%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930071911+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930071911+01'00') /Title (Hard and Unreal Advice: Mothers, Social Science and the Victorian Poverty Experts) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4410 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hard and Unreal Advice: Mothers, Social Science and the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poverty Experts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a fresh and)] TJ ET BT 125.000 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptive work which seeks to examine the assumptions and methodology of Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Edwardian poverty experts. Professor Martin reviews research undertaken by such familiar figures as T. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Malthus, Edwin Chadwick, Helen Bosanquet, Charles Booth and Beatrice Webb; through this, Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also aims to provide a structural critique of the work of more recent poverty experts such as Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Banfield and Charles Murray: ?What Murray is doing, in a very real sense, is Victorian social science. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone familiar with the Victorian social science of poverty recognizes immediately in Murray?s analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of public welfare its typical concerns, techniques, assumptions, blind spots and behavioral models? \(p. vii\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 165.009 m 48.008 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent nuanced reviews of the development of sociological practice, sensitive to issues of gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicity, have been complemented by exciting works of cultural-historical scholarship, and Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin?s book contributes to these fields. While she develops a cogent thesis about the ?personal defects? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory of poverty and the intellectual advancement of poverty studies, she does not engage explicitly with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some significant British cultural scholarship: it would be interesting to see how )] TJ ET BT 417.332 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hard and Unreal Advice,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which makes effective use of the work of Seth Koven and Mary Poovey, would utilize the arguments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Mort or Eileen Yeo.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.660 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.660 53.217 m 175.652 53.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.652 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Martin makes no direct reference to the work of Jos Harris, whose position, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(759)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 May, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Callanan Martin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230201897)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(229pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victoria Le Fevre)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 165.3235 48.0077 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.6597 53.5315 175.6517 65.4115 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8294 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, on the Edwardian Royal Commission and the development of professional casework, chimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with her own.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.340 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.340 780.819 m 114.332 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.332 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, notwithstanding these \(essentially British\) grievances, Martin sets her material to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work with insight and concision, aiming to examine )] TJ ET BT 286.340 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(particular assumptions )] TJ ET BT 400.352 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within )] TJ ET BT 434.024 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(particular models)] TJ ET BT 519.692 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social investigation. To achieve this, she deals with approaches to )] TJ ET BT 352.640 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a specific subdivision)] TJ ET BT 455.972 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of welfare policy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she has selected for study that which she sees as prompting the most emotional discussion and revealing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least scrutinized assumptions about the behaviour of the poor ? support for impoverished women with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent children. She acknowledges that the ideas which she examines were not universal, nor were they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncontested ? but stresses that they were popular and that they still inform much debate on welfare policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is why we should pay close attention to them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter one, Martin tells us that, ?Much of this volume will be concerned with the role of the emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social sciences in the construction, maintenance and evaluation of the Victorian Poor Law.?\(p.12\) The key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frames of reference for Martin?s study are the Royal Commissions on the Poor Law of 1832?4 and 1905?9, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter being composed of poverty experts trained in a social scientific tradition developed in the interim. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rejecting the dichotomy of individualism versus collectivism which has marked much scholarship on late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian social theory in her search for ?the logic behind the apparent illogic that characterized Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Edwardian poverty policy? \(p. 8\), Martin emphasizes the common ground between the Majority and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minority Reports of the Edwardian Royal Commission, and of their shared similarity to the report of 1834 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an assumption that there is something fundamentally wrong with poor people besides a lack of money: ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key to understanding this continuity is to ask a very different question from the ones historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian poor law have always asked ? [W]e shall ask ? what did the poverty experts of the period know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the poor, and how did they know it?? \(p. 7\) In order to answer these questions, Martin lays the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groundwork for her contention that comparable, customary cultural assumptions and irrationality connect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations and conclusions of these commissions. In chapter two, she considers their composition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives a brief review of their findings, noting involvement by many members of the Edwardian Commission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Charity Organisation Society \(COS\), a body committed to the suppression of indiscriminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almsgiving within an overwhelmingly moralistic interpretation of poverty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter three, Martin steps back to consider the impact on the configuration of English poverty research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?popular Protestantism.? Having discussed the ?puritan asceticism? informing )] TJ ET BT 425.300 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pilgrim?s Progress)] TJ ET BT 518.972 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which bodily suffering is viewed as trifling in the context of the soul?s journey, Martin focuses upon Samuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smiles?s )] TJ ET BT 79.688 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Self Help)] TJ ET BT 124.