%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 37 0 R 42 0 R 50 0 R 61 0 R 75 0 R 91 0 R 121 0 R ] /Count 9 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140923012246+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140923012246+01'00') /Title (Australia, Canada and Empire) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2956 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Australia, Canada and Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bowels of university libraries are often cluttered with the remnants of past historical approaches. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 231.020 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1929-59\) is one such work. At its core was a triumphal tale of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deryck Schreuder)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Ward)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199273737)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(418pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Buckner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199271641)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(294pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Dilley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 10190 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional evolution of an empire into the ?British Commonwealth?, a narrative which placed the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominions \(as Britain?s various self-governing settler colonies became known in 1907\) centre stage. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian and Australian volumes were largely written by Australians and Canadians, reflecting how far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their histories were constructed within an imperial paradigm.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.636 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.636 752.307 m 340.628 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.628 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 357.620 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Flawed by an increasingly unconvincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teleology and unpalatable racism, the )] TJ ET BT 215.984 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History )] TJ ET BT 311.984 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was eclipsed in the 1950s. Following Robinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Gallagher?s historiographical revolution, those studying the British empire tended to focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent empire in Africa and Asia or on ?informal empire? \(areas where Britain exerted substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.664 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.664 695.283 m 99.656 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 102.656 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 116.648 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Meanwhile, historical agendas within the former ?dominions? turned inwards or \(in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian case\) southwards. Where connections with Britain were analysed, the dominant trope was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe the evolution of ?colonies into nations?, often dubbed ?the old dead tree and the young tree green? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school \(after a quote from the republican poet Henry Lawson\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.604 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.604 652.515 m 348.596 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.596 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford History of the British Empire )] TJ ET BT 235.676 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1999, )] TJ ET BT 269.672 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OHBE )] TJ ET BT 304.664 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereafter\), now a decade old, reflected these trends. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The settlement colonies competed amongst other regions for individual case studies, or featured as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components within broader thematic chapters. Only John Darwin?s chapter in volume four served as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminder that in the first half of the 20th century, the dominion connection had become perhaps the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and geopolitical relationship within the old empire, the core of a ?third British empire?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.288 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.288 569.235 m 517.280 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 520.280 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 534.272 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, interest in British relations with the settlement empire had revived. Along with Darwin, imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians such as P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, and Andrew Thompson have come full circle and re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised the growing importance of Australia and Canada from the 1880s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.620 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.620 526.467 m 419.612 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.612 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 436.604 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In addition a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on ?multiple? identities facilitated a more nuanced analysis of local, colonial/national, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British/imperial identities than the older search for colonial nationalism permitted. Transnational history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracing circuits of ideas and people across borders, similarly expanded frames of analysis beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial/national units; the mid-Victorian period is particularly well served in this new literature on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?networks?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.664 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.664 455.187 m 105.656 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 108.656 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 122.648 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, and bringing many of these trends together, the publications surrounding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British World? conferences have also emphasised the power and endurance of Britishness as an identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the dense social networks stretching across the empire; especially but not exclusively in the dominions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 412.419 m 48.008 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 51.008 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now the )] TJ ET BT 78.008 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OHBE)] TJ ET BT 110.000 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Companion Series seeks to rectify the lacunae in the original volumes. )] TJ ET BT 454.292 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 547.964 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 48.680 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( hereafter\) and )] TJ ET BT 121.640 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canada and the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 272.312 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 279.308 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 301.976 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( hereafter\) both aim to offer a more penetrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment than the original )] TJ ET BT 164.000 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OHBE)] TJ ET BT 195.992 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( achieved, without reviving the flawed triumphalism narrative of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History)] TJ ET BT 127.