%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728224155+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728224155+01'00') /Title (Lost Londons: Change, Crime and Control in the Capital City 1550-1660) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4860 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Lost Londons: Change, Crime and Control in the Capital City 1550-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London does not lack histories, or historians, and the early modern metropolis in particular has been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of myriad scholarly works. Paul Griffiths focuses on a period that saw London change rapidly, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population exploding out of the traditional Walls and increasingly spilling into the suburbs surrounding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city. Even Londoners expressed shock at the pace of change in their city: ?London?s size and shape changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speedily, and people felt that they were losing the city that they once knew? \(p. 1\). By 1660 London was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestionably the most important city in Britain, and was becoming one of the largest and wealthiest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. This growth ultimately depended on new arrivals from the rest of the country. From 1650?1750, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps one-sixth of the English population had lived in the capital at one time. London?s high mortality, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of unsanitary conditions and a poor housing stock, meant that without migration it would suffer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural decrease. The main economic advantage of migrating to London was its higher wages, not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention the social and cultural attractions of the metropolis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.988 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.988 122.241 m 336.980 122.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.980 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, not every move to London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed the Dick Whittington model. Although many of London?s migrants were elite groups, the majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were young, single and frequently marginal. London had high concentrations of two social groups especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prone to vagrancy ? servants and apprentices.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.284 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.284 79.473 m 266.276 79.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.276 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Most servants, particularly females, made the move into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service in order to find an alternative means of support to the family. Often this move came as a result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of the father. This made the move to London even more of a dislocation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.284 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.284 50.961 m 425.276 50.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.276 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If an initial term of service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(767)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Griffiths)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521885249)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(552pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob Field)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.9877 122.5555 336.9797 134.4355 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.2837 79.7875 266.2757 91.6675 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.2837 51.2755 425.2757 63.1555 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7738 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not work out, the move into vagrancy was made more likely. Similarly, apprentices could often find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves isolated in the metropolis if their relationship with their master disintegrated. It is these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable groups, adrift in the capital and far from home, that provide much of the focus of )] TJ ET BT 478.928 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lost Londons)] TJ ET BT 543.944 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rapid and sustained change is axiomatic to the history of early modern London, but in spite of the constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flux, an accompanying axiom has been London?s stability, a ?keyword stretching back over more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty-five years? \(p. 29\) in the city?s historiography. These arguments focus on London?s social structures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic groups, widespread office holding and effective government. In comparison, Griffiths does not see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stable society, but rather a structure that was placed under daily stress. A system where the majority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population ? women, the young and new arrivals ? were excluded from most of the bodies meant to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s essential stability. Griffiths? London was never stable, but rather was ambiguous and constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?This book is composed from rhetorics and records and not many, if any, should be taken at face value? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8\). Griffiths utilises a staggering range of original sources in this book, making effective use of the huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass of material generated by London?s parishes, wards, hospitals, livery companies and courts, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material from the city?s leading ruling bodies, the Common Council and Court of Aldermen. For the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part evidence from these sources is used anecdotally in the form of vignettes sprinkled throughout the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(In addition to this, Griffiths? use of the secondary literature is effective and wide-ranging, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography is extensive and extremely useful.\) The courtbooks of Bridewell, the hospital charged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulating and reforming London?s vagrant poor, generates most of the ?thick detail? of )] TJ ET BT 459.932 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lost Londons)] TJ ET BT 524.948 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the basis for most of the key points of the book, as well as the quantitative data included in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix \(pp. 438?74\). Ultimately, in spite of the range of detail from other sources, it is the records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bridewell that are most central and fundamental to this work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 1 examines the theme of ?change? ? the growth of a disorderly and sprawling metropolis. Chapter 1 sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scene of the ?Londons? examined in this book. It argues that the perception of London grew darker over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, as it became increasingly overcrowded and disorderly. Griffiths explicitly aligns his study against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proponents of stability in early modern London, such as Ian Archer?s )] TJ ET BT 369.956 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Stability)] TJ ET BT 481.640 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that it was a city constantly changing. Chapter 2 attempts to map London?s criminal worlds. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were some clearly defined and well known pockets of disorder, such as Turnmills and the suburbs in general, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which after 1600 became increasingly the homes of newcomers \(pp. 78?80\). The data collected is divided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ward and it is considerable, but the mapping \(pp. 443?8\) is somewhat unclear. The ward maps show the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location of arrests for various categories for the period 1604?58 but instead of showing the figures using a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chloropleth map, which would make them clearer graphically, the maps have the number of arrests written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for each ward. The mapping shows that the large suburban ward of Farringdon Without was the ?crime hot-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spot? \(p. 84\) of London ? it was also the location of Bridewell, which could explain part of its prominence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portsoken, a fairly large ward to the east of the walls of the City, which was also home to many footloose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new arrivals in London and potential residents of Bridewell, has a strikingly low number of arrests \(18\) by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ward officers. This may suggest that the Bridewell courtbook evidence was markedly skewed towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western end of London. There are trends to be pointed out by mapping, but Griffiths correctly points out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London was ?better thought of in terms of overlapping areas and cultures? \(p. 97\). There were areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected to crime and disorder, but this chapter shows that such events happened across London. The focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of chapter 3 is London?s streets, which were dirty and chaotic, and where vagrants and beggars were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common sights. Griffiths argues that London?s streets were becoming more dangerous and disorderly over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, and as the city grew there were more places for vagrants to escape authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 2 looks at criminal ?worlds? and ?words? in London. Chapter 4 argues that London?s citizens and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(householders