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, making this crucial observation: ?So thoroughly assimilated as to be more or less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invisible, Bunyan?s imagery of the moral journey of Christian has become the topography of the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of a life?s progress.? \(p. 24\) Martin surveys a nonconformist view of man?s depravity, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant evangelical belief in general providence, bound up with hostility to any social policy viewed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interfering with God?s operation of the world. These ideas, she asserts, conditioned not only the thinking of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general providential Protestants involved with the 1832?4 Royal Commission such as Nassau William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Senior, but the reasoning of apparently secular late Victorian poverty experts, who transformed theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts into social scientific ones: from providence to ?natural law? to political economy and science. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin?s list of those 19th-century poverty experts drawn from a Unitarian background, and the discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Unitarian influence on the COS, is suggestive: Martin recasts the Organisation?s attacks on the activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Salvation Army in terms of doctrinal differences between ?general? and ?special? providential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions in Protestantism. She relates the arguments of the COS and others against indiscriminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almsgiving to ?religious? habits of mind and outlines an association between Bunyan?s equation of physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardship with spiritual attainment, the educational dissemination of notions of self help, the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?character,? and the primacy of the will ubiquitous in Victorian thought and stressed in philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idealism. Religious notions ?invisible? to social scientists, Martin asserts, made a vital contribution to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian poverty theory that did not take material deprivation very seriously and was more concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pauperism and indiscriminate almsgiving than with mass poverty. Clearly this is a different-though-related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion to that concerning the religious context of British idealism, and provides intriguing reading in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of arguments for the communitarian and the flexible in late Victorian social thought.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.956 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.956 86.787 m 491.948 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter four, Martin considers the reform of poor relief in the 1830s in relation to the Political Economy )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.3397 781.1335 114.3317 793.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.9557 87.1015 491.9477 98.9815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8016 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Club, utilitarianism and the ideas of Malthus. In order to highlight bias and illogic in the testimony before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royal Commission of 1832, she examines statements relating to the provisions governing bastardy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the tensions between Malthusian premises \(that people marry without forethought\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions of calculation in response to the availability of payments. Employing the established abstract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of )] TJ ET BT 87.332 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(homo economicus)] TJ ET BT 173.648 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Martin posits ?economic woman?, perfidious speculator, motivated only by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic considerations, as a dominant representation of poor women in evidence before the Commission. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The figure of ?economic woman?, concludes Martin, was not recognized by Members of Parliament, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected the Royal Commission?s remedy of overhauling the bastardy provisions to place full responsibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for illegitimate children on their mothers.)] TJ ET BT 235.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviewing the significance accorded by witnesses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commissioners to the provision of family allowances in the decision-making processes of impoverished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, Martin contends that the conduct of the poor was interpreted according to moral presupposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than empirical observation, this presupposition being entirely consistent with Protestant notional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations between sin, idleness and poverty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elements of her discussion of the complex)] TJ ET BT 240.992 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural connections made between vice, poverty and disease, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems of obtaining and deploying data and of bias in survey design, will be familiar to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquainted with the work of diverse cultural historians. The core achievement of this book, however, is its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct synthesis of material in a well defined narrative of the conditioning of apparently secular ideas by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hidden? religiously-informed assumptions. In chapter five, Martin traces the history of the Public Health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movement, the Statistical Movement and the Social Science Movement, utilizing material by such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently dissimilar)] TJ ET BT 138.008 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures as Edwin Chadwick and Seebohm Rowntree to tease out shared underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and their significance to the structure and methods of social investigation. Highlighting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization of data in Chadwick?s )] TJ ET BT 206.984 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sanitary Report)] TJ ET BT 283.316 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Martin states, ?Late Victorian research on the health of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poor displays the legacy of Chadwick?s choices: only that which takes place in the home is relevant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health? \(p. 68\). Martin?s discussion of the COS discloses the assumptions of moral deficiency which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlie professional casework: casework thus figures in her thesis as evidence of continuing religiously-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived structures of understanding within social investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six provides a clear and concise discussion of the use within poverty studies of ideas and metaphors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from the biological sciences. Martin stresses the plasticity and vagueness of biological metaphor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of such metaphor in shaping perceptions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.644 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.644 371.907 m 284.636 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.636 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She locates notions of heredity, recapitulation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common foundational concepts of evolutionary anthropology and contemporary social theory within a multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary context, stressing the compatibility of ?hidden? religious and secular notions of sin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savagery, of morality, political economy and biology. Not least, she argues, viewing the poor as savage or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childlike reinforced the ?therapeutic casework? model of social intervention, which inferred the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superintendence of the pauperized from their social status rather than from empirical analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter seven, Martin considers the \(pseudo\) ?scientific? methods employed by Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social investigators, developing yet further her foundational analysis of the flawed practice of the 1832 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission in terms of an unsound ?ancestry? of much subsequent poverty research: )] TJ ET BT 449.288 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 486.296 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( theorizing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on unexamined assumptions, defines the focus of investigation so as to preclude unwelcome evidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in evaluating conduct in terms of individual choice rather than in terms of social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints upon choice. Martin?s discussion of the use of ?ideal types? by Helen Bosanquet and by more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent authors such as Charles Murray illustrates how speculation can read as if it were the outcome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical investigation. Martin also reviews issues of data selection and use, drawing parallels between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices of the 1832 Royal Commission and the 1904 Inter-departmental Committee on Physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deterioration. Likewise, she traces a continuance of bias, particularly with regard to survey design and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of witnesses, between the 1832?4 and 1905?9 Poor Law Commissions. Attempts to cancel bias, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the limits of such attempts, by Charles Booth, Beatrice Webb and Maude Pember Reeves, are critiqued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of profound assumptions of the defective characteristics of impoverished people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author asserts the dominance of this personal defects theory in England and America. A poverty survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken by the COS of New York in 1908 attempted to include all factors present in the cases on its rolls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without assuming their significance or agency in the poverty of those concerned. Nonetheless, as Martin )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.6437 372.2215 284.6357 384.1015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 4606 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates, the importance of ?defect of character? was purposely inflated in the published findings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.572 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.572 795.075 m 509.564 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.564 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then examines Helen Bosanquet?s review of Reeves?s )] TJ ET BT 297.620 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Round)] TJ ET BT 331.952 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(About a Pound A Week)] TJ ET BT 443.264 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a study of working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class London housewives which had attempted to proceed from evidence to conclusions. She identifies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of Bosanquet counter-arguments as unsupported supposition about the character and motivations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor people. Martin sees the response of theorists such as Bosanquet to accumulations of data from studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Booth, Reeves, and Rowntree, which indicated that poverty might be owing to circumstances beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the poor, in terms of the establishment of befuddling ?loops of cultural transmission that confound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause and effect? \(p. 133\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight consists of three case studies in )] TJ ET BT 255.320 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 292.328 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 19th-century social science, through which Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues her fruitful strategy of focusing on sociological approaches to the behaviour of impoverished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. The case studies treat analyses of ?uneconomic? purchasing by East End mothers, maternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ignorance? on the part of slum mothers, and a number of Victorian infant life assurance scares in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor mothers were assumed to be killing or neglecting their children on a large scale. Drawing on witness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony before the 1904 Inter-departmental Committee on Physical)] TJ ET BT 369.980 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deterioration as well as the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such distinct social investigators as Seebohm Rowntree and Helen Bosanquet, Martin demonstrates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories relating to ?reckless improvidence? and careless or ignorant parenting by slum mothers ignored the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints of low earnings, insanitary housing and social custom. As a result, poor families? attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain social respectability were misconstrued as tokens of callousness or improvidence. Martin traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent association of poverty and laziness invoked by such figures as Octavia Hill, Beatrice Webb and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Bosanquet ? all hailing from Unitarian backgrounds ? to an English Protestant tradition equating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty with idleness, ignorance and sin. Charles Booth?s blending of empirical observation and ?moral? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation has been discussed by various scholars, but here the agnostic Booth?s particular and irrational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of laziness as a plausible cause for prostitution is located in a well-established Puritan tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Martin points to the strong Unitarian influence in Booth?s upbringing\). The analysis of the Victorian infant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life assurance scares revisits the same model of purposeful and heartless ?economic woman? which Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found to be present in testimony before the 1832?4 Poor Law Commission. The same inconsistency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develops in the case of the assurance scares: the irrational spendthrift, devoid of foresight, is simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of long-term financial speculation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.5717 795.3895 509.5637 807.2695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8230 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter nine, the author?s consideration of questions which 19th-century poverty experts did )] TJ ET BT 494.600 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 509.936 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ask )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves further to expose the unexamined status of assumptions regarding, for example, significantly greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption of alcohol among the poorest in society, and the supposed lack of commitment of the poor to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work ethic. A telling disinterest on the part of Victorian social investigators in the drinking habits and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work-related motivation of other social classes has left us with insufficient evidence for comparison. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight still further the structural bias of Victorian social science, Martin considers an experimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-hypothesis to the personal defects theory: ?[That] Immoral behavior causes poverty only among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people who are economically vulnerable in the first place. For most of the poor, immoral behavior is either a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary cause of poverty, a result of poverty, or not involved? \(p. 163\). Martin suggests that if this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption were made, different factors would be considered and in consequence entirely different policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be indicated. She then explores possible explanations for the loyalty of so many Victorian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian researchers to the personal defects theory of poverty. In connection with what she calls the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conspiracy Theory, in which approaches to poverty would be an unproblematic exercise in social control, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she acknowledges that dissenting perspectives were heard and published during the 19th century. Vitally, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone who believed in the personal defects theory had an economic stake in it. For Martin, what she calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?comforting ideas theory?, )] TJ ET BT 182.984 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in conjunction with)] TJ ET BT 275.660 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( forms of cultural inertia and the usefulness to the status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quo of particular approaches to poverty, serve as a feasible explanation of widespread acceptance of harsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealings with the poor: the discarding of notions of divine providence and economic fairness would come at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too high a personal and cultural price for most people. Martin then summarizes her core argument in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten, and, having acknowledged that the theorists she has surveyed were among the pioneers of social science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking the advantage of established procedures, she turns accusingly to the work of Charles Murray and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Banfield, late 20th-century poverty experts in whose studies she identifies the same unexamined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions and structures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a bold and timely work of cultural history - albeit those working to specify the communitarian in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century social thought, and to counter the perceived ?caricaturing? of the COS by some social control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists, may have reservations. It goes almost without saying, too, that those eager for radical welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform at the present time will dispute Martin?s analysis. For this reviewer, the academic value of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies in its forthright treatment of religious ideas as just one more category of thought within a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis of material, and the resulting, at times startling, perspective offered on 19th- \(and 20th-\) century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social scientific method. Clearly Martin does not seek to ?explain? Charles Booth and his works reductively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms only of his Unitarian upbringing: she seeks to pinpoint and ?explain? certain assumptions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures within Victorian social science, and identifies these elements within the work of Charles Booth, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate. Eschewing ?straightforward? social control theories, Martin takes care to locate and examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which some of the theorists whose work she considers )] TJ ET BT 355.304 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 370.640 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( attempt, with varying levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success, to excise bias. Altogether, this tightly-structured study makes for stimulating and suggestive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading; in historical terms, though accessible, it may prove most beneficial to those already familiar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the \(interdisciplinary\) territory. Meanwhile, in terms of a combative and thought-provoking contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current welfare debate, I suggest that this book merits a much wider audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Banfield)] TJ ET BT 145.664 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The Unheavenly City Revisited)] TJ ET BT 299.972 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, 1974\); Charles Murray)] TJ ET BT 456.956 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Losing Ground: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Social Policy 1950?1980)] TJ ET BT 234.332 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1994\). By)] TJ ET BT 348.644 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?blindspots?, Martin is referring to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bias, resulting from unexamined supposition, which she argues structured the focus and methodology )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of much 19th- and 20th-century social science. Behavioural models constitute the propositions )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(selective assumptions\) employed in the study and interpretation of sociological phenomena.