%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722071257+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722071257+01'00') /Title (Our Friend ?The Enemy?: Elite Education in Britain and Germany Before World War 1) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4426 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Our Friend ?The Enemy?: Elite Education in Britain and Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Before World War 1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Friend ?The Enemy?)] TJ ET BT 170.660 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thomas Weber attacks both the )] TJ ET BT 328.628 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 381.956 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-interpretation of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kaiserreich)] TJ ET BT 90.680 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and theories of British exceptionalism before 1914. Focussing on Oxford and Heidelberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students and academics he argues that most of the differences that have been attributed to late 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and Britain have been constructed by historians from a post-Second World War perspective. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressing that German society before the First World War was in many aspects more similar to its Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours than the proponents of the Sonderweg acknowledged, Weber agrees with a growing body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative studies on this period. )] TJ ET BT 204.668 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Friend ?The Enemy?)] TJ ET BT 328.316 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( however, takes the argument one step further. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weber claims not only that realities were more complex in Britain and Germany than traditional research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had it, but that life on both sides of the channel ?was slowly but steadily moving in the right direction? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(223\). The outbreak of war in 1914 thus according to Weber had rather less to do with a culture of aggressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism and militarism than with ?catastrophic miscalculations by national decision makers? \(p. 135\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does he proceed to prove these revisionist contentions? Weber analyses in five chapters nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with special attention to German-British relations, militarism, student sexuality, the emancipation of women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anti-Semitism. An introductory chapter is dedicated to justifying his selection of these particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions for comparison. To this aim the author presents several arguments regarding the age of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 May, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Weber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780804700146)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(338pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonja Levsen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8115 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities, their position as truly ?national? institutions with students from all over the country, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?prominence? in British and German academia and the relative attractiveness of both places for ?elitist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students. His choice is convincing and both his observations on the relationship of each university with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and his arguments against the concept of ?feudalisation? are compelling and successfully refute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential beliefs about the nature of the respective university systems. Yet he unnecessarily exaggerates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarity of Oxford and Heidelberg in some aspects. The character of Oxford and Cambridge as institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the social elite had no equivalent in the multipolar German university system of the 19th century, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heidelberg had a few more wealthy students than some other universities. In addition, German students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally attended more than one university during their university career and thus did not identify with any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one institution as much as Oxford or Cambridge students did. Comparing any two universities thus presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties, a fact that surely should not deter scholars from comparative studies. One way to deal with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asymmetry is to compare Oxbridge undergraduates with fraternity students: while the sons of the social elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain went to Oxbridge, they could be found in all German universities where they tended to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of student fraternities. Although Weber acknowledges this fact he however decides against such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layout, preferring to look at two universities as a whole. Based on the fact that in Heidelberg fraternities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprised less than half of the student body, Weber sees them as ?a self-selected minority? \(p. 33\) and not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as other scholars including myself have argued, as important opinion leaders in student culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s general line of argument is based on the assumption that, in spite of a growing number of critics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central idea of the )] TJ ET BT 140.984 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 194.312 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, namely the picture of a generally positive evolution of British society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing in contrast to a negative development of the )] TJ ET BT 290.984 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kaiserreich)] TJ ET BT 347.648 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( before 1914, is still highly influential. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is admittedly still easy to find this interpretation in general literature on the )] TJ ET BT 455.000 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kaiserreich)] TJ ET BT 511.664 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be asked if the author does not overstate the remaining influence of what he calls ?traditional research? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimate or downplay the impact of newer, critical studies. In his first chapter Weber sets out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deconstruct the idea that in the decade before 1914 Anglo-German rivalry and enmity were rising, arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead that social elites in both countries were ?much less hostile to each other than previously thought? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(96\). Contacts between scholars and students in both places, Anglo-German societies working for a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of both peoples and multiple examples of Anglo-German friendship and cooperation show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that enmity towards their European neighbour was not prevalent in both universities. Not wholly satisfying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the exclusive focus of this chapter on Anglo-German relations: as it was France that was by many seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?hereditary enemy? of Germany in the late 19th century some discussion of how prevalent anti-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiment was in pre-war Heidelberg would have been useful. In addition, it seems questionable to go so far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to say that anti-German and anti-British statements by Oxonians and Heidelbergers were triggered by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to ?appease nationalistic pressure groups? while they ?at heart believed in the necessity and desirability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an Anglo-German rapprochement? \(p. 95\). This wording adumbrates a purely functional embrace of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism by academics which Weber?s sources hardly corroborate, particularly because many academics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and students themselves were members of these nationalistic pressure groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his next chapter Weber agrees with much recent research in arguing that militarism before 1914 was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German speciality. He however does not stop here but then proceeds to prove that militarism cannot be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one of the central forces leading to the outbreak of war in 1914, that it ?only? explains the students? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to volunteer in 1914. Weber first shows that the fencing culture of the German fraternities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxbridge?s rowing cannot be taken as proof of a very German militarism as opposed to a supposedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?civilized? British elite )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.340 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.340 186.579 m 162.332 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.332 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as has been done by Norbert Elias and others. Despite their different symbolism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both rowing and fencing were seen by their contemporary proponents as a way of ?making men? and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fostered virtues potentially important for militaristic societies? \(p. 111\). While this is convincing, Weber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then tends to downplay the implications of this culture of militarised masculinity and denies a growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student militarism in the decade before the war. Yet, in Germany, the importance and intensity of the fencing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cult was growing strongly after 1900 ? a fact that Weber does not take into account because he refrains from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoting a more detailed analysis to fraternity culture. In addition, many contemporary personal accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in the decade before 1914 give evidence of an increased role in student life of all things military.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regarding Britain, Weber?s emphasis that both University Volunteer Corps and the career of an officer had )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.3397 186.8935 162.3317 198.7735 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7597 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been attractive the late 19th century \(p. 132\) is a good point against the still common assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the British army was unpopular during most of the 19th century. Yet his argument is again less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive where he seeks to provide evidence against the growth of militarism in Oxford before the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. Thus he states that the quota of students participating in voluntary military training in the last years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1914 \(25%\) was ?only by degrees? \(p. 125\) higher than during the Boer War. Put the other way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(round, this meant that volunteer numbers were now even higher in peacetime than they had been during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boer War. These developments are rather difficult to reconcile with his claim that in Oxford and Heidelberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things were ?slowly but steadily moving in the right direction?. Weber repeatedly emphasises that student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism cannot be explained ?solely in terms of a response to a German threat? \(p. 125\) ? indeed few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent works advance such a monocausal explanation. But the interesting question is less if students were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparing for ?any specific war? \(p. 122\), which they hardly were, but whether and if so in which ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford college life furthered an identification with soldierly ideals and conveyed a positive image of war ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question that would have deserved more space in Weber?s book. As it stands, his argument that militarism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be counted among the prominent factors explaining Europe?s way into the First World War still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains to be proven.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next two chapters Weber explores issues of student sexuality and the position of female students. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gender relations and cultures of sexuality indeed differed in many ways. While the chastity of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students in both places was strictly guarded, Weber shows that the separation of the sexes was much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigid in Heidelberg. Everyday contacts here were more common and friendship between male and female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students was possible. In both places students had sexual contacts with lower class girls and prostitutes, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Oxford they had to take much greater care to hide such activities because of a very strict attitude of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities. Weber agrees with existing literature that Oxford had a strong culture of homoerotic bonding but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warns against overestimating the extent of homosexual relationships. Even though this is an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, evidence for sexual practices is generally difficult to get by and thus his point may not convince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every reader. Weber?s discussion of sexual culture identifies the problems and contradictions in George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse?s generalising argument on the close linkage between nationalism and the boundaries of ?respectable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality? in Wilhelmine Germany. Regarding relationships between men and women however it needs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be stressed that Oxford was hardly representative of Britain generally ? in London as well in the provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Scottish universities male and female students lived in much closer contact than in Oxbridge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weber then proceeds to the field of women?s emancipation in British and German academia, arguing first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in both countries universities had ?moved toward greater equality? \(p. 165\) by 1914 and second that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of women in German universities was generally better than has often been claimed. The first point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is well proven, even if Weber?s metaphorical contention that thus the glass for women was ?in fact? half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full, not half empty ? that in other words these advances should be seen as a success story rather than as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of frustrations ? is a value judgment that may not be shared by every reader. Critical of gender history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weber refrains from discussing how the students? concepts of masculinity evolved after the advent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. In collecting evidence for the relatively successful advance of women in Heidelberg Weber makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many useful observations and rightly discards one-sided interpretations of women?s repression in Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not all of his arguments in this chapter however are equally persuasive. Firstly, the current state of research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents a picture more differentiated than that ?of a backward Germany versus a progressive Britain? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(164\). As Weber himself notices, literature on the advance of women in British universities generally sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this process as slow, difficult and of a piecemeal character. Secondly, his contention that German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities generally had by 1914 become ?more equal? than Oxford is problematic. In Britain women had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made inroads into the universities already in the 19th century, but were denied full equality in Oxford and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge until well after the First and the Second World War respectively. The German universities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened their doors to women only between 1904 and 1909, but then gave them full equality \(if obviously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in a judicial sense\). The female students of Heidelberg in 1914 were thus, as Weber successfully shows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many ways freer and had more opportunities than their sisters in Oxford. But did Oxford really compare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfavourably ?with the most restrictive German university? \(p. 174\)? In 1914 the German universities had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on )] TJ ET BT 49.016 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(average)] TJ ET BT 87.668 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 6.7% female students und thus less than Oxford?s roughly 10% and far less than the average )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7952 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British university. Weber attempts to relativize these numbers by referring to the German )] TJ ET BT 465.944 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hrerinnen)] TJ ET BT 521.936 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which great numbers could be found in any German university. )] TJ ET BT 340.964 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hrerinnen)] TJ ET BT 396.956 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( however were mostly mature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, often wives of professors and other notables who just wanted to attend some lectures. Barred from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sitting exams, their studies could not lead to a career. Oxbridge?s women colleges in contrast offered young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women a complete course of studies including exams which, although not crowned by a university degree, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened careers in teaching and other fields. Regarding the complex situation in both countries it may thus be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked if a comparison always has to look for an answer to the question of more or less ?liberality?, quicker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or slower ?emancipation? and where the glass was fuller.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his final chapter Weber focuses on anti-Semitism and racism, arguing provocatively that the universities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the epoch before 1914 were ?a world with ever widening opportunities for Jews and foreigners in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Germany? \(p. 184\). In this vein he shows that a growing number of Jewish scholars became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professors in German universities in the decades before 1914. While it is worthwhile to point out that Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars )] TJ ET BT 76.340 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(could)] TJ ET BT 103.004 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( make a career in Imperial Germany?s universities, Weber?s decision to compare numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish academics successfully pursuing an academic career in Britain and Germany however is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminative: due to the very different size and structure of the Jewish community in Germany and Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that ?the national average of Jewish professors at English universities was ... smaller than that at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German universities? \(p. 195\) does not say much about the impact of structural anti-Semitism in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries. Nor does comparing the number of Jewish professors/fellows in Oxford and Heidelberg.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regarding students it is difficult to see how Weber?s claim to a positive trend towards tolerance can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciled with the fact that from the 1880s onwards the vast majority of German student fraternities started )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to exclude Jews, often even on the basis of a racial definition of Jewishness. A growing )] TJ ET BT 456.608 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(volkish)] TJ ET BT 490.604 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paired with anti-Semitism was by no means restricted to the Society of German Students but intruded into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole spectrum of student organisations. Weber mentions all these developments but does not believe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they present enough evidence for the existence of a generational conflict between a younger, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical generation and their elders. This may be due to the conception of his book, which looks not only at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heidelberg students and Heidelberg professors, but also gives much attention to general developments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Germany. Weber?s arguments rely heavily on individual memories, published sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative evidence. While he is thus able to paint a very broad picture, he cannot take a close look at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates and decision processes within the student communities. In these it becomes very obvious that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger generation, particularly those studying after 1900, was in many ways more radical and more anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semitic than those who had studied in the 1870s and 1880s. Initiatives to exclude Jews were almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invariably started by students and often opposed by the )] TJ ET BT 301.652 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alte Herren)] TJ ET BT 358.640 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the old boys of the fraternities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Numerous personal accounts show that the atmosphere at German universities was for Jewish students in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade before 1914 difficult ? to say the least. Thus a Jewish student paper wrote in 1902: ?Jewish students! )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of you know, and some will get to know that hatred and animosity surrounds Jews in the universities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because you are Jews, you are excluded from society, because you are Jews, enmity and wrath hit you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wherever you go?