%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063853+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063853+01'00') /Title (Lourdes. Body and Spirit in the Secular Age) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4337 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Lourdes. Body and Spirit in the Secular Age)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of this majestic and complex book is a simple story, engagingly recounted by the author. On 11 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 1855, Bernadette Soubirous, a young Pyrenean shepherdess, together with her sister Toinette and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friend Jeanne Abadie, was instructed by her impoverished mother to go out and search for tinder for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stove \(p.3\). Anxious to avoid allegations of theft, the three girls walked beyond the boundaries of their home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town of Lourdes and made for the Grotto of Massabielle, a sandy cave on the b anks of the river Gau, a place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where children often went to play, even though local farmers used the environs to graze their pigs and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it was rumoured the cave housed 'devilish' spirits. It was there that Bernadette, asthmatic and unable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to kee p up with the two other children, spied a 'soft light' inside the Grotto and 'a beautiful, smiling child in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white who seemed to beckon to her' \(p.3\). This was the first of sixteen apparitions witnessed by Bernadette. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On learning of the first sighting, Ber nadette's mother smacked her daughter and forbade her from revisiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Grotto. Undeterred, Bernadette kept returning, each time accompanied by a growing crowd of onlookers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose presence gave concern both to the local priest and the )] TJ ET BT 327.608 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gendarmerie)] TJ ET BT 388.928 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( . To begin with, the apparition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was silent, yet in subsequent sightings instructed Bernadette 'to tell the priests to come here on procession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to build a chapel'\(p.7\) and, on 25 March, the day of the Annunciation, announced 'I am the Immaculate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concept ion'\(p.8\), a curious expression that was soon interpreted to mean that the vision was the Virgin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(76)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Harris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(713991860X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(495pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9780141038483,00.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Aitkin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7808 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary. On 16 July, Bernadette saw the apparition for the final occasion, unable to get close to the Grotto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself thanks to the barriers erected by the authori ties, ever anxious to maintain authority. As Ruth Harris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates, Bernadette's distance from the Grotto 'prefigured her increasing marginalisation' as Lourdes was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed by 'more orthodox hands' into 'one of the greatest shrines in Christendom'\(pp.8- 9\). When in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1878 Bernadette died, a peripheral figure, in a Nevers nunnery, thousands were already making the annual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimage to Lourdes to bathe in the curative waters that the future saint had unearthed at the time of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ninth apparition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Books about Bernadette and Lourdes have since become almost as plentiful as the pilgrims themselves. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial concern was the telling of the tale itself, an indication of how 'historical narrative mattered to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living practice at Lourdes' \(p.178\). In 1869, as the Grotto was steadily being transformed into a pilgrimage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site, the Catholic journalist Henri Lasserre, published his )] TJ ET BT 309.992 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notre-Dame de Lourdes)] TJ ET BT 426.644 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which claimed to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive version of events, and set out 'to repress all competitors' \(p.177\). Competitors there were, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that Lasserre's history had sold one million copies by 1900. In the late 1870s, the Jesuit father )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lonard Cros undertook a rival study, although Lasserre's dogged opposition ensured that Cros' find ings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would only appear in 1927, by which time the hapless Jesuit had been dead for some fourteen years! As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris observes \(p.20\), it was not until the centenary of the apparitions, that a 'truly "scientific" history' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared in the shape of Re n Laurentin's )] TJ ET BT 240.788 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lourdes: Histoire authentique des apparitions)] TJ ET BT 463.460 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(6 vols,1961-64\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back in the 1890s, Bernadette inevitably become enmeshed in the bitter polemical battle between clericals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anticlericals. In 1893, Emile Zola published his nov el )] TJ ET BT 317.324 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lourdes)] TJ ET BT 356.660 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which irritated Catholics not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it deliberately distorted events, but also because it cast doubts over the authenticity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('supernatural' cures that overcame pilgrims \(pp.304-5\). Medical science has also been intrigued by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veracity of these cures. Since its founding in 1883, a time when French medicine enjoyed a formidable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation \(p.327\), the Medical Bureau at Lourdes has maintained voluminous records of all the cures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed by pilgrims. Curiously, however, as Harr is observes, few historians, other than Catholic ones, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackled the Lourdes phenomenon. It is her opinion that 'mainstream' authors have been reluctant to be side-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracked by the persistence of a medieval world in which popular devotion and peasant fol klore still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailed, and have focused instead on the development of a secular France,\(pp.12-13\) a France which, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eugen Weber so eloquently argued, transformed 'peasants into Frenchmen'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris explains that she first became intrigued by Lourdes 'over fifteen years ago, when writing another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on French medicine towards the end of the nineteenth century' \(p.xiii\). How could such a phenomenon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist at a time when Parisian doctors clai med that science would unravel the mysteries of mankind and do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away with the irrationalities of religious belief? Personal factors also entered into her choice of Lourdes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of enquiry. As the author reveals in her )] TJ ET BT 261.968 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Preface)] TJ ET BT 299.288 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for a long while she suffered from a strange illness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(now cured\) that modern medicine could not alleviate \(p.xiii\). As she looked further into the subject, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author unwittingly began her own kind of intellectual journey, moving away from seeing Lourdes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventio nal terms of a 'political counter-culture' \(p.xiv\), to undertake research into the 'Pyrenean traditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of storytelling', and even venturing on a pilgrimage herself. As Harris writes, the experience did not disturb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('her Jewish secularism' \(p.xv\), yet the faith of those around her hardened the growing conviction that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more to Lourdes than the rampant commercialism that had overwhelmed the town. Sensitive to such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirituality, Harris set out to write a book 'that is neither Catholic apology nor an anticlerical tirade', but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead an attempt 'to provide an historical context for believers and give non-believers a sense of where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal of Lourdes lays'\(p.xv\). She remains remarkably loyal to this brief and, in so doing, sensibly steers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear of t rying to prove whether the cures are 'real miracles' or not \(p.xvi\); in any case, not being a medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctor, she was denied permission from examining the records conserved by the Medical Bureau. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Catholic Church's refusal to allow the author ac cess to the archives for the Vichy period, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate ban that perpetuates the misleading notion that all Catholics were ardent Ptainists, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineated the contours of her study, ensuring that the book ends in 1914. Nonetheless, through her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustive use of existing archives and impressive command of secondary materials, she has put together a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating story that says as much about the Catholic world of nineteenth-century France as it does about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lourdes itself.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Handsomely illustrated throughout and superbly organised, the book is divided into two halves. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section, 'The Lourdes of the Apparitions' provides the historical context in which the sightings took place. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, Harris writes about the Pyrenean setting, the spiritual world of provincial France, the Soubirous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, perceptions of the Virgin Mary, and Bernadette herself. The second half of the volume is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic in nature and tackles 'The Lourdes of Pilgrimage', 'a town of hotels, restaura nts and railway lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the poor market town of the first half of the century' \(p.175\). After describing the commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the Grotto and the erection of the imposing basilica, Harris goes on to explore the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates over Lo urdes, the so-called 'Battle of the Books'; the role of the Assumptionist fathers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding of the national pilgrimages; the reasons why Lourdes became a journey for the sick; the assistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided by the indefatigable Petites-Soeurs de l'Assompti on to the ailing pilgrims; the rituals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimage themselves; the supposed cures; and the role of religion and science in the Third Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The mystery that Harris unravels is exactly why Lourdes should have developed into an international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon. 'There was nothing inevitable' about this, she writes \(p.9\). Bernadette, poorly educated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to speak French, was not the only seer i n France, and was not especially devout; Lourdes itself was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impoverished and isolated town far removed from Paris and Bordeaux; the local authorities were highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicious of Bernadette and her family, who were thought to be 'disreputable' and dishone st; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church hierarchy, concludes Harris, was traditionally wary of expressions of popular devotion which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not control. Yet the shrine flourished. 'The initial antagonism of the local authorities', writes Harris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('rather than deterring belie vers, goaded them into stubborn resistance' \(p.9\). The Lourdais, accustomed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riling authority and immensely satisfied that the Virgin Mary should have decided to appear in their town, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly established 'new spiritual and class alliances to defend thei r shrine'\(p.83\), organising processions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and altars, and eventually erecting a chapel. Drawing on her research into Pyrenean traditions, Harris also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates how the shrine genuinely caught the imagination of the Lourdais. The poor of the region had lon g )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been mesmerised by the 'interior', associating grottoes with magical powers \(pp.85-5\); in this respect, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped that, shortly after Bernadette's visions, others too, notably children, claimed to have seen the Virgin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Grotto. Drawing on her knowl edge of popular piety, the author further demonstrates how Lourdes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was part of the burgeoning cult of Marianism, a cult that had particular appeal to women and one which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined both 'clerical and popular religion'. As Harris explains, 'Mary was protectr ess of village fields, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-roads and regions; she was hope, consolation, grace, pity, aid and comfort, her generous intercession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solicited in the smallest mountain chapel and the most majestic Gothic cathedrals'\(p.15\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet whether Lourdes would have achieved prominence without outside assistance remains debatable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial favour was especially important. In 1858, Louis Veuillot, the renowned ultramontane and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guiding force behind )] TJ ET BT 137.000 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Univers)] TJ ET BT 184.232 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Amirale Bruat, the governess to the son of Empress Eugnie, and Achille )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fould, minister of state, all made their way to the shrine and were genuinely affected by what they saw, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reporting back to the emperor himself. As Harris writes, 'There was no obvious reason for Louis Napoleon to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the shrine', but disturbing political developments, for instance recent republican electoral victories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the unification of Italy, ensured that his regime 'needed the support of the Church' \(p.134\). In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating insigh t into the political world of the Second Empire, often thought to be rigidly authoritarian in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its chain of command, Harris illustrates how the Imperial Court was thus prepared to override the wishes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the local prefect, Oscar Massy, who was opposed to th e shrine, and tilt 'the local balance of power' in favour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the conservative notability and the bishop, Mgr Laurence, who were keen to see Lourdes flourish.