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Their editors ? Philip Buckner, Stuart Ward and Deryck Schreuder ? insist that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lodestone of empire? \(critically re-examined\) is an essential component of the history of the two former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominions \()] TJ ET BT 91.688 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 106.352 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 11; )] TJ ET BT 142.688 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 165.356 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 20\). Both are quite clear that this is not a tale of domination ? of imperialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the most familiar sense of the word. Rather editors and authors in both volumes emphasise the ?capacity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of \(white\) Australians and Canadians to shape connections with the empire to their own ends. It is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion of ?local agency? which leads Ward and Schreuder to title their volume )] TJ ET BT 426.260 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 519.932 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ?Empire in Australia? ? a semantic shift praised by Buckner \(AE, pp. 9?10; CBE, p. ix\). In this the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited collections present one viewpoint: they share enough to be reviewed together. Nonetheless, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important differences between the two, and in the approaches taken by their various contributors. Each will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be examined in turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillip Buckner?s preface to )] TJ ET BT 173.324 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 195.992 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( emphasises that it ?presents a Canadian perspective of Canada?s long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in the British Empire?, something which was not ?an elite preoccupation?. It was not true that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?support for the empire did not have deep roots in Canadian soil?, especially amongst the ?Anglo-Celtic? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority? \()] TJ ET BT 87.008 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 109.676 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. vii, 19?20\). The next five chapters offer ?a chronological narrative of the Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection and of the attitude of Canadians to the Imperial relationship?\(CBE, p. viii\). Reid and Mancke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on the period prior to 1783, and Hurd?s and Buckner?s on the 20th century, helpfully reconstruct the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the British connection in periods where a North American perspective often predominates. Buckner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Bumsted offer a rich account of the more familiar territory of the 19th century, especially the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of constitutional change in the mid 19th century. Hiller?s chapter on Newfoundland?s 80 years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside confederation, focuses on narrating the main political and geo-political developments, and should )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6357 752.6215 340.6277 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f1) >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.6637 695.5975 99.6557 707.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f2) >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.6037 652.8295 348.5957 664.7095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f3) >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.2877 569.5495 517.2797 581.4295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f4) >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.6197 526.7815 419.6117 538.6615 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f5) >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.6637 455.5015 105.6557 467.3815 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f6) >> endobj 34 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 412.7335 48.0077 424.6135 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f7) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 8566 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompt further study of this neglected fifth dominion. These chapters afford both editor and authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to reflect on various themes: interactions between Europeans and indigenous peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(especially Reid and Manke\); the development of the state \(Bumsted\); and the adaption of British legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural forms \(Buckner\). The latter forcefully \(perhaps, as we shall see, too forcefully\) rejects Ronald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson?s \(and later Cain and Hopkins?\) portrayal of the period from responsible government onwards as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an informal empire based on the ?collaboration? of Canadian elites, cemented by economic dependence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.896 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.896 723.795 m 548.888 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 54.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Canadians successfully manipulated metropolitan connections to their own ends while the real basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian ?loyalty? was cultural: a shared sense of Britishness. \()] TJ ET BT 341.960 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 364.628 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 13?14, 68?70, 107?8\). Following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from this, the end of Canada?s empire resulted from a cultural shift in the 1960s caused by the co-incidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of shifting patterns of immigration, French Canada?s ?Quiet Revolution?, the baby boom, the influx of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American culture, and frosty political relations with Britain \()] TJ ET BT 326.312 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 348.980 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.108?25\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative is followed by four chapters exploring the experiences of particular groups. The migratory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of the anglophone majority \(who lie at the core of the narrative sections\) are discussed in chapters by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Jane Errington and Marjory Harper. Errington?s chapter outlines the period between 1783 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1867, noting the fluidity and particularity of the resulting identities, especially early in the period when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?only among colonial leaders, a few merchants who were tied to the Atlantic economy, and members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garrisons that there was a sense of being part of the British world? \()] TJ ET BT 358.952 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 381.620 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 145\). Marjory Harper?s more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synoptic contribution tackles migration from Britain in the century after confederation, emphasising that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving force was ?individual or family decisions shaped by private encouragement or agents? advice? \()] TJ ET BT 532.568 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 555.236 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 167\). In contrast to Errington she observes the potential for intermarriage and mingling overseas to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the celebration of their specific origins ? cosmetic rather than crucial? \()] TJ ET BT 381.584 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 404.252 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 179\). Two further chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are devoted to the experiences of French Canadians and First Nations. Colin M. Coates narrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of the former, arguing that for a long period the British Empire provided an ?ambiguous space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where a fair amount of autonomy was possible? \()] TJ ET BT 270.632 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 293.300 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 199\). Sarah Carter usefully traces indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples? interactions with European incomers from the fur trade through to the present, contrasting declining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan involvement in relations their relations with Europeans with the continuing symbolic role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played by the crown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final three chapters explore three themes: gender, economics, and the law. Adele Perry ably tackles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire and gender, drawing on a well developed international literature, albeit one in which ?Canada has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a conspicuously small role? \()] TJ ET BT 208.988 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 231.656 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 238\). The chapter teases out various informal connections with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, the critical role of gender in structuring settler-first nation relations, and the ways it shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration policy \(especially towards Chinese immigrants\). Douglas McCalla examines the role British trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and capital played in Canadian economic development from the late 18th to the 20th century. He argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this role was not specifically imperial, arising rather from Britain?s role as a leader of the emerging world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. Similarly, he downplays the importance of imperial economic regulation prior to the mid 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, concluding that the empire?s most important contribution was in ?creating the colonies, defending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and endowing them with the basic institutions of a market economy?, a conclusion which might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been developed further. A final chapter, by Philip Girard, does pick up on this theme, exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently overlooked role of the principles and practices of English law in Canada.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall )] TJ ET BT 73.004 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 95.672 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains many interesting and useful contributions. Nonetheless, the division between general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, and more focused chapters does create overlaps, and means that the ?deep roots? Buckner claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for empire in Canadian history are not always given sustained attention. Buckner?s own contributions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of Harper, are notable exceptions.The hybridity of )] TJ ET BT 306.620 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 329.288 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contrasts with )] TJ ET BT 402.284 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 495.956 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopts a the purely thematic approach. The book is arranged in three sections: ?Contact: The Projection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire?; ?Dynamics: The Instrument of Empire?; and ?Cultures: The Conception of Empire?, in a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering a structural metanarrative of the process of colonisation and the subsequent elaboration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a colonial and imperial society. The first section \(?Contact?\) opens with Aboriginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(storyteller Hobbles Daniaiyarri?s ?Saga of Captain Cook?. The saga makes for fascinating reading and opens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of history and memory, violence, and dispossession which recur subsequently. Next, Alan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atkinson?s chapter on ?Conquest? describes the violent process of dispossession, contrasting this with the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.8957 724.1095 548.8877 735.9895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f8) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still powerful myth of )] TJ ET BT 142.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terra Nullius)] TJ ET BT 207.032 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while Richard Waterhouse explores the economic dynamics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement, and especially competing visions of large and small scale farming. Both also tackle the convict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, the subsequent evolution of a rural proletariat in the pastoral industry, and the gold rushes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850s, shifting between the often violent social and economic processes surrounding settlement, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural repercussions ? themes complemented in Anne Gray?s chapter on Australian art. Ann Curthoys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes from the ?other side of the frontier?. While genocide is discussed and the ?disastrous consequences? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonization acknowledged, Curthoys stresses the agency of Aboriginal Australians in the face of settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility and ?a system of totalitarian or near-totalitarian control?, including appeals to British public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to embarrass Australian governments ? with limited results \()] TJ ET BT 323.984 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 338.648 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 97-8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section examines five key ?Instruments? of empire. John Hirst?s contribution on ?Empire, State, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nation? stresses the transfer of liberal ?virtues? by early British administrators, namely the creation of ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure world in which all subjects enjoyed protection of their property and liberty?, an interpretation which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sits uneasily with many contributions in the previous section \()] TJ ET BT 331.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 346.340 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 145\). Eric Richards? chapter, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harper?s in )] TJ ET BT 92.660 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 115.328 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not delve significantly into the dynamics ? especially the private connections ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinning movements of people, and focuses on regulation, and the way in which this shaped flows to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia from Britain and Europe while excluding Asians. Hilary Carey, in an excellent chapter on religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the role of missionaries and humanitarians in mediating between Aboriginees and the emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settler society ? often via the metropole ? and also its role in maintaining and mediating separate identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(especially Irish and Scottish\) among settlers. Geoffrey Bolton \(writing on ?Money?