%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150630054705+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150630054705+01'00') /Title (Colonization in Early America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2813 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Colonization in Early America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Silver)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393062489)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cynthia J. van Zandt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195181241)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Griffin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780809024919)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5966 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These books present reassessments of the colonizer/colonized relationship and how individuals and groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiated their space in conflict, spanning the period from earlier colonization to the brink of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Van Zandt points out that from initial efforts at colonization, some alliances and accommodations between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups were essential, but that these were complicated by suspicions \(on the part of Europeans\), that Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans could be acting in league with rival European groups. Early encounters were fraught with cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misinterpretations, and attempting to establish legitimacy on both sides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From first contact, abduction of Native Americans seemed the best way to gain local knowledge, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly the services of a translator or intermediary. This assumption was somewhat flawed, as Van Zandt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out: ?although kidnapping could indeed bring them some information and provide a degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leverage ? they did after all have a hostage ? it did not lead to grateful natives, lasting friendships, or real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliances? \(p.53\). Van Zandt details the ways in which simply abducting an Indian, much like naturalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured examples of exotic fauna, was not always helpful. Those who were kidnapped generally resented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the situation, and some were able to turn things to their advantage. One Algonquian man, Epinow, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured from Martha?s Vineyard and taken to England. Pressed for information about his land, he told of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great gold mines in Cape Cod. Of course, there were no such things, but he managed to get a ride home, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which point he escaped his captors. Despite the problems, much of the knowledge of Native Americans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their languages in the early days of European arrival built on that gained from kidnapped Indians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, many Indians regarded language as protected cultural knowledge and refused to teach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outsiders, or refused to teach them beyond a basic pidgin sufficient for trade. Various Native American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups had their own methods for relating to, and forming alliances with, outsiders. This was often through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic kinship relationships, the meanings of which remained opaque to many Europeans, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood not what they were being offered, or the meanings of the connections formed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notion of kinship and connection is dealt with in great detail, particularly that between John Smith and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pocahontas \(a fictive, or symbolic kinship\), and her real kinship bond through marriage to John Rolfe. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bonds meant very different things in English and Powhatan cultures, leading to misunderstandings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicting expectations of obligation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Van Zandt also details people like Isaac Allerton, Mayflower colonist and intermediary between the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the English. These cultural go-betweens were multilingual and in some cases culturally liminal. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they, and the role that they played, were left behind in the 18th century as cultural groups became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined, and the strength in numbers of European settlers meant that there was less need for negotiation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbouring groups. Van Zandt uses such examples to highlight the fact that this was not just a world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European/Native negotiation, that there were cultural boundaries on all sides, between European groups and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Native American groups, and that intermediaries were often crossing multiple boundaries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiating relationships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a slender book \(fewer than 200 pages, excluding references\), with rather small print ? a larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typeface would have been a favour to the reader. Nonetheless, it serves as an excellent background to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other two volumes, which trace how in the following century attitudes to Native peoples hardened \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hill and Wang)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katrina Gulliver)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6765 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European settlements became stronger\), leading to the development of essentialised racial views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White/Indian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The key phrase in )] TJ ET BT 122.660 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Leviathan)] TJ ET BT 220.316 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is ?stadial lenses?, a perception of Native Americans that put them in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a scheme of progression, a chain of being somewhere below Europeans, but a chain in which positions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not fixed, and groups could be elevated through civilization. This was counterpointed by the notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans, left too long in Indian company, would regress to the native condition. This element could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been drawn on more in this work, in relation to the responses to the frontier violence. The perception among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanites of settlers as roughneck peasants not far from the savage life themselves is an important element in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how their actions were perceived from the seats of power.