\(p.110, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p.134\) A deeply pragmatic man, sensitive to the rhythms of Pyrenean life, Laurence immedi ately sensed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the Grotto could help the Church reinforce its grip over the local population and reverse the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious trends initiated by the 1789 Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For many Catholics these sentiments had already achieved too strong a hold. In clerical circles, defeat at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands of Prussia, the Paris Commune and the subsequent civil war \(1870-71\), were all signs of God's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displeasure with France. Lourdes thus rec eived a further boost as national pilgrimages were organised in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1870s to pray for national redemption, the restoration of the monarchy, and the rehabilitation of papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, severely dented by the unification of Italy. In this respect, it is temp ting to see the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lourdes in traditional terms - as a political counter-culture, a rejection of the secular ideology of the Third )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6504 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic. The fact that the anti-Semitic and hopelessly reactionary Assumptionist fathers were behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the national pilgrimages lends credence to this argument. So too, it is argued, does the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many pilgrims were women and young girls, often viewed by anticlericals as both gullible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malleable when they came under priestly influence. Drawing again on her knowledge of Marianism, Harris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly takes issue with this disparaging and patronising standpoint. Lourdes, she writes, offered a possibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women to escape clerical influence: 'to encounter Mary and Jesus sometimes without mediation, to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imaginative resources that their religious universe afforded without recourse to the hierarchy' \(p.356\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this way, pilgrimages to Lourdes provided 'a realm for spiritual reflection and practical activism that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular republic was rarely able to match' \(p.18\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other group of people who came to dominate the pilgrimages were, of course, the sick and dying. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchist cause ran out of steam in the late 1870s, it was these unfortunates that took 'centre stage'. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the secular republicans, wedded to a faith in progress and positivism, were quick to pour scorn on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miracles claimed by pilgrims, Harris demonstrates remarkable empathy for the suffering and spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivities of those who sought out a cure. 'Touching', she writes, was especially important in the ritual of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimage, bringing together young and old, rich and poor, the fit and the unhealthy. 'Faith was expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the body', continues Harris \(p.287\). It was manifested in the ways in which the helpers carried the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inert bodies of the sick, 'those whom science had failed' \(p.249\), to the waters. Yet the paradox remains that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the assistance of modern science, notably the development of the steam train, the shrine would never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have become a centre of pilgrimage. Before th e opening of the first railway line to Lourdes in 1867, it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken 'some thirty-two hours by coach' to travel from Bordeaux to nearby Bagnres-de-Bigorre \(p.24\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other scientific development of the modern age, so crucial to modern pilgrimages - the mass manufacturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of kitsch artefacts - was one which, many agree, Lourdes could have done without, although medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimages had not been without their fair share of )] TJ ET BT 283.640 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bric brac)] TJ ET BT 336.968 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this formidable and extensively researched book demolishes the notion that Lourdes was nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a relic, 'a lingering cultural manifestation of a remote, impoverished and illiterate world' \(p.357\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To accept such a view, argues Harris , is to ignore the genuine appeal of pilgrimage and the 'psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of nineteenth-century Marianism' \(p.357\).At the same time, the author's conclusions enhance the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation of Anglophobe contributions to French religious history, reinforci ng the belief, articulated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Ford, Ralph Gibson and Maurice Larkin among others, that nineteenth-century French Catholicism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was far from being 'a monolithic bloc', in the words of Harris herself, 'a reactionary and fossilized institution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the defensive, unable to adapt and destined to lose adherents and influence in a changing world' \(p.327\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was instead a living and oscillating faith that adapted well to changing circumstance, and had a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal to women. While Harris freely admit s that the Church sought to 'subordinate' women, she also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates how it provided them with opportunities and spiritual comforts often unobtainable in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular world. This, perhaps as much the search for a cure itself, is what drove thousands to v isit Lourdes at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the close of the last century. Yet, as Harris concludes, it was the simple image of Bernadette herself, 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young, poverty-stricken and sickly girl kneeling in ecstasy in a muddy grotto'\(p.366\) that captivated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination of millions, regardless of their faith, and which accounts for Lourdes' enduring appeal today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 199.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 181.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 181.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/76)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 180.585 m 316.316 180.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 155.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/933)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 180.8995 316.3157 192.7795 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/76) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000005017 00000 n 0000005126 00000 n 0000005236 00000 n 0000005345 00000 n 0000008906 00000 n 0000009034 00000 n 0000009118 00000 n 0000009183 00000 n 0000017044 00000 n 0000017109 00000 n 0000024829 00000 n 0000024913 00000 n 0000031470 00000 n 0000031598 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31692 %%EOF