%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721091921+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721091921+01'00') /Title (The Invention of Altruism. Making Moral Meanings in Victorian Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1851 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Invention of Altruism. Making Moral Meanings in Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(757)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 April, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Dixon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780197264263)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(440pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beatrice Webb wrote in her first volume of autobiography, )] TJ ET BT 319.292 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(My Apprenticeship)] TJ ET BT 410.276 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that the age in which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew up was dominated by two ?idols of the mind?, namely a belief in scientific method and ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness of a new motive; the transference of the emotion of self-sacrificing service from God to man? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(quoted p. 249\). Auguste Comte was the prophet of both of these idols. On the one hand positivism stood for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ascendancy of scientific or positive explanations of the world, in place of theological and metaphysical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations. On the other hand, while it renounced theology, positivism proclaimed itself to be a deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious creed: there could be no social order without religion, but if a theological view of the world were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no longer intellectually credible, the object of worship must be transferred from something ?out there? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something ?down here?: from God to man, as Webb put it, or to Humanity collectively. The Comtist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Religion of Humanity? ? the original source of the adjective ?humanitarian? ? was a major influence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flight from self to selflessness in late 19th-century moral thought. The neologism that captured this new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethical mood was ?altruism?, a term which Comte effectively coined, and which, like other Comtean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neologisms, such as 'sociology', has been assimilated into the mainstream vocabulary of all western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. The process by which 'altruism' was assimilated into the English moral lexicon is the focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Dixon's outstanding new book, which has been expensively produced by OUP for the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academy's Postdoctoral Monographs series.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Altruism? had, and has, several analytically distinct meanings. It could refer to selfless motivations: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?psychological altruism?, as Dixon calls it. It could refer, alternatively, to actions which, irrespective of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention, benefit other people rather than the agent: ?behavioural altruism?. Or it could refer to an ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine which identifies the morally good with the good of others: ?ethical altruism? \(pp. 4-5\). The three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senses were intertwined in late Victorian usage, and it is one of the strengths of Dixon?s approach that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the word ?altruism? allows him to capture its conceptual ambiguities. But the third sense was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one which was most characteristic of the period, as Comtists and others stressed the importance of instilling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological altruism by means of education or religion so as to realise the aspirations of ethical altruism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a fundamental dimension of the intellectual history of the later Victorian period. Stefan Collini first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew historians? attention to it in a brilliant essay on ?the culture of altruism?, published in 1991, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon?s comprehensive study is to be welcomed as a major contribution to our understanding of the subject. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not a straightforward matter to write the history of moral sentiments, although if we think of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of ?humanity?, and ?fear?, it is perhaps a more fashionable pursuit today than it has been at any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time since the days of Lecky?s )] TJ ET BT 184.652 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of European Morals)] TJ ET BT 320.984 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Dixon?s approach is to frame his study as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise in what he calls ?word history?, or ?historical semantics?: it is the dissemination and gradual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance of the Comtean neologism that forms the core of his subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Word history' is not a new pursuit: one thinks, for instance, of Koebner's and Schmidt's classic study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term 'imperialism', published nearly half a century ago. But it is worth considering the value of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technique, if only because it is potentially one of the greatest beneficiaries of digitization: it is now possible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thanks to resources such as EEBO, ECCO and the Nineteenth-Century Pamphlets project to undertake in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of hours or days investigations which might formerly have consumed many months. It seems likely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, that the coming years will see further work of this kind. Does it enable us to answer the big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions? Does word history really matter, or is it a lazy way of pursuing conceptual and indeed intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon makes a cogent and convincing case for his approach. First, he contests the view, propounded most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famously by Quentin Skinner, that one can possess a concept - Skinner uses the example of 'originality' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milton - without knowing the meaning of a corresponding word. If Skinner is wrong on this, and Dixon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right, then ?conceptual history? ? the project pioneered by Reinhard Koselleck in Germany and propounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to English-speaking scholars by Melvin Richter ? cannot do without word history. They are not quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identical pursuits, since a word may correspond \(as 'altruism' did\) to several distinct concepts; but conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history must start with lexical history. Moreover, Dixon demonstrates that words \(and not simply the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts to which they correspond\) do matter. In the case of altruism, the concepts it articulated might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been expressed in an older language of 'charity' or 'benevolence', or alternatively in the language of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8106 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilitarianism or of co-operation. But if they had been so expressed, their resonance would have been very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different. It mattered that it was Comte's neologism that triumphed: the word 'altruism' was explicitly anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian in its origins, and aroused resistance on that account, as well as simply because it was a neologism; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it blurred the distinction between the three main concepts to which it could refer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the general case for word history, the semantic approach makes good sense here. On the one hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?culture of altruism?, as Collini calls it, was everywhere in the late Victorian period. On the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the word ?altruism? was a new coinage, and it had a difficult time gaining acceptance. The term ?altruism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was first used in English in 1852, by G. H. Lewes, in a discussion of Comte?s work in the )] TJ ET BT 468.320 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Westminster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 68.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For the next few decades it was commonly used in inverted commas, to indicate a neologism and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarous one to boot: like ?sociology?, it combined Latin and Greek elements in a way that offended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Victorian good taste. But Gladstone was using it in his reading notes in the 1870s, as the newly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digitized catalogue of his library allows us to establish, and by the 1890s the term was being widely used. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1894 an obituary in )] TJ ET BT 130.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 180.344 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could commend the work of the Revd George W. Herbert, of St Peter?s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vauxhall, in the following words: ?The spirit of altruism had rarely a more striking exemplification of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working than in the career of this meek and self-denying vicar of a South London parish.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.932 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.932 583.491 m 479.924 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.924 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaint Dixon has traced about this lexical import comes from a clergyman in a Gissing novel published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1901.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of the book is elegantly simple, and makes what might have been an intricate work highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readable and surprisingly easily navigable. Each chapter has a protagonist: not necessarily a proponent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term, but in each case someone who took a clear stance in relation to it. We start in James Murray?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scriptorium, with the collation of early uses of the term. It is an appropriate starting-point for a work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lexical history, and it supplies Dixon with his sub-heading: in an important sense, the Oxford English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary was where ?moral meanings? were made, as Murray?s dictionary both charted changing usage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conferred legitimacy on neologisms. From there, in chapter two, we move across the Channel, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comte?s apartment in the Rue Monsieur-le-Prince, just across the road from the Place de la Sorbonne, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bust still commemorates the inventor of altruism. Still in the same chapter, we return to Britain to explore a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of ?encounters with positivism?: Comte?s translators and interpreters, such as Lewes and Martineau; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the positivists themselves, such as Richard Congreve and J. H. Bridges; but also a range of others, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Sidgwick, who engaged critically with Comte?s work. Newton Hall, the positivists' meeting hall in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central London, is the setting for chapter three, on ?Death and Immortality?: it was there, on the last day of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1883, that George Eliot?s poem, ?O may I join the choir invisible?, was performed as a cantata at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Festival of all the Dead?. In chapter four we move to the Grosvenor Hotel, where that intriguing group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-Victorian intellectuals, the Metaphysical Society, puzzled over the implications of modern science for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith and morals: Darwin, though not himself a member of the Metaphysical Society, is the key figure here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with such leading lights of the society as R. H. Hutton, the critic, who engaged with Darwin?s legacy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Dixon indulges himself just a little \(and understandably\), and shows that Darwin?s self-appointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spokesmen today misconstrue what Darwin himself wanted to say. It was at the heart of his project to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the evolutionary uses of selfless behaviour, and he certainly did not suppose that the theory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural selection posited egoism as man?s innate characteristic; although it should be said that many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s contemporaries, as well as ours, mistook his purpose in this respect. From Darwin we move to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Herbert Spencer, the Radical?. Spencer was, )] TJ ET BT 255.608 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 299.948 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a prophet of the shift from ?militancy? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?industrialism?: modern society was characterized by differentiated heterogeneity and by voluntary co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation, and Spencer, though revolted by the collectivist turn of liberalism under Gladstone?s Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government, shared with many radicals a much greater revulsion against Disraelian imperialism, which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw as a throwback to the age of militancy, and this is the chapter in which we get the fullest account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the idea of altruism in the foreign policy debates of the time. Next we turn to the East End of London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the fictional settlement house established by Mrs Humphry Ward?s hero, Robert Elsmere, who was, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon puts it, ?one of the most famous ?altruists? of the century?: an enthusiast for humanity, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasm is brought into relief by being juxtaposed with the scepticism of the learned squire, Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wendover, whom Ward based on her first Oxford patron, Mark Pattison. Chapter seven then examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eugenics movement, and the Victorian cult of motherhood; while the final chapter constitutes an epilogue, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.9317 583.8055 479.9237 595.6855 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracing the Edwardian reaction against altruism led, in particular, by the disciples of G. E. Moore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an impressive cast. Dixon's book is not simply a study of great thinkers. Some of the most interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections of the book are the discussions of second- or third-order thinkers. They include James Hinton, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ear surgeon and early member of the Metaphysical Society, who was one of the keenest proponents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altruism, in which he saw a ?moral unity, ?myself in and for others??. Arabella Buckley, erstwhile secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Sir Charles Lyell, made herself one of the foremost popularizers of the moral implications of Darwinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas. In striking contrast to Darwin?s French translator, Clmence Royer, for whom Darwinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated that competition governed the world, Buckley \(like Darwin himself\) found that ?one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws of life which is as strong, if not stronger, than the law of force and selfishness, )] TJ ET BT 437.948 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is that of mutual help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and dependence)] TJ ET BT 111.656 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. William Roberts, later known as Ernest Newman, was a young Liverpool secularist of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s, a critic of Benjamin Kidd, and subsequently the leading British authority on Wagner. He defended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oscar Wilde?s somewhat Nietzschean teaching that imaginative hedonism was a superior ethical stance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philistine self-sacrifice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lexical approach is \(in this case\) a tremendously fruitful way of trying to capture an ethical shift which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is often remarked upon but difficult to chart. But how full an account of the intellectual history of altruism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do we get from Dixon?s lexical history?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I found myself wondering whether the lexical approach does not have the effect of exaggerating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularist filiations of altruism. Dixon?s protagonists ? Comte, George Eliot, Darwin, Spencer, the fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Elsmere and his creator, Mrs Humphry Ward - all belong to the worlds of secularism or religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism. That may well be an accurate appraisal of the connotations of the word altruism ? its adoption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the world of religious orthodoxy was slow, because it was coined by Comte and integrally connected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his religion of humanity, whose injunction, ?Live for Others?, stood in implicit or sometimes explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antithesis to the injunction to ?Live for God?. But an intellectual or moral history of altruism ? that is to say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a history less concerned with the word itself, and more with a cluster of values, embracing notions of )] TJ ET BT 521.936 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(service)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and philantropy and humanitarian duty, would surely embrace shifts within Christian theology. A central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme in what Boyd Hilton has characterized as the emergence of an incarnational theology was that service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to God is best performed through service to man. F. D. Maurice, who is, curiously enough, barely mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Dixon?s book, would rightly claim a central place in such an intellectual history; and in reading this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I wondered whether a parallel history might be written of the idea of ?co-operation?, with Maurice playing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading role, though he did not coin the term. Among European ?secular? thinkers, Mazzini was a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence: not mentioned in this book, and perhaps rightly, but a crucial figure in the shift to a cult of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?service? \(duty not rights; and duty to humanity\). What Maurice, Mazzini and their followers highlighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the role played by service to the 'little platoon' in cultivating the larger service of humanity: 'patriotism', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular, did not stand in opposition to the universal love of humanity, but served as a school of altruism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon is far too subtle a scholar to have any truck with this kind of reductionism, but those who still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construe late Victorian intellectual debates in terms of a conflict between science and religion overlook the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable degree of overlap between Christian theologians and secularist moralists. Nietzsche wrote that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was because ?bluestockings? such as George Eliot lacked his courage to confront the implications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rejection of the Christian faith: if the doctrine is wrong, so are the moral teachings. But was he right? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The positivists and their sympathizers ? Eliot and J. S. Mill as well as the hard-line doctrinaires ? rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity on ethical as well as scientific grounds: altruism was not Christianity without the theology, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an altogether higher moral system, though one that certainly drew on Christian insights. Conversely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology moved in a direction that shadowed this humanitarian turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon is in general good in giving due attention to those who voiced scepticism about the neologism, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are some surprising omissions among the critics of altruism. The most striking, to my mind, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurist and polemicist James Fitzjames Stephen, who was surely one of the most important critics of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries? weakness for the vogue for ?humanitarianism? and ?altruism?. For Stephen, 'altruism' could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only mean acting from someone else's motives, and was therefore an absurdity; just as 'selfishness' ? acting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from one's own motives ? was redundant. 'Self is each man?s centre, from which he can no more displace )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4837 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself than he can leap off his own shadow?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.304 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.304 795.075 m 270.296 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One problem with 'word history' is that the process by which a word becomes assimilated is not likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspond very precisely with the history of the currents of thought with which it is associated. In the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of altruism, the point at which the word became fully domesticated coincided ? half a century after its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction ? with the questioning of the vogue for altruism in advanced intellectual circles. For though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon tells us \(p. 9\) that in the last two decades of the 19th century altruism was ?the fashionable watchword )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the day, on the lips of many a campaigner and social reformer?, the online Hansard reveals only two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usages in the 19th century, both from 1895, and by, as it happens, two notable figures: Timothy Healy, later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first Governor-General of the Irish Free State, and Sir Charles Dilke. It was only in the first decade of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century that the term started to be at all common in parliamentary debates. Yet this was the decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the ethical doctrine of altruism was starting to wilt under the assault of Moore and his Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allies. Dixon is aware of this paradoxical aspect of his subject: on the one hand, it is the story of the slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assimilation of a neologism that now forms part of our everyday moral lexicon; on the other hand, his book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructs a late Victorian obsession that now seems very remote indeed. Much the same might by said of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comte: in his encyclopaedic ambitions and grandiose construction of a secular religion, he is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quintessentially 19th-century figure whose works are unread today; yet in a curious way he can also be read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the prophet of our age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 113.684 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 November 1894.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 489.459 m 269.324 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leslie Stephen, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen)] TJ ET BT 333.668 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1895\), p. 334. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 460.947 m 118.004 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/vic/summary/v052/52.2.koven.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 406.179 m 343.700 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 346.700 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/2/486.extract)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 377.667 m 296.996 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.996 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 374.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 356.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 356.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/757)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 355.161 m 322.316 355.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3735)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/vic/summary/v052/52.2.koven.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.984 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/2/486.extract)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.3037 795.3895 270.2957 807.2695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3357 489.7735 269.3237 501.6535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 461.2615 118.0037 473.1415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 406.4935 343.6997 418.3735 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/vic/summary/v052/52.2.koven.html) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 377.9815 296.9957 389.8615 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/2/486.extract) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 355.4755 322.3157 367.3555 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/757) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000579 00000 n 0000000661 00000 n 0000002564 00000 n 0000002673 00000 n 0000002783 00000 n 0000002892 00000 n 0000006453 00000 n 0000006581 00000 n 0000006665 00000 n 0000006730 00000 n 0000014237 00000 n 0000014321 00000 n 0000022480 00000 n 0000022510 00000 n 0000022638 00000 n 0000022674 00000 n 0000022739 00000 n 0000030238 00000 n 0000030357 00000 n 0000035247 00000 n 0000035277 00000 n 0000035405 00000 n 0000035441 00000 n 0000035569 00000 n 0000035624 00000 n 0000035751 00000 n 0000035806 00000 n 0000035933 00000 n 0000036046 00000 n 0000036173 00000 n 0000036280 00000 n 0000036408 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36503 %%EOF