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.964 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.964 121.059 m 548.960 121.059 l S BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 106.803 m 78.008 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Mort, )] TJ ET BT 125.012 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-Moral Politics in England Since 1830)] TJ ET BT 461.984 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first published 1987\); Eileen Janes Yeo, )] TJ ET BT 258.992 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Contest for Social Science: Relations and)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Representations of Gender and Class)] TJ ET BT 243.344 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.668 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.668 64.035 m 378.656 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Jos Harris, ?The Webbs, the Charity Organisation Society and the Ratan Tata Foundation: social )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.9637 121.3735 548.9597 133.2535 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 107.1175 78.0077 118.9975 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.6677 64.3495 378.6557 76.2295 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 4079 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy from the perspective of 1912?, in )] TJ ET BT 259.316 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Goals of Social Policy)] TJ ET BT 387.980 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Martin Bulmer, Jane Lewis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and David Piachaud \(London, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.988 780.819 m 295.976 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Vincent and Raymond Plant, )] TJ ET BT 247.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy, Politics and Citizenship: The Life and Thought of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the British Idealists)] TJ ET BT 158.024 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 1984\), chapters two, six and seven; David Boucher and David Vincent, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British)] TJ ET BT 99.692 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Idealism and Political Theory)] TJ ET BT 243.356 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Edinburgh, 2000\), chapter one; see also S. M. Den Otter ??The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoration of a citizen mind?: Bernard Bosanquet and the Charity Organisation Society,? and Peter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholson, ?Bosanquet and state action?, both in )] TJ ET BT 300.992 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Bosanquet and the Legacy of)] TJ ET BT 486.308 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Idealism)] TJ ET BT 105.344 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. William Sweet\(Toronto, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.992 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.992 695.283 m 333.980 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an excellent complementary discussion, see Jos Harris, ?Between civic virtue and social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwinism?, in )] TJ ET BT 141.008 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Retrieved Riches: Social Investigation in Britain 1840-1914)] TJ ET BT 428.984 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. David Englander and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosemary O?Day \(Aldershot, 1995\); on this subject both Martin and Harris will be most rewardingly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read in conjunction with more uncompromising degenerationist studies such as Daniel Pick)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c.1848?c.1914)] TJ ET BT 367.640 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1984\); William )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenslade)] TJ ET BT 117.992 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880?1940)] TJ ET BT 362.312 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.632 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.632 609.747 m 513.620 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward T. Devine, )] TJ ET BT 158.324 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Misery and Its)] TJ ET BT 230.648 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Causes )] TJ ET BT 268.316 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1913, first published 1909\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.624 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.624 595.491 m 515.612 595.491 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 580.159 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 562.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 562.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/759)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 560.985 m 322.316 560.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 536.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3737)] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.9877 781.1335 295.9757 793.0135 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.9917 695.5975 333.9797 707.4775 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.6317 610.0615 513.6197 621.9415 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.6237 595.8055 515.6117 607.6855 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 561.2995 322.3157 573.1795 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/759) >> endobj xref 0 58 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000694 00000 n 0000005156 00000 n 0000005265 00000 n 0000005375 00000 n 0000005484 00000 n 0000009045 00000 n 0000009173 00000 n 0000009257 00000 n 0000009286 00000 n 0000009412 00000 n 0000009448 00000 n 0000009477 00000 n 0000009603 00000 n 0000009639 00000 n 0000009730 00000 n 0000018077 00000 n 0000018107 00000 n 0000018235 00000 n 0000018271 00000 n 0000018301 00000 n 0000018427 00000 n 0000018463 00000 n 0000018547 00000 n 0000026616 00000 n 0000026646 00000 n 0000026774 00000 n 0000026810 00000 n 0000026894 00000 n 0000031553 00000 n 0000031583 00000 n 0000031711 00000 n 0000031747 00000 n 0000031845 00000 n 0000040128 00000 n 0000040256 00000 n 0000040311 00000 n 0000040437 00000 n 0000040492 00000 n 0000040618 00000 n 0000040673 00000 n 0000040785 00000 n 0000044917 00000 n 0000045045 00000 n 0000045100 00000 n 0000045228 00000 n 0000045283 00000 n 0000045411 00000 n 0000045466 00000 n 0000045594 00000 n 0000045649 00000 n 0000045777 00000 n trailer << /Size 58 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45872 %%EOF