%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 43 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141220141922+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141220141922+00'00') /Title (Kingmakers: the Invention of the Modern Middle East) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4030 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Kingmakers: the Invention of the Modern Middle East)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intention of this book is to ?retell? the history of the Middle East through ?the medium of individuals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 18\). But not any individuals, only those in the ?Middle East kingmaking business? \(p. 158\). None of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteen men, ten British and three American, and two women, both British, who feature most prominently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this nicely produced volume ?attained the summit of national power? \(p. 18\). Nevertheless, according to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-authors, all were ?instrumental in building nations, defining borders, and selecting or helping to select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local rulers? \(p. 18\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What follows is a broad survey covering 120 years beginning with the arrival of Lord Cromer, Sir Evelyn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baring, the scion of the Baring banking family, in Cairo in 1883, as Queen Victoria?s Plenipotentiary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consul-General in Egypt. It ends with a chapter on former US deputy-secretary of defence, Paul Wolfowitz, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who earns his place in this book for his role in instigating the ill-fated US invasion of Iraq in 2003.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What all those featured here share is ?an insatiable curiosity? \(p. 133\), ?polyglot talents? \(p. 235\), not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention self belief, and a proclivity for self-promotion, though none were necessarily as popular or held in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such high esteem by those they governed or those they served, as they were with themselves. When Cromer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave his farewell address, prior to leaving his post as Consul-General in Egypt in 1907 after 24 years, only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?three unsmiling Egyptians? \(p. 52\), turned out to hear ?Over-Baring?, as he was nicknamed in his younger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(764)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 May, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Meyer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. B. Brysac)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393061994)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(307pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rory Miller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6941 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days in India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, when news filtered out that Harry St. John Bridger Philby, a key western player in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, had converted to Islam in Mecca, King Abdullah of Trans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordan, with whom he had clashed while serving as the Hashemite king?s chief British representative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputedly commented ?Islam has gained little, Christianity has lost even less? \(p.251\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As early as the first chapter on Earl Cromer?s extended sojourn in Egypt certain themes emerge that return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and again throughout the book ? the role of the media in influencing policy-making and perceptions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Middle East; the Anglo-American alliance; the ?frequently divergent approaches to imperial rule? \(p. 32\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emanating from New Delhi and Cairo, the two British power centres in the Middle East for much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period under discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cromer chapter also sets a precedent for the welcome tendency of the authors to introduce us not only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key individuals who merit their own chapters, but to a whole cast of secondary players, some of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn up time and again. So, for example, in the Cromer chapter we get a fascinating insight into Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curzon, Alfred Milner and the rest of the ?New Imperialists?. We also get an extended look at Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Gordon, described by the authors as ?an almost mythic Christian solider of fortune? \(p. 40\), whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inglorious demise in Sudan only added to his reputation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It says a lot about the kind of individuals who chose to dedicate their lives to the Imperial cause in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East that there is no shortage of men and women who could challenge Gordon in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eccentricity, ambition and egoism. Sir Edmund Ironside, the youngest major general in the British army at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37, makes a brief appearance but is not easily forgotten. Nor is Cecil Rhodes, who along with a whole cast of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser figures, is introduced to us in the chapter on Lord and Lady Lugard \(Flora Shaw, the most famous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential female journalist and commentator of the Victorian era, who along with Gertrude Bell is the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female ?kingmaker? covered in this book\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the quantity and quality of British officials who dealt with the Middle East in the period under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination, it was always going to be hard to decide who to include and who to leave out. We all have our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own favourites, and I would have liked to have seen a chapter on the engaging and infuriating Sir Ronald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storrs, Oriental Secretary of the British Agency in Cairo between 1907 and 1917, and then the first military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governor of Jerusalem, in the wake of Allenby?s conquest of Palestine in late 1917. A man of many gifts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical accuracy was not one of them. Indeed, it was the discrepancy between what Elie Kedourie read in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storrs? memoirs, )] TJ ET BT 119.012 323.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientations)] TJ ET BT 179.684 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his own experience growing up in the Middle East which led him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(switch his speciality to Middle Eastern studies and to write his great early work )] TJ ET BT 418.640 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England and the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East: The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire 1914?1921)] TJ ET BT 310.340 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.340 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.340 293.139 m 327.332 293.