 193?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.620 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.620 795.075 m 297.608 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Reuter pointed out, beating up your own peasants was very different from beating up neighbouring )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks \(indeed the difference might require you to beat up )] TJ ET BT 346.628 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(their)] TJ ET BT 369.296 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( peasants in lieu\): ?Debate?, 181.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.260 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.260 766.563 m 555.920 766.563 l S BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 90.344 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, to begin with, these historians? respective volumes of collected studies: Stephen D. 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