%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080033+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080033+01'00') /Title (The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of Columbus) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4237 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Columbus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the start of this century, Britons were polled about which century was the worst century of the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millennium. They alighted on the 14th century as the century when the four horsemen of the apocalypse rode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most freely. The 14th century was the worst because the bubonic plague devastated the population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eurasia. Given that nearly 100 million people died from the Black Death, mostly in China, the century was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed especially grim. But the 16th century, especially the early years of that century, was even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographically disastrous for one important sector of the world population. Diseases introduced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European invaders destroyed the native population of the Americas. Native Americans numbered perhaps 54 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million in 1492. By 1600, that population had shrunk to 10 million. Overall, the population of Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America shrunk by about 80 percent between 1492 and the second half of the 17th century. In the regions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled first and hardest by the Iberians ? Hispaniola, Brazil and Mexico, in particular ? population decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was precipitous. The Mexican population shrank from around 17 million in 1492 to about 70,000 in 1650. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, there were sufficient Native Americans in Mexico for Indian peoples and cultures to survive. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean, however, where the initial population was smaller and where the impact of Columbus and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers was most pronounced, Spanish conquest and the diseases they unwittingly introduced led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappearance of a whole civilization. When the English conquered Jamaica from the Spanish in 1655, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolation prize after failing to conquer Hispaniola, no Native Americans remained to welcome or mourn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(762)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 May, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Abulafia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300125825)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevor Burnard)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new arrivals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is still hard to grasp the dimensions of the Spanish assault upon the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 16th century. Indeed, we continue to see the loss of so many people and the destruction in a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short period of time of a variety of diverse cultures soon after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardhearted entrepreneurs and religious bigots, drawn from the middling sectors of Spanish society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venturing to the Indies in search of wealth, power and fun ? as something that while lamentable was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavoidable. Sooner or later, we are told, the Americas were going to be colonized, by the English or French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not by the Spanish. The loss of life that in fact occurred was always likely to happen, whether in 1492 or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50 years later. Given, to echo the phrase Margaret Thatcher used to parrot about governmental policies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s, there was no alternative to European invasion of the Americas \(it was always going to happen, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way or another\), the destruction of the Indies was inevitable and not really the fault of anyone. True, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish were cruel and avaricious. True, also, as David Abulafia notes in his lively account of the earliest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters between Iberians and Atlantic peoples, the Spanish made a dire situation worse by ?putting in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place a way of managing the native population that made all this inevitable damage far worse? \(p. 210\). But, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.770 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as signified by the use of the term)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?inevitable?, the end result was predictable. The Indians had to die; the Europeans were bound to replace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. Liberal bleeding hearts in the form of ?post-modernist? and ?postcolonialist? literary scholars who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot write proper English sentences might think that ?we are to blame? but ?we? cannot be accounted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for something we did not intend to cause and which if we had known we were going to cause, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we would not have done. Indeed, the destruction of the Indies showed the failure of Spanish policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean. The Spanish, Abulafia asserts, wanted Caribbean peoples to live because only if they lived could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they be exploited properly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is worth pondering the moral implications behind the above statement. What does it say about a people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they would be disappointed by the disappearance of another people and its culture only because that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would mean that they could not make the lives of those people while alive much more miserable than they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been before? What does it say about a people that when they meet a new category of humans they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never met before they demonize them as savages who can be mistreated, misused and reduced to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of non-humans? Abulafia cites a famous and revealing passage by a boastful Italian gentleman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friend of Christopher Columbus, Michele da Cuneo, in which the Italian was ?granted? by Columbus a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gorgeous naked Cannibal woman. Da Cuneo ?felt a craving to sport with her? and proceeded to thrash then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rape the woman while remaining convinced that the woman was so degraded by nature and so innately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lascivious that soon ?we were of such accord that, in the act, I can tell you, she seemed to have been trained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an act of harlotry?. The discovery of a ?new? kind of mankind brought out the very worst in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives of an older kind of mankind. Da Cuneo was typical. One imagine that he and Columbus had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a good joke about his ?sport? and about how he tamed a shrew and brought out her inner whoredom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, Native Americans did not like the new type of mankind that they encountered disembarking from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ships of Columbus. Bartolme Las Casas, who despaired about what the Conquest of America revealed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the true character of his compatriots, retailed in his great work on the destruction of the Indies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments made by Hatuey, a )] TJ ET BT 179.324 218.