\) tackles the economics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Anglo-Australian connections offering a concise overview of the ?pre-eminent? role of trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment in Australian development. It is a shame that his introduction and conclusion focused on refuting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the radical historian Brian Fitzpatrick?s 68-year-old allegations of British exploitation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.972 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.972 483.699 m 463.964 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.964 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 486.956 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more might have been made of his throwaway comment that ?a shared culture? might have ?facilitated? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-eminent role of British capital and trade in economic development \()] TJ ET BT 378.620 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 393.284 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 230\). While Bolton?s subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is well established, Stuart Ward \(writing on ?Security?\) offers a reflective exploration of the way in a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of strategic vulnerability ? first from other European imperial powers, and then from East Asia ? was central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Australian commitment to the empire, yet simultaneously a source of frustration and conflict with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly unresponsive metropole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section focuses on ?Cultures?. Mark McKenna charts the shifting, and ultimately declining role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monarchy while Joy Damousi offers an insightful account of the shifting commemoration of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars in Australian life, focusing particularly on ANZAC Day. Angella Woollacott?s stimulating chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and sexuality concisely tackles broad themes of masculinity and violence, the complex fears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding miscegenation, the development of Australian feminism, and the connections between gender, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial, and national identities. Richard White and Hsu-Ming Teo?s chapter on popular Australian culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts the way in which cultural production \(for example of books\) took place in a market place at times ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but only at times ? dominated by Britain and imagery of Britain. Neville Meaney offers an insightful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of the role of the British connection in history and memory, emphasising its ebbs and flows, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contrasting experiences of different groups ? for example Irish Catholics ? within those shifts. Ward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schreuder offer a final chapter on the ?de-dominionisation of Australia?, drawing on Ward?s earlier work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 215.091 m 54.008 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 57.008 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 77.000 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In contrast to Buckner, the process they describe is not purely cultural. Rather \(and )] TJ ET BT 481.256 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contra)] TJ ET BT 512.588 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bolton\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unravelling of Australia?s empire was driven by British geo-political and economic reorientations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1950s and 1960s \(especially the decision to seek entry into the EEC, and the withdrawal from a role East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Suez\) which shattered Australia?s imagined ?community of interest? with Britain, and precipitated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural reconstruction in the late-1960s and 1970s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This extensive summary indicates the wealth of these two companion volumes. The reviewer found himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking copious notes. Together they will doubtless form an essential addition to many reading lists. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, the accessible chapters on gender \(Wollacot and Perry\), relations with indigenous peoples \(Reid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Mancke, Carter, and Curthoys\), migration \(Errington, Harper, and Richards\), popular culture \(White and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Teo, Damousi\), and ?de-dominionization? \(Buckner, Schreuder and Ward\) will prove invaluable for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching both Australian and Canadian history, and the history of the British Empire. The volumes ought )] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.9717 484.0135 463.9637 495.8935 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f9) >> endobj 47 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 215.4055 54.0077 227.2855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f10) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 8472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to provoke broader debate about the role these two dominions played within the British Empire, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British connection in their respective histories. With this in mind, what issues emerge from )] TJ ET BT 491.648 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canada and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 122.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 146.012 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 239.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? The remainder of the review will tackle four issues: omissions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spatial dimensions of empire in the two volumes, the way in which empire is conceptualised, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to illustrate some of these points, the treatment of economics. In particular it is suggested that both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes focus too much on connections with Britain at the expense of the remainder of the empire, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concept of empire is insufficiently refined to dissect its influence fully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally, some topics are not covered in the volumes ? and of course constraints of space and within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing literature play a part. Buckner himself in his preface draws attention to many, including: ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes of non-British, non-French immigrants \(including Americans\)?; working-class attitudes; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection between religion and empire; critics of empire; imperial policy making and policy-makers views; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the persistence of cultural links with Britain; Canadians in Britain; Canada?s relationships with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominions \()] TJ ET BT 91.688 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 114.356 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. xiii\). With the exception of religion these omissions largely hold for )] TJ ET BT 462.332 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Some are particularly telling. In particular, while there is extensive discussion of race and gender, less is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said on class ? that other element of the ?unholy trinity?. Neither volume has much to say on labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements, and either their views on imperialism or the extent to which they were themselves embedded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader networks stretching back to Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.312 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.312 554.979 m 265.304 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.304 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 