%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221070552+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221070552+00'00') /Title (Love, Lust, and License in Early Modern England: Illicit Sex and the Nobility) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4082 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Love, Lust, and License in Early Modern England: Illicit Sex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Nobility)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johanna Rickman remarks that her book resulted from an apparently simple question: 'What happened to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noblemen and noblewomen who engaged in extramarital sexual relationships?' \(p. 1\). She rightly insists that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the answers shed light on the interactions of social status and gender, the role of the monarch, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships within and between elite kinship networks. Her focus is somewhat narrower than the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies; she addresses only the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and much of the book deals with the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two decades of the 17th century. Rickman is also careful to explain that her study is limited to 'heterosexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extramarital sex: fornication, adultery, and bastardy', and that she is not discussing issues of sexual identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 7\). Nevertheless, her work has broad implications for our understanding of early modern society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love, Lust, and License)] TJ ET BT 147.680 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is divided into two equal parts, the first setting out the larger contexts surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illicit sex in the nobility, and the second presenting individual case studies. The introduction outlines key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts of the late 16th and early 17th centuries: the position of the nobility, gender norms, and the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws relating to sexual behavior. In the first two chapters, Rickman presents in broad terms attitudes toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illicit sex at the courts of Elizabeth and James I. Briefly discussing a variety of extramarital relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among courtiers or between courtiers and other nobles, Rickman explores the reactions of the monarch to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(761)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 May, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johanna Rickman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754661351)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(244pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ingrid Tague)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7664 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such relationships. Above all, she stresses, Elizabeth's and James's responses were motivated much more by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatism than by a strong sense of moral values. Chapter one, on illicit sex at the court of Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth, is the least impressive because least original part of the book. Like many historians before her, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rickman argues that Elizabeth's status as a single woman had a significant impact on her reign and on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with her courtiers. Rickman suggests that her contribution to the field is to recognize that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact extended to the queen's treatment of courtiers who engaged in sexual relations outside marriage, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a point is hardly surprising. Elizabeth punished both male and female courtiers for illicit sex, usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through imprisonment or banishment from court, but the punishments for women tended to be more severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and longer-lasting. Rickman's point that female courtiers were Elizabeth's servants and that their behavior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus reflected on their queen's reputation is sensible but hardly groundbreaking. Similarly, her argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtiers were more willing to risk their monarch's displeasure late in the reign, when the conceit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth as love object was less compelling and when she herself was less popular, is again unsurprising.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, Rickman turns to the court of James I, emphasizing the differences between the Jacobean and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan periods in terms of both the nature of the sexual scandals and the monarchs' reactions to them: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('In the scandals of James's reign illicit sex was usually only one component of the crimes committed; other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-sexual offenses formed the center of the scandals' \(p. 77\). Furthermore, James tended to employ the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal system to punish offenders rather than following Elizabeth's model of direct imprisonment or exile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from court. Using the examples of the famous Overbury case as well as two other Jacobean court scandals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rickman points to the importance of factors such as allegations of bigamy, murder, or slander. Rickman also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that the language used by nobles themselves when discussing illicit sex changed in this period, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a more open sexual discourse' emerging \(p. 70\). At the same time, however, she is at pains to refute the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that the Jacobean court was a hotbed of immorality. Instead, she notes that open discussion of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters might simply have been less problematic in a context where the monarch was a married man and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus could be expected to know about and discuss sexual matters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining three chapters address three illicit relationships, all dating from the 1590s to the 1620s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rickman's choice of cases was based primarily on the availability of sources, particularly correspondence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the relationships. In addition to letters, she draws on state papers, court records, and literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials, using them to greater or lesser extent depending on their relevance to the particular case. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result is an impressive level of detail for the three central case studies. Each chapter provides the known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts of the case and seeks to explain why events unfolded in the way they did. Discussing the similarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and differences among the cases, their impact on the central figures, and the responses to each scandal by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their families, the monarch, and other nobles, Rickman carefully elucidates the many ramifications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extramarital sex.