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.936 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.936 669.027 m 325.928 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.928 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 342.920 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As they moved further from the civilizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences of towns and established settlements into the unknown wilderness, they would descend further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into savage behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While recounting the history of Native Americans being driven from the frontier of the Ohio valley in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century, Griffin analyses the evolving attitudes towards them. Beginning and ending with notes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorials, he shows how these views have changed even through the 20th century, in the cultural memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the national foundations. The obelisk to Tom Quick the Indian Slayer of the 1700s ? whose life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialisation have both been marginalized in the national narrative, is gone, while the monument to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Rogers Clark, which did not reflect vanquishment of a red enemy, still stands. This tension between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which view of the frontier to memorialize ? indeed, which view of the American Revolution \(the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution-writers, or the frontier settlers who shaped the nation even as they undermined the values of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Founders\) ? to retain, is part of the narrative that Griffin presents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is linked to the tension of the pre-revolutionary frontier, when settlers were moving beyond official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdiction presented administrators a stark choice: provide protection \(which they had not the authority or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the personnel to do\), or offer absolution to settlers taking matters into their own violent hands. This became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an element of contest between different schemes for settlement, and whose control these newly settled lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would fall under.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Indians lived in the West unmolested, then they would have the time and space necessary to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop. But if whites crossed the line ? as they were doing ? time was no longer on the side of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Indians. In other words, if white and Indian worlds kept colliding, Indians would remain in a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savage state and continue to kill, capture and torture whites \(p.66\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this view, it was the speed of European settlement that caused the problem, but attempts to curtail settlers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(westward movements proved futile. From 1763, when few people lived beyond the line, to 1774, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50,000 did, contact ? and conflict ? with Native Americans became more frequent. By 1780, British forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were using Indians to great effect, as participants in attacks on rebels, with the neat rhetorical trick of leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of battles with large numbers scalped, and very few taken prisoner, because the British ?could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrain? the ferocity of their Indian allies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffin argues that in the minds of European observers in the mid 18th century, Indians were ?redeemable? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or improvable, given time, and the introduction to civilization and Christianity; they were not irredeemable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savages. However, this attitude changed as a function of continuing frontier conflict: there was not enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time to wait for Indians to ?civilize? while European settlers were making further incursions into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories, nor were these settlers much interested in making alliances or accommodations. The later view, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians as savage and less-than-human served a justificatory purpose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the revolution, however, settlers had come to see Indians as ?essentially inferior? and ?unfit to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live among whites? \(p. 242\). Of course it is unclear how many people actually adhered to either point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, and the evidence shows even individuals having conflicting responses rather than clear ideologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While arguing that racism as we know it didn?t exist in this period, Griffin at the same time provides )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.9357 669.3415 325.9277 681.2215 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/gulliverk.html#f1) >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6507 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that for plenty of whites \(although there are many layers of problematisation of this term too, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains clear that however suspicious different groups of European settlers were of each other, they retained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some level of fellow-feeling against the ? perceived ? looming threat of Indian violence\), there was a ?shoot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first? mentality in encounters where the first ? indeed only ? sign of ?danger? was the Indians? dress and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical appearance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, some of the accounts, of mob violence, and crazed ? out of character ? behaviour, for which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrators later demonstrated remorse, gave some weight to the idea that the wilderness drove men insane. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apologists for the settlers argued that they were driven to it by Indian violence and depravity. The attacks on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moravian Indians show disbelief too in the civilisability of Indians, and it is difficult to see a great difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mindset of the perpetrators from those who committed lynchings or ethnic cleansing violence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century, whose ?racism? is not debated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both Silver and Griffin discuss one particular incident, the massacre at Gnadenhtten, Ohio, in March 1782. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, a group of Delawares who had converted to Christianity were living in a Moravian community, a town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of farmers just like other settlers. A group of men under David Williamson, an officer in the Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militia, attacked the Delawares: as Griffin says, ?after all, they possessed goods, such as kettles and clothing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that only whites could use. They must have pilfered these on raids?. In an organized attack, the men gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Delawares from nearby small villages and assembled them in Gnadenhtten, the mission town. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were believed to have assisted a war party of Delawares who had attacked settlers near Fort Pitt. As pacifist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians, the residents offered no resistance, and it seems first assumed they were simply to be captured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and taken to Fort Pitt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the Moravian Delawares were condemned to death in a ?trial? held by their attackers, they were then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escorted into a cabin in pairs, to be bludgeoned to death. 96 people were killed and scalped. The few white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men of the party who objected simply waited by the river. This slow, methodical eradication of the residents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of two towns resonates differently from the mob violence of other attacks. Silver refers to the ?abbatoir-like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedure?, and refers to this incident as pivotal, and undeniably ?racist?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The attack had no official sanction, and both British and American authorities were shocked by it. One result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an increased ferocity of attacks on American forces by Delawares serving with the British. William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crawford?s execution \(in which he was tethered, tortured, and finally burned to death\) was part of this wave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of revenge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 323.