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.984 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.984 257.859 m 136.976 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regarding Britain and Oxford in particular Weber shows convincingly that anti-Semitism among academics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more pervasive than often portrayed. His argument that British Jewish academics were likely to idealise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions in pre-war Britain from a post-Holocaust perspective is conclusive. He quotes cases in which anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semitism worked against Jewish candidates in fellowship elections. Oxford was obviously ?an uncongenial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place for Jews? \(p. 202\), although it might be argued that this was largely due to its impregnation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican traditions, which made it uncongenial not only for Jews but also for Catholics. And there is still a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant difference between the comment of a British student quoted by Weber: ?I have met [anti-Semitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling] at Oxford, and some friends tell me it exists also at Cambridge? \(p. 201\) and the above-quoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of the state of things by German Jewish students. Regarding anti-Semitism, therefore, I find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither his claim towards overarching similarities nor indeed the idea of progress towards more tolerance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weber finally stresses that racial mechanisms of exclusion operated on both sides of the channel: in Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were often directed against Indian students. Oxford colleges restricted the entry of Indians fearing that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.9837 258.1735 136.9757 270.0535 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 5014 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater number of Indians would be ?blackening? the colleges? reputation. Belief in the superiority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British race over its colonial dependents was still prevalent among students, and thus Indian students tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be excluded from social events and were generally not allowed to participate in the Officers? Training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corps. Taking a somewhat ambivalent position, the author points out that these discriminating strategies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembled those which were experienced by Jewish students at German universities, but at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejects interpretations that see racism and xenophobia as majority phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While many of Weber?s points are well argued, his more radically revisionist contentions in my eyes remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconvincing. )] TJ ET BT 105.344 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Friend ?The Enemy?)] TJ ET BT 228.992 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( nevertheless is a well-written and highly readable book full of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting arguments which are based on wide reading and always presented with skilled rhetoric. It offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing insights into German and British academia before 1914 and delivers another death blow to the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an illiberal German or liberal British special path to modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He in this point agrees with my own research on the topic, see e.g. Sonja Levsen, ?Mnnlichkeit als )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studienziel. Mnnlichkeitskonstruktionen englischer und deutscher Studenten vor dem Ersten )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weltkrieg?, )] TJ ET BT 123.332 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zeitschrift fr Geschichtswissenschaft)] TJ ET BT 306.008 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51, 2 \(2003\), 109?30 and my later book )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elite, Mnnlichkeit und Krieg. Tbinger und Cambridger Studenten, 1900?1929)] TJ ET BT 450.344 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gttingen, 2006\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We both came independently and parallely to the same conclusion, but firmly disagree on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of this observation as well as on the general tendencies of student culture before 1914.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 118.004 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Jdische Student)] TJ ET BT 166.664 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1, 7/8 \(Oct/Nov 1902\), 1. For this state of things see also the recent study: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miriam Rrup, )] TJ ET BT 139.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ehrensache. )] TJ ET BT 201.668 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jdische Studentenverbindungen an deutschen Universitten, 1886?1937)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Gttingen, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.008 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.008 446.691 m 206.996 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/2/298.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 391.923 m 271.688 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.688 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 363.411 m 240.992 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 360.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 342.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 342.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/760)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 340.905 m 322.316 340.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 315.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3738)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/2/298.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=32975)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 489.7735 118.0037 501.6535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.0077 447.0055 206.9957 458.8855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 392.2375 271.6877 404.1175 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/2/298.full) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 363.7255 240.9917 375.6055 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=32975) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 341.2195 322.3157 353.0995 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/760) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000005151 00000 n 0000005260 00000 n 0000005370 00000 n 0000005479 00000 n 0000009040 00000 n 0000009168 00000 n 0000009252 00000 n 0000009336 00000 n 0000017504 00000 n 0000017534 00000 n 0000017662 00000 n 0000017698 00000 n 0000017763 00000 n 0000025413 00000 n 0000025497 00000 n 0000033502 00000 n 0000033532 00000 n 0000033660 00000 n 0000033696 00000 n 0000033808 00000 n 0000038875 00000 n 0000039002 00000 n 0000039057 00000 n 0000039185 00000 n 0000039240 00000 n 0000039367 00000 n 0000039469 00000 n 0000039596 00000 n 0000039697 00000 n 0000039825 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39920 %%EOF