%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728195001+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728195001+01'00') /Title (Radicalism and Cultural Dislocation in Ethiopia, 1960?1974) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4960 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Radicalism and Cultural Dislocation in Ethiopia, 1960?1974)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we approach the 20th anniversary of the seizure of power by the current Ethiopian government ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopian People?s Revolutionary Democratic Front \(EPRDF\) ? a government which has shown itself ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more determined to monopolise power indefinitely, it is increasingly apposite to examine the roots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political modernity in Ethiopia. To a very real degree, those roots can be discerned in the late 1960s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1970s, when a radicalised generation emerged to challenge the imperial regime of Haile Selassie; many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the current government became politicised in that critical period, that brief era of revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential before the revolution itself, which overthrew Haile Selassie in September 1974, was hijacked by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the military establishment known as the )] TJ ET BT 228.008 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dergue)] TJ ET BT 263.996 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.996 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.996 186.393 m 280.988 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.988 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Understanding the events of that period, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes by which students and soldiers alike embraced new ideologies in their attempt to remake Ethiopia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has therefore never been more important, while it may be that sufficient time has now passed for a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sober assessment of that generation?s successes and failures. This is precisely what Messay Kebede has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted in this original and thought-provoking study. There are now a number of fine studies of the origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nature of the )] TJ ET BT 117.992 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dergue)] TJ ET BT 153.980 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as its aftermath )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.960 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.960 115.113 m 286.952 115.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 286.952 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; this was the brutal regime which governed Ethiopia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1974 until its own overthrow in 1991, defined by its militant Marxism in the face of socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis \(including the 1984?5 famine\), vicious intolerance of political opposition, and the wars in Eritrea and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tigray which eventually brought it to its knees. Yet Messay Kebede?s book approaches the subject from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat different angle, namely the radicalisation of Ethiopian students in the 1960s and early 1970s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(758)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 May, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Messay Kebede)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781580462914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(247pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Rochester Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rochester, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Reid)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.9957 186.7075 280.9877 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.9597 115.4275 286.9517 127.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7751 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political and cultural implications of that radicalisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The key focus is the appeal of Marxism-Leninism to a generation of students and intellectuals \(although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelming concern is for the former\), and the role of Haile Selassie?s supposedly ?modern? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately elitist education policy in producing an educated elite willing to embrace such radical ideas. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a new elite which became simultaneously radicalised and dislocated from their own culture. Messay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds, perhaps unsurprisingly, that a number of factors drove forward radicalisation in general, and rendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism-Leninism especially attractive; but he concludes that, in the end, this generation failed to effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political reform, or indeed to do anything more than mimic foreign ideologues. This book may be considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of a follow-up to Bahru Zewde?s assessment of Ethiopia?s early 20-century intellectuals )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.940 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.940 669.027 m 528.932 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.932 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older generation which certainly grappled with the omnipresent issue of ?modernisation?, which served to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence later generations, but whose shortcomings between the 1930s and the 1950s arguably facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the violent radicalisation of the 1960s and 1970s. At the very least, the jury is out on what has been achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the latter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following an introductory overview of the rise of student radicalism in Ethiopia ? in which Messay contends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the spread of Marxism-Leninism was sudden and rapid, disconnected with anything that had gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, and rejects other scholars who argue for an ?evolutionary? understanding of radical politics ? there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an assessment of education policy under Haile Selassie. Ultimately, student radicalism was the symptom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disconnection which was itself the product of failed education policy. It was a process which led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of an elite which tended to mimic foreign models and import foreign ideas rather than develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organic solutions to Ethiopia?s apparent problems; the revolutionary element ? what Messay describes as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cultural disposition to utopia? \(p.103\) ? was facilitated by Ethiopia?s messianic Christian culture. It was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short step from revelation to revolution. Violent revolution was deemed necessary as the Church was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected and atheism embraced. While ?traditional? culture and old-fashioned nationalism was rejected, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism-Leninism filled the vacuum, as it allowed for an ?upgraded?, novel and radical nationalism; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxically, perhaps, it also helped foster anti-Western sentiment, as Marx and Lenin could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriated accordingly. A range of other causes of radicalism are assessed, finally: from the somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mundane but critical issue of living conditions, to the anti-Americanism demonstrable elsewhere in the globe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this time, to a heightened sense of ethno-nationalist consciousness. Students were also ?repressed?