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having said that, the authors are to be commended for including a chapter on Lord and Lady Lugard, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only because they are far less known now then many imperial figures who do not get their own chapter, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also because their careers and interests focused primarily on Africa, rather than the Middle East. For, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors correctly point out, Lugard?s ?recipe for Indirect Rule? was very significant because its strategy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rent a sheik, buy an emir? was a ?template for future imperial adventure in the Middle East? \(p.93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The co-authors, Karl E. Meyer, a journalist and Shareen Blair Brysac a television news producer are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seasoned collaborators, used to communicating bid ideas to a non-specialist audience. These skills are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent throughout out much of this book. The writing is often excellent. Summing up the ambitious of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reza Khan, the founder of Iran?s Pahlavi dynasty, we are told that he ?wanted it both ways: to preserve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal prerogatives of royalty while seeking the global prestige of being Persia?s enlightened modernizer? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 317\). Later in the book, they capture the waste, egomania and corruption of Reza?s son and heir, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mohammad Reza Shah, in a short but illuminating description of the ?stupendous gala? \(p. 341\) hosted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Shah to celebrate the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship between Philby and Abdullah of Jordan is captured nicely in the following: ?a brief )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.3397 293.4535 327.3317 305.3335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6978 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honeymoon, a long truce, and finally a Cold War? \(p. 246\), while the description of Gertrude Bell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?enthusiasms, her crushes, her air of ?posh jubilance?? \(p. 159\) and her ?unhappy forays into male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment? \(p. 167\) leave us in no doubt that the personal life of Iraq?s Oriental secretary and the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female political officer in the British forces was far less successful than her professional one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through no fault of their own, the authors cannot compete with their subjects when it comes to flair and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style. Almost all of those examined here seem to have been blessed with writing skills that equalled, and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times surpassed, their imperial ambitions. Take Sir Mark Sykes, who earns his own chapter on the grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was the ?godparent of modern Israel? \(p. 95\), as well as the man who ?came closest to being the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage manager of the postwar Middle East? \(p. 104\). Sykes detested Bell and dismissed her as a ?flat-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chested, man-woman, globe trotting, rump-waggling, blithering ass?. Put downs just don?t come better than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the Sykes chapter is one of the weakest in this work. We get a potted history of the Sykes-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picot Agreement, the Hussein-McMahon correspondence and the Balfour Declaration. We get a glimpse into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sykes? dysfunctional family history and we get a conventional retelling of how Sykes, who died young in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1919, turned the Middle East upside down in a few short years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though the authors touch on it, it would have been far more interesting to have had a much deeper forensic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of Sykes? significance in influencing the history of Zionism, Israel and the Middle East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to his senior Unionist colleagues ? Bonar-Law, Balfour, Milner, Curzon, Lord Robert Cecil, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Derby ? all of whom sat in the coalition government formed in December 1916.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead the authors take the easy option and fast-forward to a 2006 )] TJ ET BT 356.612 477.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Washington Post)] TJ ET BT 438.284 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( column by Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen arguing that ?the greatest mistake Israel cold make at the moment, is to forget that Israel itself is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake?. They then quote Edwin Montagu, Elizabeth Monroe and Colonel Edward House, President )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s adviser, to show that Cohen?s claim is ?scarcely a new contention? \(p.124\). This is very superficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stuff indeed. It is ahistorical, throws no light on Sykes?s contribution to the ?kingmaking? business and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doesn?t address why House, Montagu, or Monroe felt such antipathy towards Zionism, which the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as nothing more than a movement populated by a ?flood of gunning tarzans and quivering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.988 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.988 376.419 m 96.980 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It comes as no surprise that of all those examined in this volume it is hardest to say anything new about T. E. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence. As the authors tell us there are around 60 English language biographies of Lawrence and just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under two million mentions of him on the World Wide Web as of late 2006, more than double the references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Haig, Kitchener and Allenby combined. As such, they wisely attempt to avoid rehashing what is widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known about Lawrence of Arabia, or the ?Achilles of the Great War?)] TJ ET BT 369.572 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they describe this ?supporting actor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who stole the show? \(p. 195\). Instead they offer a ?selective tour through this immense literature? \(p. 196\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to address three questions. ?Is his fame commensurate with his achievements?, how did the Lawrence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legend acquire such ?epic proportions? and how can one explain his ?ongoing allure in an age that devalues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroics?? \(p. 196\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What follows is an odd excursus into this ?odd genius? \(p. 211\). In their attempt to find a new way to tell the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence story the authors devote much of the last section of the chapter to an examination of David Lean?