%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916193047+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916193047+01'00') /Title (Invented Edens: Techno-cities of the Twentieth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4129 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Invented Edens: Techno-cities of the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 20th century saw the birth of the professional disciplines of urban and regional planning, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated construction of myriad New Towns. Often, the construction of these new urban centres was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to the expression, in urban form, of wider ideological and socio-political movements. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the case in those ideological landscapes where technology and the political blended \(un\)easily in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the production not only of urban environments, but in projects aimed at fashioning new model citizens \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist Italy or Nazi Germany\) and new societies \(as in the USSR\). However, the central role of technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the imagination of society through the built metaphor of the city is not limited to authoritarian regimes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and extends to the present day: witness Tsukuba in Japan, the United Kingdom?s New Towns, or the race ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Gulf and East Asia ? to build ever more complex eco-cities. In their book, Kargon and Molella attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to redefine New Towns as 'techno-cities' by focusing on the central role of technology in planning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kargon and Molella tackle a broad historical landscape: they set 'techno-cities' within a historical framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sees their birth with the Garden City ideal and their end in the development of techno-hubs, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tsukuba or Silicon Valley, and other new urban forms at the end of the century. The authors define 'techno-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities' as 'cities planned and developed in conjunction with large technological or industrial projects' \(p. 1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also identifies techno-cities as rooted, at a deeper level, in utopian thought and in 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(765)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert H. Kargon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur P. Molella)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780262113201)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MIT Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Federico Caprotti)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7106 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalist company towns. Techno-cities are described, furthermore, as 'purpose-driven' settlements which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embody a sort of 'techno-nostalgia' \(p. 3\), defined by the authors as a yearning to reconcile the positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of imagined pre-modern rural idylls with the material benefits of modern technologies in a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of the city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's focus is on case studies ? from garden cities to urban design in fascist Italy ? which have, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main, received consistent attention from scholars. However, they claim to analyse these urban settlements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a new and useful framework, bringing the perspectives of intellectual history and the history of technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the story' \(p. 2\). Kargon and Molella seek to explain and analyse how the modern, material world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology and industry became integrated into urban life in the 20th century. In particular, they claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The vast literature on Garden Cities, planned decentralization, and alternative towns slights the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role that new technologies [?] played in their plans' \(p. 4\). The authors assert that such technologies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial and central to these new urban areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter traces the roots and early ramifications of Ebenezer Howard's Garden City concept, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the book's strongest chapters. The influence of Edward Bellamy and other utopian writers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howard's ideas are chronicled, usefully focusing on the 'escape of invention', the spread of the Garden city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation from Howard's writings to wider support and appeal. The chapter introduces other key figures ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chief among them Geddes and Mumford ? who would take the Garden City idea and run with it, enabling it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have a crucial impact beyond British planning. The second chapter continues with the broad historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linearity of the book, and analyzes the inter-war years, tracking the spread of Garden City ideals in Russia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly after 1918, in a discussion linking city planning to broader debates around building the ideal socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. The chapter is introduced clearly but briefly: this means that some key points and contextual cases are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described almost in passing, and risk coming across as superficial. For example, the building of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet towns of Magnitogorsk and Stalingrad ? arguably magnificent ?techno-city? examples ? are described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in just one paragraph \(p. 22\). Instead, the chapter's focus quickly moves from the Soviet Union to the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar \(for tha authors\) territory of Norris, Tennessee, and Salzgitter, in Germany. These two cases are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat underdeveloped, especially that of Salzgitter, which is rushed. Furthermore, by focusing on two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples described essentially as failures, the authors overshadow the fact that 'successful' New Towns built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to completion in the 1930s ? such as fascist New Towns in the Pontine Marshes ? arguably outnumbered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those which can be classed as failed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third chapter, Kargon and Molella outline the planning of Torviscosa, a public-private New Town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in 1930s Italy. This is a good case study choice ? Torviscosa is an exciting but oft-overlooked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town in the wide literature on fascist urban planning. While the founding ideals and changes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Torviscosa \(and its relationship with fascism\) are touched upon, at times the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replicates rather than critically engages with fascist propaganda discourse on New Towns: 'Where Caesars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had fallen short [?], Il Duce prevailed' \(p. 30\). Furthremore, there are some inaccuracies in the chapter; for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the fascist New Town devoted to coal production was not commonly referred to as 'La Citt del )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carbone', but as Carbonia; the New Town devoted to the air force was referred to from the start as Guidonia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? a name supposedly chosen by Mussolini ? rather than as the 'Citt dell'Aeronautica', a title which was used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is the focus of the book's fourth chapter, and Molella has previously written about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city. Oak Ridge was one of three 'Atomic Cities' \(Los Alamos being the best-known example\) built during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second World War in the United States, and dedicated to the Manhattan Project. The chapter usefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links planning and the central role of the city's productive aims to the nuclear project in the US, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shadow which the Bomb cast on urban planning. Chapter five attempts to bridge the fissure in planning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals and ideologies catalysed by the Second World War; this is done through analysis of the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional planning in Valle d'Aosta, Italy, and in particular the case of Ivrea, a New Town dominated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olivetti Company. Kargon and Molella display, yet again, one of the book's narrative strengths in charting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influence of wider European and North American planning currents on Adriano Olivetti, the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivator behind the Ivrea project.