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Savage Neighbors)] TJ ET BT 157.004 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Peter Silver takes up the issue of the ?anti-Indian sublime? as a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, and presents a more theoretical approach to developing racial attitudes. An appendix looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the use of the terms ?White People? and ?Indians? in the )] TJ ET BT 320.624 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania Gazette)] TJ ET BT 424.940 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows a spike in the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both in 1760. Silver also argues that ?racism? didn?t exist prior to 19th-century racial scientific theories. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Despite the use of words and phrases like ?Indian? and ?white people?, modern racial thinking played no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part in most groups? views of each other for nearly all of the period studied in this book? \(p. xxi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the Great Awakening, various European settler groups ? defined by religion as well as nationality ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were reaffirming their faiths and cultural identity, in part to define themselves against their neighbours in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New World.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Quakers? vivid new sense of themselves as a crusading people, shedding corruption to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return to a radical past, was not a simple withdrawal from the world. In this first age of mass )] TJ ET BT 64.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration, the rigor and novelty of the Quakers? self-transformations came from their fears of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being smeared away or swallowed up by newer arrivals ? of losing their hold, not only on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(province?s political life and with it on their security as dissenters, but on their specialness as a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people \(p.28\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such renewal, in the case of the Quakers, even as they were proclaiming themselves against slavery, and for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 5708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peaceful relations with Indians, was also acting against community impurity in the form of mixed marriages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(those in which one partner was not Quaker\), or marriages where the bride was pregnant. This vigilant social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hygiene, declaring 50% of marriages irregular, meant that Quaker population growth ceased, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates one of the more extreme reactions to the perceived contamination of living in a multi-faith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment. Native Americans had felt similar concerns. Proselytizing Moravians had contributed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactionary revitalization movement among Indians. From the 1740s, native reformers wanted to conform to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?purer, more traditional forms, working consciously against the European influences they saw rising among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them? \(p.15\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abduction of whites, by Indians, was another major phenomenon of frontier conflict in the 18th century, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the cultural uses of the conflict. This is dealt with briefly by Silver in a discussion of the plasticity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ethnicity?, in that Indian and White were not necessarily innate characteristics in the minds of many: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captives were presented as having lost their whiteness through long contact with Indians. However, I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have liked to see further discussion on the role of white captivity in shaping the responses to Indian violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shaping definitions of whiteness. It is worth noting when examining public opinion of the time that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of Indian raids were often accompanied by accounts of whites being abducted, and that truces with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native American groups produced the return of captives sometimes after many years, and these living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of the retention \(or loss\) of whiteness served as either affirming examples of European superiority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or mortifying spectacles of degeneration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This fear of cultural contamination meant that increased contact could produce less rather than more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy for other groups. In a tragic example of familiarity breeding contempt, a repeated element of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks on Indians by whites is that the victims were often known to their attackers, as neighbours or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquaintances, their familiarity with Europeans making them paradoxically more rather than less of a threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as well as being pragmatic victims, in that they were more easily within striking distance\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Distance also led to cultural detachment, as settlers felt less connected to their compatriots in the cities, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in the cities felt they had less and less in common with those who had moved out to the wilderness. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit understanding, or sympathy, was encouraged by the identity of whiteness being affirmed, a group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinship to hold against the Indian Other. This was important in the early days of the republic, to attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cement a cultural association of citizenship among disparate groups. Conflict with \(and crucially, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialisation of conflict with\) Native Americans helped to define a national character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 269.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For more on this, see Gustav Jahoda, )] TJ ET BT 244.328 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Images of Savages: Ancient Roots of Modern Prejudice in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Culture)] TJ ET BT 143.012 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\), and for the impressions of Europeans held in Indian captivity, see )] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June Namias, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(White Captives : Gender and Ethnicity on the American Frontier)] TJ ET BT 443.972 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 225.363 m 149.000 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.000 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 181.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 163.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 163.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/760a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 162.345 m 327.644 162.345 l S endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 225.6775 148.9997 237.5575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/gulliverk.html#t1) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 162.6595 327.6437 174.5395 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/760a) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 744 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4371)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4372)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4373)] TJ ET BT 34.016 726.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/gulliverk.html#f1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 712.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/gulliverk.html#t1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 697.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000003493 00000 n 0000003602 00000 n 0000003712 00000 n 0000003821 00000 n 0000007382 00000 n 0000007510 00000 n 0000007594 00000 n 0000007659 00000 n 0000013678 00000 n 0000013762 00000 n 0000020580 00000 n 0000020610 00000 n 0000020738 00000 n 0000020869 00000 n 0000020934 00000 n 0000027494 00000 n 0000027585 00000 n 0000033346 00000 n 0000033473 00000 n 0000033604 00000 n 0000033732 00000 n 0000033828 00000 n 0000033893 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34689 %%EOF