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three deals with the relationship between Penelope Rich and Charles Blount. Penelope and Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began an affair in the 1590s when she was married to Sir Robert Rich, but it was not until 1605 that the court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of High Commission granted Sir Robert a 'divorce' )] TJ ET BT 280.988 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a mensa et thoro)] TJ ET BT 361.316 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the grounds of Penelope's adultery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rickman argues that Penelope and Sir Robert 'collaborated about Penelope's confession' in order to achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mutually-desired separation \(p. 128\), and soon after, Penelope and Charles married. Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged five children by Penelope and provided for them in his will. It was this will, the details of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which became known upon his death in 1606, which brought their relationship to the attention of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries. Rickman notes that their adulterous affair throughout the 1590s attracted little notice, a fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she attributes to Penelope's ability to maintain the external trappings of a respectable marriage. Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth's angry reactions to other cases of marital infidelity among her courtiers, for instance, Rickman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surmises that the queen probably had no idea of the affair. Penelope's and Charles's reputations suffered only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they made their relationship public through their marriage and his attempt to provide for his children. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Indeed', Rickman notes, 'it was the )] TJ ET BT 205.808 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(combination)] TJ ET BT 265.808 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of adultery and disregard of the marriage laws that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries found scandalous' \(p. 139; italics original\). Even so, Penelope could still draw on a network )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of powerful social connections to defend her against the inevitable lawsuits by Charles's relations, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although she died in 1607, their children did secure their inheritances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four deals with the affair between William Herbert and his cousin Mary Wroth in the 1610s and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7610 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1620s. While Penelope Rich was able to conceal her initial pregnancies by Charles Blount under the cover of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her marriage to Sir Robert, Mary Wroth was a widow at the time of her pregnancies. Nonetheless, Rickman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, 'the affair caused no great scandal and very little outward trouble for the friends and family of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved' \(p. 141\). She is at pains to dispute the view that Wroth was expelled from court because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affair, pointing out that there is little evidence that Mary ever played a significant role at court, or that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was punished by James or his wife. Much of this chapter is devoted to a reading of sections of Wroth's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romance, )] TJ ET BT 81.332 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Countess of Montgomery's Urania)] TJ ET BT 267.896 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Rickman argues that Mary's presentation of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters in the work emphasizes female agency and sexual desire, and suggests that this presentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides insight into Mary's attitude toward her own circumstances. While her reading of the romance is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting, however, it ultimately sheds little light on reactions to the affair. Instead, Rickman plausibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes the silence surrounding the relationship to the protection of Wroth's powerful kin, especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sidney family, and to the fact that she was a widow; because neither Wroth nor Herbert was married during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their affair, there was no threat to family property or lineage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifth chapter looks at the adultery trial of Frances Villiers and Robert Howard, as well as the aftermath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the case. In 1617 Frances was married against her will to Sir John Villiers, younger brother of James's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favorite, the Earl \(later Duke\) of Buckingham. By early 1624 she and Robert Howard were having an affair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and she bore him a son that fall. Buckingham insisted on a trial for adultery in the court of High )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission, which convicted Frances in November 1627. Rather than serving the required penance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, she fled London; when she returned in 1635, she once again faced punishment but escaped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. For Rickman, what is most unusual about the case is not that Frances managed twice to escape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment \(both times in dramatic fashion\), but that the trial occurred at all. For members of the nobility to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face legal charges for sexual offenses was extremely rare, and it is likely that it was Buckingham's concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his family honor that led to this prosecution. Rickman comments that Frances's own husband actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed the proceedings, both because he loved his wife and because his religion \(he had converted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism\) 'did not allow for an Anglican divorce' \(p. 180\). Thus rather than an offended husband )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanding vengeance, it was instead an issue of larger familial concerns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, Rickman stresses the fact that illicit sex did not necessarily lead to condemnation or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social ostracism, even for women. Instead, she emphasizes practical considerations: fornication or adultery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be tolerated when the people involved practiced discretion and when there was no direct threat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property or lineage. Moreover, the legal and social privileges accorded to the nobility helped shield its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members from negative consequences. Frances Villiers, for instance, claimed that as the wife of a peer, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not subject to the High Commission, and she petitioned the House of Lords for redress; although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petition was unsuccessful, Rickman notes that the Lords were far from unanimous and that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned not to set a precedent that would diminish noble privilege in the future. More important than legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileges were the social networks that nobles could use. Frequently, women were able to take advantage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such networks for legal and financial support. Mary Wroth's illegitimate children, for example, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently cared for by the Sidney clan, of which both she and William Herbert were part. When Penelope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rich faced lawsuits over Charles Blount's estate, powerful friends intervened on her behalf.