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove radicalisation ? although they were not repressed not too much, for in fact there was a space within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they could operate. The imperial regime, it seems, did not take them )] TJ ET BT 396.632 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(too)] TJ ET BT 411.968 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seriously, which in itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed student radicalism to flourish; more on that later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s central contention is the failure of the ?modernisation? project, the failure of impassioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students to ?indigenise? \(p. 89\) or go beyond mere mimicry; there were no genuinely homespun intellectuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who might ?upgrade? traditional culture \(p. 100\), only students who imported wholesale foreign ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to render these applicable to Ethiopia?s particular problems. The outcome, too, was the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an elitism \(p. 90\), which developed with the opening up of a yawning gulf between the ?old? and the ?new?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These self-appointed modernising elites were in some respects similar to European colonial elites elsewhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Africa, he suggests \(p. 99\), although scholars of the colonial experience may raise their eyebrows at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim. Nonetheless the argument will resonate with those who have examined the attitudes and programmes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of guerrilla movements ? many of which, in northeast Africa, grew out of student movements ? who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently appointed themselves to ?change the people? and rejected rafts of ?traditional culture? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause of grassroots revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ironically, perhaps, there were aspects of that same ?traditional culture? which facilitated such revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fervour, notably the messianism in Ethiopian culture, specifically the peculiar Christianity of the highlands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the God-given role for Ethiopia described in )] TJ ET BT 269.972 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kebra Negast)] TJ ET BT 336.308 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the country?s ancient national epic. Messay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the compelling argument that this dramatic, messianic component in Ethiopia?s self-image facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the acceptance among young educated elites of Marxism-Leninism, and radical revolution \(pp.103?19\). At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time, however, students increasingly questioned ? and many rejected ? the role of the Church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?traditional religion?, arguing for the total demolition of the past in order to achieve progress. There was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fair amount of mutual misunderstanding between educated youth and the state in this regard, witness the role )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.9397 669.3415 528.9317 681.2215 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8161 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played by the revivalist )] TJ ET BT 149.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Haimanote-Abew)] TJ ET BT 233.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?faith of our fathers?\) Ethiopian Students Association, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used by the imperial regime to defend ?traditional values? whereas its members believed it was in fact a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to reform \(pp.135)] TJ ET BT 152.660 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ff)] TJ ET BT 159.332 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The latter were soon disappointed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some readers, especially historians, may find the numerous wanderings into philosophy and theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distracting, and even a little irritating; on occasion the Ethiopian story at the heart of the analysis is lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporarily, and patches of the discussion have a somewhat ahistorical feel. Certainly, those seeking a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of events between 1960 and 1974 will be disappointed at times, and would do better to check )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andargachew Tiruneh?s account, or even \(for the early 1960s\) Greenfield?s discussion of early student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.008 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.008 669.027 m 101.000 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.000 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is frequent reference to ?traditional? culture, but this needed to be problematised and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed somewhat more rigorously; it suggests ? as the use of the term often does ? something rather more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stagnant and static than was surely the case. Aside from this, there are some sins of omission, at least from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(your reviewer?s standpoint. Arguably, there is rather too much treatment of the student body as a monolithic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloc; there are only occasional glimpses of difference and division within it. The focus on youthful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicisation and student politics might have been set alongside a clearer picture of their teachers ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with Paris in 1968 might be instructive ? and indeed the intellectual community at large. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer was interested to know what impact much of this had on the writing and researching of Ethiopian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in the immediate aftermath of 1974; many scholars who were the product of the era under discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? including Taddesse Tamrat ? moved abroad, but what influence did these events have on their view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopia?s past? Who were the intellectuals involved in these events, moreover? Something of the detail of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahru Zewde?s book ? with which Messay might have engaged a little more thoroughly ? would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome. That said, it is clear that Messay believes the students of the 1960s were far removed, in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action and ideas, from the intellectual reformers of the earlier 20th century; it is just possible that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overstates this level of disconnection, for whatever the degree of radicalism of the 1960s and early 1970s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and however removed they )] TJ ET BT 167.312 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(felt )] TJ ET BT 185.648 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to be, the students of this era surely must be considered part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer-term reformist tradition. At the very least they were the product, again, of their predecessors? failings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some might take issue with the assertion on p. 139 that other ?colonised? peoples in Africa engaged in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?defence of tradition? in rejecting colonial rule, and achieving decolonisation; this is an odd and ill-advised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remark. While the violent radicalism of Ethiopia in 1974 may have been avoided elsewhere, there were other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of modernity being applied by new Western-educated elites across the continent. It was not unique to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be suggested that at times the book perhaps overcomplicates a reasonably common phenomenon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism-Leninism ? or variations of it ? was, after all, the political activist?s ideology of choice in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s; so why not Ethiopia? It offered neat answers to the problem of nationalities in the post-colony; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitated, at least in the rhetoric, the kind of mass mobilisation necessary to achieve the desired revolution; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it also facilitated the kind of political control which leaders craved. Furthermore, little mention is made here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the trans-national nature of many such movements: the Sudanese Communist Party, for example, had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major influence on the early Eritrean nationalist movement. Were Ethiopian students influenced by leftist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations in neighbouring territories? In the end, of course, one might wonder what the students had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually achieved: the )] TJ ET BT 141.656 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dergue)] TJ ET BT 177.644 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( swiftly steamrolled student protest out of the way, and indeed marshalled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students themselves for its own ends. As the author himself suggests, the students assisted in the overthrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an autocracy only for it to be replaced by an even more severe one. Yet perhaps they are not to be blamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for failing to foresee how Marxism-Leninism would prove inappropriate in addressing Ethiopia?s problems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact is that there were a number of very good reasons for embracing it; many Africans did so in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Nor were Ethiopian students to blame for failing to predict how the )] TJ ET BT 396.632 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dergue)] TJ ET BT 432.620 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would respond to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive internal and external crises of the second half of the 1970s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a sense, of course, the author has produced what sometimes reads an indictment of, and perhaps a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mea culpa)] TJ ET BT 83.672 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on behalf of, his own generation: to some extent it may also be read as a somewhat depressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of what he and his colleagues were able to do ? or not do, encumbered as they were by borrowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology. It would have been fascinating to read a concluding chapter linking the period under examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the current situation in both Ethiopia and Eritrea: the governments of the two countries are descended )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.0077 669.3415 100.9997 681.2215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8405 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the radical politics of the student movement, including both Meles Zenawi and Isaias Afeworki, yet ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or, perhaps, subsequently ? both have demonstrated, in their different ways, marked degrees of intolerance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward student protest, or indeed any kind of protest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 considers the adaptability of ?traditional? culture versus the detachment of students from it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism-Leninism becomes adapted into Ethiopian politics, at least in part as an expression of defiance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against and rejection of the West; and yet we are told that Eurocentrism had effectively removed young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopians from ?traditional? culture. We need to be very clear what the various adaptations and rejections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually amount to, and what they represent. At any rate Messay suggests that an ?unrenovated nationalism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 163\) meant that they could not uphold ?old Ethiopia?, and this was in itself alienating. China is held by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up the author as a useful comparison. Like their Chinese counterparts, young Ethiopians were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously rejecting the older values and older representations of what Ethiopia meant, and turning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols of resistance which were external in origin but which could still be used ?against? the West. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, however, a certain strain in the argument that student radicals also emerged because of the ?highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressive imperial state? \(p. 24\), and yet we are told that the state?s attitude toward the students was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually rather more lenient than all that, and that they were regarded as errant children, chastised and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgiven \(p. 185\). Perhaps this matters little, and it is more about the perception on the part of students that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state was repressive which was important. Certainly, when confronted with a )] TJ ET BT 423.944 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(truly )] TJ ET BT 449.612 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressive state ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dergue)] TJ ET BT 70.004 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( itself ? student protest was largely silenced, or at least driven to the bush. The difference between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eras of Haile Selassie and Mengistu Haile Mariam was in the level of physical danger involved ? and there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a comparison to be made here with the oppression of students in modern Eritrea, for example. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what these eras do share is the denial of freedom of expression, for, as Messay puts it, ?when a theory is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banned ? it takes the character of being true without any examination of its actual merits. If it is banned, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students say, it must be true? \(p.32\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this is a thoughtful, provocative and insightful book, essential reading for anyone interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopia during the revolutionary years of the 1960s and 1970s, and the era of political radicalisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa and Asia more broadly. This is a book which grapples with such fundamental themes as elitism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity, education and development, intertwining them and offering new perspectives on how revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly defined, goes awry, despite best intentions. It is a sad tale, in many respects, particularly in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how a young, educated, radical elite can fail so spectacularly, and become so detached from their ?own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture? in the process of becoming radicalised that it renders any possibility for change impossible. Ethiopia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1960 and 1974 is an extreme scenario, to be sure; but it remains a problem for many African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies. It is, perhaps, the ultimate development paradox. Messay raises interesting questions throughout: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why )] TJ ET BT 57.680 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do)] TJ ET BT 69.680 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( young people adhere to particular ideologies and dogmas at any given point? And, conversely, why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do they reject others? He also highlights the fundamental paradox of modernising authoritarianism ? whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imperial regime of Haile Selassie, or European colonial rule ? in that by its very nature it contains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of its own destruction. Haile Selassie doomed himself through his own education policy; but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated, it seems, were doomed to fail, too, for reasons eloquently and thoughtfully explored in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The word is Amharic for ?committee?, and was the common term for the Provisional Military )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Administrative Council, as the post-imperial government was formally known.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.652 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.652 178.083 m 496.640 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example Andargachew Tiruneh, )] TJ ET BT 258.620 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ethiopian Revolution, 1974?1987: a Transformation )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from an Aristocratic to a Totalitarian Autocracy)] TJ ET BT 296.696 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\); )] TJ ET BT 397.352 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remapping Ethiopia: Socialism )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and After)] TJ ET BT 109.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W.James )] TJ ET BT 179.000 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 200.000 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Oxford, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.648 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.648 135.315 m 335.636 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahru Zewde, )] TJ ET BT 134.996 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pioneers of Change in Ethiopia: the Reformist Intellectuals of the Early Twentieth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century)] TJ ET BT 102.680 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.328 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.328 106.803 m 235.316 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andargachew Tiruneh, )] TJ ET BT 177.644 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ethiopian Revolution)] TJ ET BT 300.980 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, passim; R.Greenfield, )] TJ ET BT 414.968 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopia)] TJ ET BT 456.308 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: a New Political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.340 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.340 78.291 m 235.328 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 53.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 39.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.6517 178.3975 496.6397 190.2775 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.6477 135.6295 335.6357 147.5095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.3277 107.1175 235.3157 118.9975 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.3397 78.6055 235.3277 90.4855 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 972 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 795.075 m 154.700 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/758)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3736)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/northeast_african_studies/v011/11.1.eshete.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 795.3895 154.6997 807.2695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/northeast_african_studies/v011/11.1.eshete.html) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/758) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000005676 00000 n 0000005785 00000 n 0000005895 00000 n 0000006004 00000 n 0000009565 00000 n 0000009693 00000 n 0000009777 00000 n 0000009806 00000 n 0000009934 00000 n 0000009970 00000 n 0000009999 00000 n 0000010127 00000 n 0000010163 00000 n 0000010247 00000 n 0000018051 00000 n 0000018081 00000 n 0000018209 00000 n 0000018245 00000 n 0000018329 00000 n 0000026543 00000 n 0000026573 00000 n 0000026700 00000 n 0000026736 00000 n 0000026841 00000 n 0000035299 00000 n 0000035427 00000 n 0000035482 00000 n 0000035610 00000 n 0000035665 00000 n 0000035793 00000 n 0000035848 00000 n 0000035974 00000 n 0000036029 00000 n 0000036120 00000 n 0000037144 00000 n 0000037271 00000 n 0000037430 00000 n 0000037558 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37653 %%EOF