%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827021426+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827021426+01'00') /Title (Ireland, India and Empire: Indo-Irish Radical Connections, 1919?64) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4159 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ireland, India and Empire: Indo-Irish Radical Connections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1919?64)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this stimulating book \(or ?thesis? as it is described on p. 2, rather betraying its origins\), the author claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to meet four principal objectives. First, the book seeks to contribute to the process by which \(in the words of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erskine Childers \(as quoted in the )] TJ ET BT 200.000 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Press)] TJ ET BT 252.332 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 10 Aug. 1954\)\) the ?indirect influence from Irish nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on India?s own freedom struggle ? must some day take its rightful place in the annals of the two nations? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\). Second, it ?adds a further international dimension to the history of Irish republicanism, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributing to a better understanding of the nature of republicanism and its self-perception in the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial era? \(pp. 3?4\). Third, the study ?seeks to support a more general argument about British intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the interwar period: that there was an over-emphasis on monitoring the actions of communist or Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspects and organisations at the expense of other, perhaps more menacing, threats to Empire, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of right-wing organisations, radical nationalism and anti-imperialist alliances of a non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist variety? \(p. 5\). Fourth, and most ambitiously, the work ?will redefine accepted paradigms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonisation? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of the book is primarily chronological. O?Malley begins with the perceived communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(menace which afflicted not just Britain?s rulers in the aftermath of the First World War. Here she introduces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first of a series of sometimes colourful radical activists who populate the book: Roddy Connolly, Sean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(763)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 May, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate O'Malley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719077517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jeffery)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7699 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacBride, Frank Ryan and Peadar O?Donnell on the Irish side; M. N. Roy, Brajesh Singh, Shapurji )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saklatvala on the Indian. In this chapter the links between Irish and Indian radicals are explored in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies as the ?League Against Imperialism? \(LAI\), which, according to Fenner Brockway, sought to create a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unity between ?organisations representing the subject races of the world?. Among the Indo-Irish parallels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed here is the distinctly fissiparous tendency of radical groups. In Indian, as in Irish, organisations it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems \(in Brendan Behan?s famous words\) that the first thing on any the agenda was ?the split?. Why this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be so is easily explained, as when a meeting is called of passionate ?true believers?, with strong and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principled views about matters, consensus is never likely to be the outcome. Following on after the work and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively brief life of the LAI, O?Malley investigates V. J. Patel and the Indian-Irish Independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League \(IIIL\), formed in 1932 ?to help by every means possible to secure the complete national, social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic independence of the people of India and Ireland?. The two chief methods proposed were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boycotting of British goods and a propaganda campaign by which an ?Indian Information Bureau? would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?spread the truth about the Indian struggle? \(p. 77\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?By every means possible?, however, implies that action might not, as in this case, be confined to non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent methods. In an especially interesting chapter, O?Malley charts Subhas Chandra Bose?s engagement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Ireland. Bose was a great admirer of Michael Collins, though evidently more for Collins?s prowess as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Irish soldier of destiny than his clear political pragmatism. And, although Bose and Eamon de Valera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently met in London in 1938, when asked in 1944 to offer support for Bose?s ?National Provisional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government for India? which he had established in Japanese-occupied Rangoon, the late-flowering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatist Dev deftly ducked the question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her final chapter, ?A Commonwealth republic?, O?Malley moves away from the central theme promised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the title of her book. Rather than ?radical connections?, there are different encounters, with the 1948 visit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of de Valera \(no longer a revolutionary of any sort; now a ?statesman?\) to newly-independent India, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jawaharlal Nehru and fellow moderate nationalists were in power, embodying in their careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism an Indian political tradition which downplayed the radicalism of Gandhi and Bose alike. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The parallels drawn here ? which certainly deserve exploration ? are more of shared partition than any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared radicalism. In this chapter, covering the years up to 1964, we get assertions of a shared radical past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sit a little uneasily with the complacent conservatism of \(at least\) independent Ireland in the 1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 1960s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate O?Malley?s book undoubtedly contributes to the process articulated by Erskine Childers as quoted at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the start of this review. The subject-matter itself and the author?s assiduous identification of points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contact and comparison between Ireland and India reinforce the argument that Irish nationalism and India?