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Rickman, the reasons behind this apparent willingness to accept illicit sex lie partly in pragmatism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly in ideology. From a purely pragmatic point of view, many noble families were unwilling to stir up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandal if it could be avoided. Fornication and adultery became a problem when they became public ? when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parties involved flaunted their relationship with marriage, as in the case of Penelope Rich and Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blount ? or when illegitimate children threatened the family line. Because noble families had the wealth to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support illegitimate offspring, moreover, bastards were not inherently a problem as long as there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of their inheriting family property. There was not the financial incentive to prosecute such cases as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was for people lower down the social scale. Thus Mary Wroth's children caused no scandal, and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Villier's willingness to accept Frances's son as his own complicated Buckingham's attempt to prosecute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her. Pragmatism also played a role, according to Rickman, in the difference between Elizabeth's and James's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to illicit sex among their courtiers. Elizabeth simply could not afford to be seen to tolerate sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misconduct, especially by her female courtiers, because of her own fragile reputation as a single woman. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6290 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When such behavior occurred among nobles away from court, however, the queen was less concerned. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James had greater freedom because he was a husband and father, and thus he chose largely to ignore illicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex unless the moral transgression was compounded by other serious crimes. Rickman's reading of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, which emphasizes women's agency and resilience in defending themselves, is largely a convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, and one that fits well with other recent studies of aristocratic women in early modern England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somewhat more problematic is her attempt to argue for the central role of a 'courtly love ideal' as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterbalance to traditional religious views of female behavior. Rickman emphasizes the power of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over their male lovers in this ideal, as well as courtly love's valorization of female 'beauty, bravery, charm, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence, wit, and ability to command' \(p. 13\). She argues that because such characteristics in the women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this study 'made them worthy of love in the eyes of their peers, their sexual offenses could be partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excused, and they could continue to function in the aristocratic community despite their illicit relationships' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 203\). Yet the book provides little evidence for a connection between courtly love and responses to illicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex. Rickman does note, as other historians have, that conventions of courtly love were widely employed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth's court and that male courtiers relied on expressions of romantic devotion to win her favor. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such conventions do not imply an acceptance of illicit sex; indeed, as Rickman points out, Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punished transgressions at her court when love shifted from literary trope to actual sexual contact. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence that provides the basis for the case studies shows that many nobles were willing to accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fornication and adultery among their peers when it was kept within certain bounds, but not that a woman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wit, beauty, and charm were seen as sufficient reasons to excuse such behavior. Instead, family and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections seem, not surprisingly, to have been the primary determinants of acceptance or condemnation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More intriguing is Rickman's suggestion that illicit sex ran in families, patterns that 'in some aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles evoke Peter Laslett's theory of a "bastardy-prone subsociety"' \(p. 204\). A few key families form the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of her work \(and their genealogies are helpfully presented in an appendix\); moreover, those families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently shared political and social ties. Some of these connections are doubtless due to the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English nobility was a small group characterized by intermarriage, especially at the center of court life. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it would be intriguing to explore other possible reasons for such clusters of illicit behavior. Rickman remarks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such groups demonstrate that the aristocracy was 'composed of many different circles' \(p. 204\), without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further defining the specific characteristics of these particular 'subsocieties'. An exploration of the political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious, and cultural affiliations of the families that seemed most accepting of illicit sex might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more useful than an appeal to a generalized ideal of courtly love. As it is, however, )] TJ ET BT 435.596 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love, Lust, and License)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a subtle analysis of the many considerations involved when the early modern nobility was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronted by illicit sex within its ranks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/parergon/v026/26.1.fisher.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 274.371 m 321.680 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.680 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/3/886.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 245.859 m 281.012 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.012 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 242.527 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 224.747 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 224.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/761)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 223.353 m 322.316 223.353 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 198.376 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3739)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/parergon/v026/26.1.fisher.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/3/886.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 274.6855 321.6797 286.5655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/parergon/v026/26.1.fisher.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 246.1735 281.0117 258.0535 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/3/886.full) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 223.6675 322.3157 235.5475 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/761) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000004796 00000 n 0000004905 00000 n 0000005015 00000 n 0000005124 00000 n 0000008685 00000 n 0000008813 00000 n 0000008897 00000 n 0000008962 00000 n 0000016679 00000 n 0000016744 00000 n 0000024407 00000 n 0000024505 00000 n 0000030848 00000 n 0000030975 00000 n 0000031086 00000 n 0000031213 00000 n 0000031317 00000 n 0000031445 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31540 %%EOF