288.296 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Australian labour certainly possessed links ?back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home?, as revealed in the 1889 London dock strikes, by the role of individuals such as Tom Mann, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through exchanges of ideas. Moreover, Jonathan Hyslop has shown how flows of population and ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the world, and )] TJ ET BT 142.328 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(between )] TJ ET BT 184.652 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settler colonies, shaped a developing ?white labourism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.276 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.276 512.211 m 475.268 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.268 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET BT 498.260 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Canada, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial networks competed with North American ones \(although Canada could also link the two fields\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, labour movements illustrate the way in which connections with Britain were complemented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with other regions of the empire, and in the Canadian case, connections beyond it. This raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issue, rarely addressed in the volumes, of why links with Britain were important in some aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian and Canadian life but not others. Was this the result of conscious choice, of the indirect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of linguistic bonds, and patterns of communication, travel, and exchange, or of the shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of power between Britain and these colonies?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads more broadly to a consideration of the geographical dimensions of )] TJ ET BT 407.960 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 501.632 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada?s empire. Both emerge as fundamentally bi-lateral affairs. As Schreuder and Ward observe:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s empire was fundamentally about Australia and Britain. While the cartographic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projection of a worldwide British empire- chequered in swathes of red- had long served to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce the timelessness and durability of Australia?s self-styled Britishness, it was never its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary source or inspiration \()] TJ ET BT 210.656 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 225.320 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 391\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This raises two questions. Firstly, how useful are Australia, Canada, as categories of analysis. Australia was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only united in 1901, Canada in 1867. Prior to this important regional rivalries existed, but more importantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in environment, the timing of settlement, patterns of political economy, and communication. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bumsted observes in )] TJ ET BT 137.012 211.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 159.680 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in the mid 19th century British Columbia, ?fitted more neatly into the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British empire of simultaneously exploited and protected Aboriginals than it did into the older one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European settlement? \()] TJ ET BT 144.656 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 167.324 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 63\). )] TJ ET BT 207.320 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 300.992 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in particular, through its thematic approach, tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underemphasise such local variations. The aspiration to produce histories of national engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire raises questions about ?national history?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, was empire really only about relations with Britain? It is questionable how far this holds in first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the 19th century, a period now well served by a literature emphasising the role of inter-colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 98.067 m 101.000 98.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.000 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15])] TJ ET BT 123.992 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A few authors in the volumes explicitly discuss or explore inter-colonial connections, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of the empire beyond Britain. Perry and Woollcott both describe the intra-imperial connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Canadian and Australian feminists. Buckner and Ward note the interest in, and occasional involvement of, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 19th century \(anglophone\) Canadians and Australians in the Sudanese campaign of the 1880s, and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.3117 555.2935 265.3037 567.1735 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f11) >> endobj 55 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.2757 512.5255 475.2677 524.4055 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f12) >> endobj 58 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.0077 98.3815 100.9997 110.2615 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f13) >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R 73 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 9433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South African War. However, more could be said links with other regions of the empire, as Buckner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges in the Canadian volume \()] TJ ET BT 226.316 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 248.984 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. vii?ix\). For example, Bolton?s chapter on Australian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic development makes little mention New South Wales? early trading links with South Asia or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pacific, or the connection with Cape Colony facilitated by communications with Britain. Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with the West Indies receive little mention in )] TJ ET BT 313.652 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 336.320 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. More surprisingly, there is only scattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference in the Australian volume to New Zealand, or its later ?sub-imperialist? role in the Pacific islands. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The development from 1887 of the Colonial \(later Imperial\) conference, along with many informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalents, also fostered inter-dominion connections, as well as links with Britain. If some \(and perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important\) aspects of Australia?s or Canada?s Empires were )] TJ ET BT 352.952 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally)] TJ ET BT 421.616 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( bi-lateral affairs \(especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 20th century\), this must be explained by considering the forces shaping those connections, and also by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledging )] TJ ET BT 110.336 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(disconnections)] TJ ET BT 181.664 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or )] TJ ET BT 200.660 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(connections elsewhere)] TJ ET BT 308.972 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.972 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.972 652.515 m 331.964 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 334.964 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16])] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such issues raise the problem of the meaning of empire found in the volumes. At least four approaches can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be found in the various contributions, often reflecting dominant approaches within the particular sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines. Some treat empire as synonymous with almost any connection to Britain, others focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions of governance and regulation, and still others concentrate on imperialismor \(more frequently\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britishness)] TJ ET BT 87.356 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a set of ideas. Most contributors on connections with Britain, and Britishness as a component )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of emerging Australian and Canadian identities. This begs questions, especially in the context of Ward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schreuder?s distinction between Britain and the ?world wide British empire?. Given the ongoing debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the centrality of empire in British identities and cultures, is it entirely disingenuous to ask whether a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection with British, or a British identity, is necessarily imperial? Furthermore, different assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the nature of empire can produce very different analyses and conclusions. As a result it is hard to draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too many general conclusions about the impact of empire in Australia and Canada when the contributors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often describing different phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The treatment of economics in the two volumes offers an illustration. In contrast to many other chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas McCalla emphasises that Canada?s economic relations with Britain were driven by ?market forces? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than its )] TJ ET BT 103.004 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(specifically )] TJ ET BT 160.664 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial aspects \(particularly institutional and regulatory intervention\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stringent test produces an account minimizing the importance of the British connection. Bolton?s chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalogues Australia?s economic links with Britain without applying this test; consequently they look rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more important. \(This should not obscure the fact that by the early 20th century at the latest, British trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and capital )] TJ ET BT 89.336 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 112.664 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( much more important in Australia\). My point is not to defend Bolton?s approach; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCalla?s is well grounded in an analytical tradition that can, ultimately, be traced back to Adam Smith. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it does overlook the important connections forged by businessmen with Britain. It occludes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?softer? role of businesses as catalysts for migration, exchanges of ideas, or the frequency with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial business elites were promoters of imperialism. Such a role would have been enough for heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis in chapters placing more weight on connections with Britain per se, for example Perry?s or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woollacott?s chapters on gender. Surely more Australian \(and Canadian\) businessmen travelled to Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than feminists. As Miss Mack, the ?Australian Girl? who, as Woollacott recounts, visited London around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn of the 20th century, wrote: ?The sort of people who travel? What a disillusionment! They who travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Australia are the money-makers, the business people? \()] TJ ET BT 325.616 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 340.280 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 327\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.276 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.276 229.347 m 403.268 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 406.268 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17])] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One repercussion of the more exacting frameworks adopted is that both volumes downplay the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of economic connections \(other than the migration of labour\). Such scepticism perhaps results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the importance of economic elites in models of ?collaboration? deployed by Robinson, and Cain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopkins.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.684 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.684 160.323 m 97.676 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.676 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([18])] TJ ET BT 120.668 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These models run counter to )] TJ ET BT 263.312 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 277.976 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s and )] TJ ET BT 311.300 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CBE)] TJ ET BT 333.968 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s claims about colonial agency. Ward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schreuder argue that ?colonial politicians and financial institutions were able to manipulate the system to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own ends ? or at least more so than the ?gentlemanly capitalism? model has allowed? \(echoed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckner, )] TJ ET BT 80.672 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AE)] TJ ET BT 95.336 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 17, )] TJ ET BT 131.336 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(CHE)] TJ ET BT 155.336 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 68\). This overlooks Cain and Hopkins? recent works which acknowledge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent goals of these dominions \(and much hard bargaining\), but argue that insofar as these goals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended on economic \(and in principle other\) connections with Britain, they subjected Australia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada to ?structural power?: in order to achieve these goals they had to comply with ?rules of the game? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set in Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.020 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.020 60.531 m 119.012 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.012 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([19])] TJ ET BT 142.004 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One can question the strength of the resultant imperialism but this more nuanced )] TJ ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.9717 652.8295 331.9637 664.7095 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f14) >> endobj 66 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.2757 229.6615 403.2677 241.5415 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f15) >> endobj 69 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6837 160.6375 97.6757 172.5175 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f16) >> endobj 72 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.0197 60.8455 119.0117 72.7255 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#f17) >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R ] /Contents 76 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Length 10000 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model is a significant advance and it a shame it did not find a place in either volume. It has obvious affinities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Ward?s subtle analysis of Australian defence, which revolves around Australians? \(realistic\) perception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dependence on the British for defence, and desire for different policy priorities. This has the merit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing how Australians \(mainly policy makers\) sought to assert themselves )] TJ ET BT 417.308 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within)] TJ ET BT 447.320 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a particular context or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system \(as Ward shows, not necessarily an economic system\). Lest this be considered a purely antipodean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, it ought to be remembered that Canadians \(perhaps more than Buckner emphasises, but for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially cultural reasons he emphasises\) often saw the British connection as a counterbalance to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern neighbour?s growing dominance. Thus there is need to consider the limits of colonial agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised in the introductions to the two volumes. Structure, and at times power, require consideration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end both )] TJ ET BT 109.340 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 203.012 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 226.340 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canada and the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 377.012 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contain many thoughtful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions. Their best essays are excellent. Yet collectively they struggle to fulfil their goal of restoring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire to its rightful place in Australian and Canadian history. Omissions, an excessive focus on relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Britain, and loose treatment of the word ?empire? all weaken the central argument. Moreover, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressing Australian and Canadian ?agency? in relations with Britain and empire, the forces structuring those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations are often occluded. There were clearly different factors at work: varying degrees of economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic dependence; the numerous networks \(including many between colonies\) spawned by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communications and migrations of people and ideas; and complex elaborations of Britishness. Each had its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own dynamics. Some relationships operated from the bottom up, others were elite affairs. Some were open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to considerable colonial manipulation, others were asymmetrical. Only by acknowledging these differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands, exploring their inter-relationships and the forces shaping them, could the full significance of empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have become apparent in these volumes. This may be an unfair criticism of an edited collection, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence is difficult to achieve. It is a limitation shared with both the original )] TJ ET BT 413.636 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OHBE)] TJ ET BT 445.628 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes of the )] TJ ET BT 108.344 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion Series)] TJ ET BT 196.676 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Certainly neither of these volumes deserves to join the )] TJ ET BT 466.976 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 174.020 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the stacks of university libraries. Each offers digestible and stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions which will provoke further study and debate even if they do not fully capture Australians? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadians? defiantly complex relationships with both Britain and the British Empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would like to thank Frank Bongiorno, Marjory Harper and Rachel Bright for reading earlier drafts of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review. Its contents and any errors herein are, naturally, my own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. Rose et al., )] TJ ET BT 145.676 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 342.680 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(8 vols, Cambridge, 1929?1959\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.332 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.332 320.643 m 547.328 320.643 l S BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 306.387 m 78.008 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.008 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([20])] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Gallagher and R. Robinson, 'The imperialism of free trade,' )] TJ ET BT 362.288 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 486.932 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(1953\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1?15.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 277.875 m 144.332 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 147.332 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([21])] TJ ET BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Meaney, 'Britishness and Australian identity: the problem of nationalism in Australian history and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography,' )] TJ ET BT 142.172 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 282.188 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32 \(2001\), 76?90; A.G. Hopkins, 'Back to the future: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from national history to imperial history,' )] TJ ET BT 265.172 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 347.168 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 164 \(1999\), 216?21. The original poem, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dating from 1887, can be found at <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.756 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/a-song-of-the-republic/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.756 220.851 m 520.052 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 523.052 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([22])] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[Accessed 24 March 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.408 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.408 206.595 m 257.396 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.396 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([23])] TJ ET BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Darwin, 'A third British Empire? The dominion idea in imperial politics,' in )] TJ ET BT 440.324 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford History of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Empire: The Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 252.020 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. M. Brown and W. R. Louis \(5 vols., Oxford, 1999\), vol. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4, pp. 64?87.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 163.827 m 180.332 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.332 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([24])] TJ ET BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. J. Cain and A.G. Hopkins, )] TJ ET BT 206.348 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion, 1688?1914)] TJ ET BT 493.676 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\); P. J. Cain and A.G. Hopkins, )] TJ ET BT 240.680 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism: Crisis and Deconstruction, 1914?90)] TJ ET BT 516.020 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1993\); A. S. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 230.348 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Britain: The Empire in British Politics, c.1880?1932)] TJ ET BT 528.020 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 106.803 m 196.328 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 199.328 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([25])] TJ ET BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Lester, 'Imperial circuits and networks: geographies of the British Empire', )] TJ ET BT 440.276 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Compass)] TJ ET BT 523.280 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2006\), 124?41; A. Lester, )] TJ ET BT 194.324 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Networks: Creating Identities in Nineteenth Century South Africa )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Britain)] TJ ET BT 119.024 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2001\); T. Ballantyne, 'Race and the webs of Empire: Aryanism from India to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Pacific', )] TJ ET BT 123.164 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History)] TJ ET BT 339.524 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(2001\); Z. Laidlaw, )] TJ ET BT 451.508 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 36.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Connections, 1815?45: Patronage, the Information Revolution and Colonial Government)] TJ ET endstream endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.3317 320.9575 547.3277 332.8375 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#t1) >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 306.7015 78.0077 318.5815 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#t1) >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3437 278.1895 144.3317 290.0695 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#t2) >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.7557 221.1655 520.0517 233.0455 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/a-song-of-the-republic/) >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 86 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.4077 206.9095 257.3957 218.7895 ] >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#t3) >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 164.1415 180.3317 176.0215 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#t4) >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 107.1175 196.3277 118.9975 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/dilleya.html#t5) >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R ] /Contents 92 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Length 9998 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 70.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.988 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.988 795.075 m 220.976 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([26])] TJ ET BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British World: Diaspora, Culture and Identity)] TJ ET BT 306.356 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. Bridge and K. Fedorowich \(London, 2003\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rediscovering the British World, )] TJ ET BT 225.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. P. A. Buckner and R. D. Francis \(Calgary, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.636 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.636 766.563 m 533.624 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.624 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([27])] TJ ET BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Robinson, 'The non-European foundations for European imperialism: sketch for a theory of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration,' in )] TJ ET BT 147.836 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in the Theory of Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 322.832 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Owen and B. Sutcliffe \(London, 1972\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cain and Hopkins, )] TJ ET BT 156.680 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion)] TJ ET BT 384.008 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, chapter 8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.324 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.324 723.795 m 491.312 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 494.312 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([28])] TJ ET BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 136.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Empire in Australia: an Economic History: 1834?1939)] TJ ET BT 458.012 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Melbourne, 1941\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.283 m 118.004 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.004 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([29])] TJ ET BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Ward, )] TJ ET BT 109.340 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia)] TJ ET BT 154.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( and the British Embrace: the Demise of the Imperial Ideal)] TJ ET BT 437.312 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Carlton South, Vic., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 666.771 m 155.000 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.000 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([30])] TJ ET BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I must thank Frank Bongiorno for this point.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.352 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.352 652.515 m 337.340 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.340 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([31])] TJ ET BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Hyslop, 'The imperial working class makes itself ?white?: white labourism in Britain, Australia, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Africa before the First World War', )] TJ ET BT 267.464 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of Historical Sociology)] TJ ET BT 440.132 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 \(1999\), 398?421.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 609.747 m 124.004 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.004 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([32])] TJ ET BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See references in note six.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.644 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.644 595.491 m 249.632 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.632 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([33])] TJ ET BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a useful contribution to this end, see S. J. Potter, 'Webs, networks and systems: globalization and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mass media in the nineteenth- and twentieth-century British Empire', )] TJ ET BT 415.136 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 538.148 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\), 621?646.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.336 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.336 552.723 m 206.324 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 209.324 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([34])] TJ ET BT 42.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in M. 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J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, 'Afterword: the theory and practice of British imperialism,' in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Imperialism: The New Debate on Empire)] TJ ET BT 439.004 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. in R. E. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dumett\(London, 1999\), p. 204; A. G. Hopkins, 'Gentlemanly capitalism in New Zealand,' )] TJ ET BT 497.960 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 188.660 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 \(2003\), 287?97; B. 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