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom struggle were linked in some significant ways. The linkages were not by any means confined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals. O?Malley observes that ?in the first half of the twentieth century British, Indian and Irish elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike believed that fundamental parallels between the two countries? historical experiences formed the basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a developing Indo-Irish political nexus? \(p. 2\). ?Nexus? or not, parallels between Ireland and India were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonplace in government, reflecting the ?interconnectedness? of Ireland \(and India\) in the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.008 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.008 231.603 m 122.000 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.000 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the question which we might pose, however, is whether the Irish experience actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made any difference to the Indian? Simply preparing a catalogue of Indian admirers of, say, Collins or de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valera \(and, of course, noting that Irish independence preceded Indian\), does not necessarily prove any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant causal relationship between the two nationalist movements. Indeed, extracting only Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references from Indian memoirs might actually )] TJ ET BT 263.300 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(over)] TJ ET BT 284.624 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-emphasise the importance of Ireland. Assessing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of Irish precedents on Indian nationalists surely requires a wider examination of the multiplicity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences acting upon the latter ? domestic, foreign, imperial, spiritual, ideological, personal, and so on ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see how salient any particular factor might have been. O?Malley demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 430.928 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(plausibility)] TJ ET BT 484.940 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that Ireland made an important contribution, but, for the meantime, a more definitive verdict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires futher research at the Indian end, and the verdict on this issue must remain ?not proven?, as they say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Scottish law courts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Malley achieves her second objective more successfully than her first. We find Irish republicans and anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialists alike living off ?Moscow gold?. In 1922 Roddy Connolly was apparently funded by the Soviet )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.0077 231.9175 121.9997 243.7975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7719 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emissary Mikhail Borodin to travel to Berlin to make contact with the Comintern?s Indian representative, M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Roy. The League Against Imperialism, too, was a front organisation, ?established essentially by two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent communists who were in regular contact with Moscow? \(p. 31\). The fact that Irish republicans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(like nationalists in India and other parts of the world\) were prepared to accept subsidies from communists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources does not, of course, mean that they were themselves communist, but it does help explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of British security and intelligence agencies in the 1920s and 30s that Soviet communism was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal global challenge the empire faced?the ?over-emphasis? which O?Malley identifies at the very start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her book. The argument here is not that communism was )] TJ ET BT 323.312 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 338.648 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a threat, for it surely was, but that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, it was not so paramount a threat as many believed. In these cases, placing the affairs of Irish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian radicals in their wider context is imperative to give perspective to both their activities and the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge they posed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the praiseworthy features of this book is the author?s extremely productive use of the Indian Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence \(IPI\) papers in the India Office Records at the British Library. Although a number of scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have worked on the topic of Indian revolutionaries and their international networks?most notably Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popplewell and Tom Fraser in his important and pioneering unpublished PhD thesis )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.000 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.000 583.491 m 453.992 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 453.992 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? and some use has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been made of these papers \(which comprise the records of the Indian government?s security and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence department\), O?Malley identifies IPI files as ?a crucial aspect? of her study \(p. 8\). Among other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things, they underpin her general argument about the ?overemphasis ? placed on Indians with communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leanings at the expense of those driven by purely separatist ideals? \(p. 180\). This is uncontestable, but care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be taken in exploiting the undoubted riches of the IPI papers, as with those of any security and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence-related archive. Above all, is the problem of perspective. A kind of implicit ?mutual admiration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society? exists between radicals and their official adversaries. On the one side, the doings of even tiny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schismatic radical groups were powerfully magnified in importance by their own self-belief, a solipsistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence that, as keepers of the precious revolutionary flame, they possessed the answers to the world?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or, at the very least, the nation?s\) ills. On the other side were squadrons of policemen and intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers who took these miniscule and unrepresentative groups all-too-seriously, charting their movements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fastidiously recording their table talk and creating in their imagination the very world-wide web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversion which the subversives themselves might only dream about. Scholars have to be careful about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously being sceptical about the intelligence agencies? world-view \(in this case, of the ubiquity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of communism\) and taking seriously their painstakingly-assembled records, themselves inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed and suffused with that apparently skewed perception. This is not a specific criticism of O?Malley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but a general ?health warning? about expecting to find the ?truth? in security and intelligence records, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes over-seductive source. Like any other sources, such records need carefully to be interrogated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weighed, assessed and contextualised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem about using police and intelligence reports, which also applies generally to the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clandestine activity \(whether by state agencies or subversive groups, or both\), is that of speculation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence officers are sometimes prone to ?filling in the gaps? between apparently ?hard? information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with suppositions about where their targets were going, who they were meeting and even what they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking. This is extremely contagious and historians can catch the disease too. At times O?Malley is a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to hypothesise. A few ?perhapses? and verbs in the conditional voice are unavoidable, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptation to speculate must ruthlessly be resisted. One test of this tendency is simply is to do what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signals intelligence people call ?traffic analysis? and count instances of problematical words or usages. On p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(61 it is ?more than likely? that Maud Gonne MacBride ?played a large part in fuelling the idea of the IIIL?