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7736 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sixth chapter presents the highly engaging, fascinating case of the planning of Ciudad Guyana, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venezuela, in the 1960s. The story is about how a motley team of urban planners, architects and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists collaborated, under an MIT-Harvard banner, in the envisioning and construction of a new urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre, Ciudad Guyana. The chapter also presents, perhaps unwittingly, a cautionary tale in the top-down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning of new urban settlements by professionals far removed from the local context. Perhaps the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the inevitable rifts and fractures which divided the planning team almost from the start was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given by Lisa Peattie, a lone anthropologist on the planning team, and one of the few team members who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually bothered to )] TJ ET BT 132.332 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(live)] TJ ET BT 149.660 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Ciudad Guyana: she aptly described conflicts over the future shape of the city as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'Platonic city versus the Aristotelian city' \(p. 121\), ergo the disembodied Plan, 'visualized most clearly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagrams ? and architectural renderings' \(p. 121\) versus a vision of the city as a socio-political human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book ends with a study of Celebration, a Florida town linked to the animation industry and described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather hastily by the authors as an appropriate concluding study: 'it is not surprising that a fantasy city in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of the new industry of animation becomes the ultimate techno-city' \(p. 5\). Celebration, a New Town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaugurated in 1996 by the Walt Disney World Company, is analyzed in planning as well as marketing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms, and particular emphasis is placed on the embedding of networks of technology within the town as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to displaying technologies prominently, as advocated by the visions of Buckminster Fuller and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other modernist planners. This example of 'techno-nostalgia' ? a creepy superimposing of Main Street small-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town ideals onto a technological framework exemplified by EPCOT and, more tangibly, fibreoptic networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? signals a more intimate blending of technology with the market, whilst retaining the central industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose around which most planned New Towns revolved. Indeed, the authors claim that with its central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus around the entertainment industry, Celebration 'is as much an industrial city as Ivrea, Italy, or Gary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indiana' \(p. 131\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the book's most positive aspects is that it is written clearly and engagingly, and does not get stuck in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory \(although this may also represent a weakness for audiences who may want to get to grips with issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contexts which ramify from planning into wider social, historical and ideological debates\). The way the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is written will make its appeal broad; it speaks both to scholars )] TJ ET BT 365.660 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 383.660 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the wider public. However, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also opens up )] TJ ET BT 102.344 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invented Edens)] TJ ET BT 175.988 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to a broader critique of treading too lightly on case studies which could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been developed more fully, with more attention paid to significant current debates which have tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position similar cases within wider analytical frameworks. For example, the authors claim that technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often seen as an integral part of the amelioration of the city, such that 'Rural isolation, urban congestion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease, and separation from nature would be greatly reduced or even eliminated. The amelioration of human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature follows from the betterment of the environment' \(p. 4\). This is a recurring theme in the book: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interplay between city and nature, between technology and environment, and between all the above and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(human)] TJ ET BT 66.680 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( nature. And yet, the authors choose not to draw on the wide body of literature which \(in political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecology and beyond\) attempts to theorise and tackle precisely these intersections of society, technology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature in the city. Had Kargon and Molella engaged with these ideas, the book would have had stronger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical import as a result; as it stands, a lack of engagement with theories on the interaction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature and society seems to stem more from the book's limited bibliography than a real lack of published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources on these issues. On a different level, apart from the case study of Ciudad Guyana, most examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used in the book are Western cases; and even in the example of Ciudad Guyana, part of the focus lies on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning by a joint team of planners predominantly working from a North American context. More examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from outside a US and Europe-centric sphere would have been welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors' conclusion claims that 'the techno-city experiment had largely run its course by 2000' \(p. 155\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the emphasis has now shifted to 'technopoles' such as Silicon Valley, technology corridors, edge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities and 'science cities' such as Tsukuba in Japan. These cities, according the authors, 'can be dynamic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically, robust, but they are devoid of utopian impulse and increasingly immersed in their own urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems' \(p. 156\). This seems to be somewhat backward-looking, and this particular reviewer would argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Tsukuba and Silicon Valley are not the future, but the 'new cities' of the 1980s and 1990s. Rather, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('techno-city' mantle has been passed on to centrally planned public-private 'eco-city' developments such as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2096 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dongtan, China, or Masdar, in Abu Dhabi. These new, well-funded and possibly technologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groundbreaking and innovative settlements clearly manifest utopian planning ideals and a reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(environmentally friendly\) advanced technologies; they also manifest the conflicts, inequalities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems which plagues many earlier New Towns. 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