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence movie starring Peter O?Toole to see if it ?captured the essence? \(p. 219\) of the man. Their overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion falls a bit flat. ?Put simply?, it seems that Lawrence appeals to the ?populist devil in all of us, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule-breaker and challenger of orthodoxy who compels the world to accept his own impudent self-valuation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 224\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the Sykes and Lawrence chapters are the two least satisfactory from the historian?s perspective, then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two strongest are those on Lieutenant-General Sir Jon Bagot Glubb, or Glubb Pasha as he came to be known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during his 26 years at the head of the Arab Legion between 1930 and 1956, and on Harry St. John Bridger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philby. The authors give ?six reasons? why Glubb deserves inclusion, including the fact that there is ?no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better example of the professional soldier enamoured of the Bedouin nomad? \(p. 265\). While Philby, ?a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.9877 376.7335 96.9797 388.6135 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fallen Britannic angel? \(p. 228\) earns inclusion because in his role in developing the nascent Saudi state he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the ?Western Kingmaker who left the deepest strategic imprint on the Middle East? \(p. 230\). It is hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue with either of these claims, but more importantly in both of these chapters the authors do a fine job in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evoking the antagonisms, ambitions and humiliations \(both imagined and real\) that drove these two men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The man responsible for sending Philby off to Arabia to meet Ibn Saud for the first time was Sir Arnold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson. He gets his own chapter on the grounds that he is the ?forgotten territorial begetter of today?s Iraq? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 128\). The authors find Wilson a bit of a bore. But they also acknowledge that this ?dedicated, stiff-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necked imperial dinasour? \(p. 153\) was a man of strong character and they chart clearly how he took a stand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against what he considered to be the mistakes of his peers involved in Middle East ?kingmaking? including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?dismal politicians? in London, Gertrude Bell, his colleague in Iraq, and Lawrence, whose myth Wilson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never bought into.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A member of parliament during the inter-war years, Wilson?s character was clear for all to see at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of World War Two when he volunteered as an RAF tail gunner at the age of 56 because he refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ?live behind the rampart of the bodies of a million corpses?. He died for his principles over Dunkirk soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Analogy is not the best kind of history but it has its uses and throughout this book the authors are always on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the look out for parallels and lessons that can link the story they are telling to today?s world. The 9/11 al-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qaeda attacks on the US ?provides an apt epitaph for the life and deeds of Harry St. John Philby and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom he helped create? \(p. 258\). Lawrence?s contribution on ?Irregular Warfare? to the 1929 edition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Encyclopaedia Britannica)] TJ ET BT 180.668 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has an ?obvious resonance with America?s travails in Iraq? \(p. 199\), while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith Miller of )] TJ ET BT 112.352 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New York Times)] TJ ET BT 212.024 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was ?playing the role of Flora Shaw? \(p. 405\) in building up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion of Iraq in the US media.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, they don?t delve further into any of this. Similarly, in looking into Sir Mark Sykes and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lurid family history, the authors tell us that ?our own foraging suggests that the story is consistent? \(p. 100\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But we aren?t informed what this foraging consisted of or what information was divined from it in either the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text or the endnotes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final three chapters deal with American ?kingmakers? in the region ? Kermit \(Kim\) Roosevelt, Miles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copeland and Paul Wolfowitz. Roosevelt, the grandson of Theodore Roosevelt, was a leading US player in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Cold War espionage in the Middle East, and the chapter on him provides the framework for a standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-telling of the Mossadeq revolution in Iran and the successful Anglo-American overthrow of the Iranian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist leader \(in Operation Ajax\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt basked in the success of Operation Ajax, earning among other accolades, a bedside meeting with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sickly Winston Churchill in London, where the old man told him that if he had ?been a few years younger? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he would have loved to work in Tehran under Roosevelt. This chapter captures well how the US very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly stepped into Britain?s shoes as the major western player in the region in the decade after the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. There wasn?t much the weary British could do about it and so they, in turn, grudgingly adapted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their own new role as junior partner in the region, handing Roosevelt, for example, a ?network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mossadeq haters and Anglophiles? \(p. 331\) in Iran when they ceded the lead western role in that country to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on Miles Copeland, described by the authors as ?the CIA?s original political operative? at a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when ?political action? \(p. 351\) was a euphemism for covert operations, goes further by showing how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US adapted to their own new role overseeing the ?kingmaking? business. For example, whereas his British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors had gone after Emirs, Kings and tribal chiefs, Copeland focused his efforts on cultivating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers, journalists and businessmen across the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copeland later recalled this as equivalent to ?innocent kids with new toys ? and a licence to steal? \(p. 349\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But in truth there was nothing childlike about what men like Copeland were empowered to do by their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7504 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legendary spymasters Wild Bill Donovan, Allen Dulles and James Jesus Angleton, who though only gaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a brief mention here is probably the most fascinating, complex and influential figure in the history of Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War espionage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter takes us from the heady and almost forgotten world of Beirut hotel bars during the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War to the Pentagon in the wake of 9/11. This chapter on Paul Wolfowitz makes some good points, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in