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other instances of ?more than likely? occur on pages 88, 136, 149 \(twice\) and 165. ?Probably? crops up on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages 62 and 166; ?seems quite probable that? \(p. 70\); ?seems clear? \(p. 74\); ?it was possible? \(p. 76\); ?it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems possible? and ?it is quite possible? \(both p. 151\); ?it is believed that? \(p. 79\). From the cumulative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affacte of these usages, one ?is forced to conclude? \(p. 81\) that at times O?Malley is more speculative than is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutely desirable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am not quite sure if O?Malley successfully meets her final objective, to ?redefine accepted paradigms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonisation?, since I am not quite sure what this means. The matter is not addressed in her all-too-short )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.9997 583.8055 453.9917 595.6855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8623 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion \(just over three pages long\), and it is not clear whether these ?accepted paradigms? relate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and India separately or together. That anti-imperialists across the British empire sought, and found, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouragement in each other?s activities is neither surprising nor a new finding. Years ago, Jack Gallagher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(not cited by O?Malley\) identified the interconnectedness of imperial policy and imperial challenges in, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among other places, his celebrated 1974 Ford Lectures.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.624 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.624 738.051 m 313.616 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.616 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If the ?accepted paradigms? concern the methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted by nationalists across the empire, then there is a real problem ? which O?Malley recognises ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparing Ireland and India, and that problem is Gandhi, who is largely absent from this book. O?Malley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly observes that ?Gandhi did not think that Ireland was a useful, or indeed a healthy model for India?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle for independence, and he had dismissed Sinn Fin as an example after the party?s adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent methods? \(p. 3\). Under Arthur Griffith, indeed, Sinn Fin had begun as a non-violent party, though it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not remain so for very long. For the purposes of her book, O?Malley?s definition of ?radical? is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures she deals with ?were radical in the physical force they were prepared to use?. But not only does this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclude Gandhi and his very special variety of non-violent political campaigning, but it also excludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalist Irish republicans, radical in political ambition, but not \(following O?Malley?s definition\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently radical in method. The visit of V. J. Patel and Jamnadas Mehta to Britain and Ireland \(North and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South\) in the spring and summer of 1927, which O?Malley mentions, suggests that there might be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productive line of enquiry to be pursued about constitutionalist parallels between nationalists across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. But the evidence for this might not be so conveniently assembled in security and intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives. ?It is perhaps surprising?, she writes, ?that little of note was recorded by IPI in relation to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Patel?s] visit to Ireland?. She answers her own question. IPI?s neglect ?was most likely due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently official purpose of his stay in Britain, to study democratic procedures? \(p. 57\). So, not surprising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at all and demonstrating that if one concentrates excessively on IPI themselves, who were only interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?radical? \(violent\) challenges, then the potentially very considerable significance of non-?radical? elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be )] TJ ET BT 79.352 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(under)] TJ ET BT 107.348 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-emphasised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book has been published in Manchester University Press?s excellent ?Studies in Imperialism? series, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, as always, there is a short, stimulating introduction from the general editor, John M. Mackenzie. In it he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the point, now a commonplace \(not least through his own efforts\), that ?it is increasingly apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that scholars should be adopting a ?four nation? approach not only to the pasts of the British and Hibernian [)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 47.348 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] Isles, but also to the history of the so-called British Empire? \(p. ix\). Quite so, but it does prompt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection that while the history of ?Britain? and the ?so-called British empire? is being disaggregated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationally \(and perhaps regionally and ethnically too\), that of India, at least as it is demonstrated in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, is )] TJ ET BT 75.020 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not )] TJ ET BT 93.356 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or not yet\). There is not much Pakistan, only one mention of a princely state \(Hyderabad on pp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(165?6\) and nothing at all regarding Burma. It could be argued that both Ireland and ?British India? owed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their unity ? apparently ?national? in character, and certainly accepted as such by the nationalist movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which began to flourish in both places in the 19th century ? to the imposition of common British imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule across the whole geographical territory, a rule which, to a certain extent and admittedly with varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensity, suppressed regional, sectarian and ethnic differences. ?India? might be as ?imagined? a concept as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Ireland?, ?Britain? or even ?the British empire?. As with Gandhi, there is not much Jinnah in O?Malley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, though she does not miss the delicious irony of de Valera visiting India \(but not Pakistan\) on his ?anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partition tour? of 1948.