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cacique)] TJ ET BT 216.644 218.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from Hispaniola who fled to Cuba, after being captured. Told when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tied to the stake that if he did not convert, he would go to Hell and eternal torment, Hatuey asked where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish went after death. When learning that Christians went to heaven, Hatuey replied he would prefer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go to Hell. And so he was burnt, unbaptised and unrepentant. Hatuey had a point, as Las Casas realized. Las )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Casas may have been a polemicist. He certainly ?exaggerated the peacefulness of pre-Columbian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hispaniola? \(p. 211\) to give greater effect to his tales of Spanish cruelty. But he wanted to use Hatuey?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words to alert his countrymen to the true nature of the Spanish rogues and villains who ruled Indians in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Indies. Las Casas? powerful denunciation of the Conquistadors resounded around Spain and Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. It was the foundation of the Black Legend of Spanish cruelty. It led Spanish writers to think that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas were the special province of the Devil, as European men did such bad things when there that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could only be because the Devil was working upon their souls. It inspired Abbe Raynal and his team of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers in the mid 18th century to argue that it would have been best for humanity if the Indies had never )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7614 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been discovered by Europeans. Raynal thought European discovery of the Americas was terrible not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Spanish rule was disastrous for native populations. He also believed that one consequence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish conquest was that it revealed a heartlessness at the centre of European culture. It showed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish, in particular, to be naturally cruel and avaricious, with personalities at odds with the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image they tried to project to others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abulafia did not write the book under review, however, with Las Casas? admonitions to the fore. The ?new? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mankind discovered in the Atlantic encounter he describes are Indians, not Europeans; the ?we? who read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book and who are not to blame for the 95 percent loss of population that occurred in the parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean and Central America where Spaniards were most exploitative are Europeans or people of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European descent. He urges us to look just one way, outwards across the Atlantic to the Americas, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than across the Americas to Europe. It is a curiously one-sided book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.292 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.292 640.515 m 378.284 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.284 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We learn a great deal about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter period. We get to understand how early European views of Native Americans were almost fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed in the European imagination before Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492. Abulafia has instructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things to say about the relevance to our knowledge of first contact in America of the important pre-history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbian encounters that Spaniards and Portuguese made with the ?wild men? of the Canary Islands, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of engagement that started just before the Black Death devastated Western Europe and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified in the first half of the 15th century. Abulafia deftly compares the positive views that Giovanni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boccaccio had about the Canary Islands ? he saw Canary Islanders as children of Eden living peacefully in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastoral idyll ? with the negative views of Canary Islanders put forward by Petrarch. Petrarch saw them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beasts, naked out of stupidity and solitary because they lacked the capacity for sociability. Unfortunately, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Petrarch?s view that won out over the more benign image of primitive peoples offered by Boccaccio. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later commentaries on Native Americans, notably that of the embryonic tabloid journalist, Amerigo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vespucci, after whom two continents were named, followed Petrarch in seeing Indians as savages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But for all the great information on the Canary Islands, the careful and nuanced treatment of anthropological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings on the Tainos and Caribs, and the interesting recounting of Columbus? voyages \(albeit with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbus firmly at the centre of events\), the Eurocentric bias of Abulafia?s account makes this story of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting of two sets of peoples across the Atlantic incomplete. One never learns from this book that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European ideas of themselves \(as Burckhardt told us long ago\) were rapidly changing. They were changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to such an extent that a few years after Columbus reached the Bahamas, the late medieval assumptions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guided Columbus were under attack from Martin Luther. We would like to know, but don?t get to know, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the European encounter with Americans in the late 15th century changed how Europeans saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Did their cruelty towards Indians make them question their own nature? The problem in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, however, is that we never get to see how Indians saw Europeans. A paucity of sources makes finding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian opinions about European character difficult but there is enough scattered evidence to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians speculated hard about why strangers to their lands were addicted to violence and to a seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacifist Christian religion. Even if we cannot get to Indian views on Europeans, we have enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary evidence, besides that of the polemicist Las Casas, to know that 16th-century Europeans were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious about how the experience of America caused degeneration \(a long-standing trope in writings on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America by Europeans\) in Europeans venturing abroad. Michel de Montaigne?s famous essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannibalism was sensitive enough to cultural difference as to believe that ?each man calls barbarism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever is not his own practice?. One implication of such a statement is that Indians could just as easily see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish as barbarians as the Spanish could see them as sub-humans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abulafia does not concentrate on such things. He seldom questions the motivation behind the writings about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, being content to merely describe what Europeans wrote about Americans rather than to try and fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those writings into a discourse Europeans were having among themselves about their own nature. Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had by no means a fixed idea of what constituted human kind. They knew, as Christians, that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fallen people, with multiple deficiencies and sinful characteristics. They knew, also, that in geohumoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory ? a common way of understanding human nature was through analyzing how European bodies altered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a result of being in one climate rather than another ? some Europeans, notably those in cold northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climes, such as the English and Scots, and those in southern climes, such as those close to the shores of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.2917 640.8295 378.2837 652.7095 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7863 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tropical Africa, had their bodies altered sufficiently by environmental factors so as to be morally defective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and physically decrepit. It is by no means clear, as Joyce Chaplin tells us in an important book on English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters with Indians that Abulafia does not cite, that Europeans felt all that superior to Native Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on first meeting. It is true that the Spanish were more certain, as people living in a temperate country, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geohumoralism worked in their favour than were the English, who were residents of a cold country. But if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain had an agreeable and equitable climate, allowing Spaniard bodies to become strong and hardy, Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans also lived in an appealing and temperate environment. If these people were savages, then this cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt on the whole understanding of the relationship between climate and character that undergirded much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of early modern thinking. Moreover, it was not just Indians who died when they encountered other humans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spaniards, too, found the Americas unhealthy. They died unnaturally frequently once across the Atlantic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What did it say about the character of a people that they could not live long lives in a beautiful climate? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More importantly, what did it say about them when their behavior in such a climate was by any standards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below the norms expected of civilized and Christian people?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suspect that Abulafia does not engage in such questions because he feels that to treat the European as ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other? smacks of postmodernism and postcolonialism. He rails against postmodernism as politicized and full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of jargon. That is probably true but surely it should have come even to the attention of dons in Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the days of postmodernist and post-colonialist readings of the encounter period are long past. Abulafia is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flogging a dead horse, as is clear from the fact that he never names the terrible postmodernist texts that he so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dislikes. I, too, wouldn?t be able to cite a single postmodernist book of importance written this century on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the age of discovery or the encounter period. But the tone of Abulafia?s book is such as to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maybe his postmodernist straw man or woman might have a point. He engages in much special pleading on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behalf of Columbus and his compatriots, moving seamlessly, for example, from a denial that Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed a paradise where mankind lived in harmony with nature \(even though no serious historian of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter period ever makes a claim about the Americas in 1491 being paradisical: no evidence supports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such an outlandish and sweeping statement\) to one of his particular obsessions, that cannibalism was in fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real in the Caribbean, not just a colonialist construct \(p. xvi\). It is true that a few literary scholars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unacquainted with a large body of anthropology that documents the existence of cannibalism in various parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the world, from the South Atlantic to the South Pacific, made silly statements in the 1980s and 1990s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting cannibalism was a figment of the colonial imagination. But the subject does not deserve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive treatment that Abulafia gives it in this book. He proves again and again that cannibalism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to have existed in the Americas while not citing the post-modernist, post-colonialist writers who make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?patronizingly colonialist? assumptions that cannibalism was imaginary \(p. 191\). It is noticeable, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, that in Sir John Elliott? s justly praised comparison of British and Spanish Atlantic empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannibalism among Native Americans is not considered important enough to warrant discussion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.960 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.960 312.627 m 511.952 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast with his fixation with cannibalism, Abulafia mentions disease and the demographic decline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Native Americans usually only in passing, even though this must have been the most significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of the Columbian encounter. He cites, without contradicting the statement, Vespucci?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridiculous claim that sickness and early death was uncommon among Indians before discussing in much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more detail Vespucci?s accounts of cannibalism. Moreover, on the one occasion when depopulation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly mentioned, in the context of what Abulafia calls ?Las Casa? blood-curdling tales of cruelty?, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by an anachronistic disquisition on how the depopulation of the Americas was not a genocide, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as defined by the U.N. Convention on Genocide \(p. 211\). It is not clear to me, first, why one would want to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use a definition created in the 20th century for 20th-century purposes to analyze a quite different situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400 years earlier and, second, why the fact that depopulation was accidental rather than intended makes what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened in the 16th century to Indian population levels somewhat more morally palatable. That the Nazis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were worse than the Spanish because they were deliberate about exterminating Jews while the Spanish killed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians by accident seems to me to be spurious historical reasoning. If we want to go down the road of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assigning moral responsibility for catastrophic population loss in the past, a pathway which doesn?t seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially fruitful, then the Spanish are not innocents. They may not have known what caused Indian deaths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they were perfectly well aware that Indians died as a consequence of their arrival. Moreover, they knew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Indian population decline was aggravated through Spanish mistreatment. Las Casas told the Spaniards )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.9597 312.9415 511.9517 324.8215 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they should have done, as good Christians: they should have abandoned the Americas and gone home. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That, ?to their credit?, some Spaniards agonized over what they had done \(p. 210\) would have been small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort to the Indians that died as a result of their being there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We can see how disastrous the Spanish encounter with Native Americans was in the 16th century by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extemporizing on a conceit that Abulafia raises early in his book. Drawing on an interview with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian cosmologist published in )] TJ ET BT 210.020 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 310.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 2005 in which it was stated that discovering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced life in the Universe would be the greatest discovery ever made, Abulafia makes an analogy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between such a putative discovery and the encounters initiated in the 15th century in the Canaries and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean. What we know, however, is that we humans are not advanced enough as a species to have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity to find other forms of advanced life. A more advanced life-form elsewhere in the universe would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find us, rather than us them. And ?we? \(meaning humankind\) would be the primitives. Of course, science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction writers have thought of this conceit before. H. G. Wells did so most famously in )] TJ ET BT 456.308 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Worlds)] TJ ET BT 68.684 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. London was only saved from destruction by the superior Martians succumbing to our only weapon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenza. If the analogy stands, however, it would not be the advanced life forms from elsewhere dying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before they could destroy our culture. It would be us who would perish quickly and in massive numbers, just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the Tainos, Caribs and Canary Islanders did in the wake of Iberian invasion. I wonder then if we would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be sympathetic to explanations from our conquerors that at least our depopulation was accidental, and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate genocide, as they took our land, made us slaves and made derogatory comments about our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debased natures. I suspect our reaction might be similar to that made by Hatuey before he was thrown in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flames. The Spanish did indeed discover a new form of mankind. Then they destroyed it and profited greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from that destruction. Abulafia recognizes that the major consequence of the Columbian encounter was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction, citing at his conclusion the words of the prophet Malachi, asking ?why we deal treacherously, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every man against his brother, profaning the covenant of our forefathers? \(p.313\). It is a pity, however, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his determination to avoid postmodernist excess, he soft-pedals away from the implications of Malachi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation of man?s inhumanity to man. It is not just postmodernists but the ancients who thought about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it meant to be the ?other?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For how the encounter experience can be conceived differently, see Daniel K. Richter, )] TJ ET BT 481.892 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing East )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from Indian Country: a Native History of Early America)] TJ ET BT 335.336 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.988 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.988 346.899 m 511.976 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another contrast with Elliott?s book \(a book not cited by Abulafia\) is in documentation. Elliott?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes are crisp and helpful. The endnotes in Abulafia?s book are mystifyingly short to the point of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being cryptic. I can understand that this book is meant for the general reader but what is meant by ?cf. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montaigne? in an endnote is unclear. Does ?cf? refer to a point of view he disagrees with, a point of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that is different but worthy of consideration or to something else entirely? I have no idea. Nor )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will the general reader.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.644 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.644 261.363 m 228.632 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/406.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 206.595 m 313.004 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/apr/12/featuresreviews.guardianreview15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 178.083 m 424.616 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 427.616 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 174.751 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 156.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 156.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/762)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 155.577 m 322.316 155.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 130.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3740)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/406.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/apr/12/featuresreviews.guardianreview15)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.9877 347.2135 511.9757 359.0935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.6437 261.6775 228.6317 273.5575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 206.9095 313.0037 218.7895 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/406.full) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 178.3975 424.6157 190.2775 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/apr/12/featuresreviews.guardianreview15) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 155.8915 322.3157 167.7715 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/762) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004949 00000 n 0000005058 00000 n 0000005168 00000 n 0000005277 00000 n 0000008838 00000 n 0000008966 00000 n 0000009050 00000 n 0000009115 00000 n 0000016582 00000 n 0000016666 00000 n 0000024333 00000 n 0000024363 00000 n 0000024491 00000 n 0000024527 00000 n 0000024611 00000 n 0000032527 00000 n 0000032557 00000 n 0000032685 00000 n 0000032721 00000 n 0000032833 00000 n 0000039936 00000 n 0000040064 00000 n 0000040119 00000 n 0000040247 00000 n 0000040302 00000 n 0000040429 00000 n 0000040537 00000 n 0000040664 00000 n 0000040792 00000 n 0000040920 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41015 %%EOF