regard to how he was influenced in his view of the power of democracy by witnessing first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand the transition from autocracy to democracy in the Philippines, Indonesia and Romania. But, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most part, this chapter does what dozens, if not hundreds, of articles and books have done before ? offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superficial trawl through neo-con waters. We hear about his Jewish origins, his dad?s support for Zionism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his time spent studying under Albert Wohlstetter and Leo Strauss, his relationship with the Arab feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaha Ali Riza and Iraqi exiles, as well as a whole host of major and minor American figures including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allan Bloom, Norman Podheretz, William Kristol and Abram Shulsky. What conclusion do they come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after going down this well-trodden path? ?It was not a failure of will but a failure of imagination that caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure in Iraq?)] TJ ET BT 108.320 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 384\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps they are correct, but one can also make the opposite argument. The decision of the Bush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration to go to war in Iraq was the result of imagination, even revolutionary thinking. Deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissatisfied with the achievements of over half a century of US Middle East policy, which looked to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing more than bolster the status quo by propping up corrupt and cruel regimes across the region, men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Wolfowitz chose to break with the past and bet on the power of an idea ? democracy. It was the failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of will, in particular the will to ensure that there was concrete planning for post-war Iraq, that resulted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent chaos.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this aside, the Wolfowitz chapter adds nothing to this story of Middle East ?kingmakers?. Like another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent book published by Norton, Michael Oren?s study of America and the Middle East, )] TJ ET BT 465.944 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power Faith and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fantasy)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.680 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.680 431.187 m 89.672 431.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.672 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this would have been a better book, though not necessarily a bigger seller, if the authors had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended their study long before 9/11 or the invasion of Iraq. By adding on a superficial contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding chapter this otherwise engaging and, at times, captivating book loses much of its symmetry and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as John Buchan liked to remind his friend Winston Churchill, good history, like good architecture, needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symmetry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elie Kedourie, )] TJ ET BT 137.000 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 177.668 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( and the Middle East: The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire 1914?1921)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1956\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 294.387 m 196.328 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Monroe, ?Review of Thieves in the Night?, )] TJ ET BT 323.972 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bell)] TJ ET BT 364.304 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. XIII, No. 4 January 1947, pp.71-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 265.875 m 133.004 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Oren, )] TJ ET BT 110.672 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power, Faith and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present)] TJ ET BT 472.316 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, W.W. Norton, 2007. The first six parts of Oren?s book present a detailed, and entertaining )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and informative account of US relations with the Middle East in all its aspects from mid-eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century until the outbreak of World War Two. The final section which deals with American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in the region over the last 60 years is disjointed survey of American in Middle East in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary period. One will find little more \(and sometimes less\) than the standard narrative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.336 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.336 166.083 m 158.324 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 141.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nytimes)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/10/books/review/Von-Tunzelmann-t.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 111.315 m 399.680 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 402.680 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_cold_war_studies/summary/v012/12.3.paris.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 82.803 m 463.016 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 79.471 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 61.691 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 61.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/764)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 60.297 m 322.316 60.297 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 35.320 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.6797 431.5015 89.6717 443.3815 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 294.7015 196.3277 306.5815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.0157 266.1895 133.0037 278.0695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.3357 166.3975 158.3237 178.2775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 111.6295 399.6797 123.5095 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/10/books/review/Von-Tunzelmann-t.html) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 83.1175 463.0157 94.9975 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_cold_war_studies/summary/v012/12.3.paris.html) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 60.6115 322.3157 72.4915 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/764) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 404 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3742)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/10/books/review/Von-Tunzelmann-t.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_cold_war_studies/summary/v012/12.3.paris.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004732 00000 n 0000004841 00000 n 0000004951 00000 n 0000005060 00000 n 0000008621 00000 n 0000008749 00000 n 0000008833 00000 n 0000008917 00000 n 0000015911 00000 n 0000015941 00000 n 0000016069 00000 n 0000016105 00000 n 0000016189 00000 n 0000023220 00000 n 0000023250 00000 n 0000023376 00000 n 0000023412 00000 n 0000023477 00000 n 0000030146 00000 n 0000030272 00000 n 0000037829 00000 n 0000037859 00000 n 0000037985 00000 n 0000038021 00000 n 0000038149 00000 n 0000038204 00000 n 0000038331 00000 n 0000038386 00000 n 0000038514 00000 n 0000038569 00000 n 0000038696 00000 n 0000038816 00000 n 0000038941 00000 n 0000039078 00000 n 0000039204 00000 n 0000039299 00000 n 0000039364 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39820 %%EOF