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for other parallels between Ireland and India, the idea that Ireland might have contributed its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of imperialism to the British empire \(a suggestion to which I plead guilty in the title of my own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the ?Studies of Imperialism? series )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.996 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.996 172.323 m 292.988 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.988 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), might be compared with the notion that there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Indian Empire? too, and that India might have contributed in similar ways to imperial \(or ?sub-imperial?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion, a topic stimulatingly explored by Robert J. Blyth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.348 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.348 143.811 m 340.340 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.340 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And on the matter of parallels, perhaps India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not the place at all for comparing with Ireland. Remarking that ?the Burmese have often been called the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Irish of the East??, D. G. Hall went on to assert not only that ?certainly sentiment weighs far more with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them than reason?, but also that ?their awakening nationalism in the twentieth century made them more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acutely conscious than any other people in the East of their long history as an independent power?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.268 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.268 86.787 m 522.260 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond Hall?s culturally-conditioned potential national libel about alleged Irish and Burmese over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimentality, there are perhaps suggestive parallels here between the two states: each experiencing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.6237 738.3655 313.6157 750.2455 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.9957 172.6375 292.9877 184.5175 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.3477 144.1255 340.3397 156.0055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.2677 87.1015 522.2597 98.9815 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 4505 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubled relations with a powerful and dominant neighbour; each securing ?home rule? of a sort; each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaring a republic in 1948, signalling a final and definitive break from what had become the ?British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth?; and each thereafter enjoying a mixed experience \(politically and economically\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent existence, including violence arising from secessionist minorities within the ?national territory?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now there, surely, is a productive subject for comparative study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As argued \(for example\) in my ?The road to Asia, and the Grafton Hotel, Dublin: Ireland in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British world??, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 261.680 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(2008\), 243?56.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.000 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.000 632.019 m 412.988 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Popplewell, )] TJ ET BT 165.008 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indian Empire, 1904?1924 )] TJ ET BT 196.676 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London,1995\); T. G. Fraser, ?The intrigues of the German government )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Ghadr Party against British rule in India, 1914?1918? \(PhD, University of London, 1974\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 574.995 m 118.004 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published \(posthumously\) in J. A. Gallagher, )] TJ ET BT 283.676 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Decline, Revival and Fall of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 531.992 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anil Seal \(Cambridge, 1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.336 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.336 546.483 m 260.324 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 69.344 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Irish Empire?? Aspects of Ireland and the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 361.664 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Keith Jeffery \(Manchester, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 517.971 m 118.004 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert J. Blyth, )] TJ ET BT 143.024 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Empire of the Raj: India, Eastern Africa and the Middle East, 1858?1947)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.676 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.676 489.459 m 217.664 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. G. Hall, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burma)] TJ ET BT 152.672 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1950\), pp. 175?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.324 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.324 475.203 m 341.312 475.203 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 459.871 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 442.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 442.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/763)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 440.697 m 322.316 440.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 415.720 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3741)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.9997 632.3335 412.9877 644.2135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 575.3095 118.0037 587.1895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.3357 546.7975 260.3237 558.6775 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 518.2855 118.0037 530.1655 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6757 489.7735 217.6637 501.6535 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.3237 475.5175 341.3117 487.3975 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 441.0115 322.3157 452.8915 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/763) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004869 00000 n 0000004978 00000 n 0000005088 00000 n 0000005197 00000 n 0000008758 00000 n 0000008886 00000 n 0000008970 00000 n 0000009054 00000 n 0000016806 00000 n 0000016836 00000 n 0000016964 00000 n 0000017000 00000 n 0000017084 00000 n 0000024856 00000 n 0000024886 00000 n 0000025014 00000 n 0000025050 00000 n 0000025155 00000 n 0000033831 00000 n 0000033861 00000 n 0000033989 00000 n 0000034025 00000 n 0000034055 00000 n 0000034183 00000 n 0000034219 00000 n 0000034249 00000 n 0000034377 00000 n 0000034413 00000 n 0000034443 00000 n 0000034569 00000 n 0000034605 00000 n 0000034731 00000 n 0000039289 00000 n 0000039417 00000 n 0000039472 00000 n 0000039599 00000 n 0000039654 00000 n 0000039782 00000 n 0000039837 00000 n 0000039964 00000 n 0000040019 00000 n 0000040147 00000 n 0000040202 00000 n 0000040330 00000 n 0000040385 00000 n 0000040513 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40608 %%EOF