attempted to create a clear ?cut? between themselves and the unsettled and rootless \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(142?3\). Status in early modern London was tied to a job and a settled residence \(p. 171\). Whilst there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?career? criminals, such as prostitutes \(pp. 150?7\), Griffiths argues that the borders of the criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underworld were artificial \(p. 178\). Social circles overlapped between the respectable citizen and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal, and their worlds coexisted. Chapter 5 examines how the City leaders attempted to define crime, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperative process that relied on questions about family, maintenance and lifestyle \(pp. 180?1\). Griffiths )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 3145 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the process of ?labelling? crime in the Bridewell courtbooks \(pp. 194?9\). Unsurprisingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?vagrant? was the most common and long-lasting label but these changed over time, reflecting changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and realities. After 1600 crimes tied to London?s growth became more commonplace, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newcomers identified as the cause \(p. 199\). Over time, vagrancy became a greater priority than sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crimes. As well as this, crime, and crimes connected to the growth of London, became increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminised, with women becoming more stigmatized for ?lewd? lives and criminal activities \(pp. 204?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third, and longest, part of the book deals with the ?control? of disorderly London. Chapter 6 places the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution of Bridewell in its contemporary context ? it was the most controversial of London?s hospitals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, initially, the most maligned, facing challenges to its jurisdiction and power to punish. However, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.1600 London and Londoners warmed to Bridewell as it became less concerned with sexual crimes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more focussed on dealing with the city?s vagrancy problem. Chapter 7 looks at the inhabitants of Bridewell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their punishments. Bridewell could ?tap into? London?s network of hospitals, and its sick and infirm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inmates were often transferred to other institutions. The bodies of the inmates of Bridewell were sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, and women in particular were medically checked to confirm if they were ?cleare? or ?maides?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whipping and hard labour had initially been the main method of punishment, but this appears to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declined by the mid 17th century \(p. 290\). The institution was not just a ?revolving door? either, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inmates stayed for over a week and spells of over six months were not unknown \(pp. 279?80\). As Bridewell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matured so the number of other punishment utilised increased. After 1600, transportation, particularly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia, was used as a punishment \(table 9b, p. 473\). Inmates of Bridewell could also be pressed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies fighting abroad \(table 9c, p. 473\). These punishments were not commonplace, but they show the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing range of punitive options open to the Bridewell.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8448 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final four chapters deal with how London was policed. Chapter 8 examines the people who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charged with enforcing order at the local level. City policy had made policing vagrancy central to solving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s problems \(p. 305\), and this effort required significant funds and resources. London?s constables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to be from the higher end of the social spectrum, and rather than being the dithering incompetents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some literary sources often held office for long periods, acquiring significant knowledge of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities and expertise in dealing with vagrants. Griffiths persuasively argues the problem with policing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London was not lack of expertise, but a lack of funds to deal with a city in a ?permanent state of friction? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(331\). London at night is the focus of chapter 9 ? it has previously been shown how offences could be gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or place specific but this chapter shows how nightfall changed London. It was seen as being a dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. Particularly after 1600 more nightwalkers were taken to court \(p. 334\). The order of night streets was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charged to the watchmen, whose punitive powers made them a source of fear, as well as disrespect. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a cast iron occupational reason or social status that gave one the right to be nocturnal \(p. 334\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everyone else was vulnerable to punishment if caught wandering the streets at night. This chapter re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforces Griffiths? point about the gendering of crime ? after 1620 nearly all those charged with night-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walking were women \(p. 334\). Ultimately just as the growth and vagrancy problems of London at day could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be cleared up, so the perception of London?s night-time streets as dangerous and disorderly could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminated, just ?contained? \(p. 360\). Chapter 10 looks at the process of prosecution. Rather than place the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of policing in early modern England on the initiative of the private individual, Griffiths stresses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of public bodies such as the parish. Institutions may have used private individuals for processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as ?crying for children? \(pp. 380?1\), but as far as the Bridewell committals are concerned, it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers who did the legwork ? in particular for ?victimless? crimes such as vagrancy \(p. 397\). This meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ?scale and scope? of public bodies of prosecution were forced to grow as London, and its vagrancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, did. The final chapter deals with how these official bodies generated and maintained the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence needed to enforce order. Griffiths makes the valuable point that the modern historian?s sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of raw data were the contemporaries? ?active archives? \(p. 400\). As London, and England, grew in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period, it became increasingly imperative to quantify it as collecting and counting became routine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parishes paid to look through other documents at Whitehall or the Exchequer, for example, to gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about particular individuals \(pp. 414?15\). Bridewell was an important hub in this network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information and its officials were well placed to gain information about London?s criminals and vagrants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using their extensive local knowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffiths begins his conclusion with the statement, ?make no mistake, London cannot be called stable on any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day covered in this book? \(p. 433\). During the period considered London?s population had exploded and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process, perceptions of the metropolis had darkened for many. However, there was no widespread, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolonged breakdown in order in early modern London. For example, even after the catastrophic shock of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Fire, metropolitan social structures remained remarkable stable.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.272 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.272 286.371 m 401.264 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.264 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet Griffiths? London was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguous, unsettled and always in process. Such conclusions do match the evidence presented in )] TJ ET BT 508.616 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Londons)] TJ ET BT 75.356 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but a problem is the book?s large reliance on the Bridewell records. They are representative of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, but are they representative of all ?Londons?? Very different histories have been written, presenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London as stable, using different sources. Does London?s ambiguity make it impossible to draw any firm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions? One answer may be to extend Griffiths? methods to the suburbs, whose growth was )] TJ ET BT 503.276 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 520.940 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor in overall metropolitan population growth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.324 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.324 200.835 m 283.316 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.316 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Bridewell evidence is rather skewed to the western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suburbs, so it would be of interest to see how similar, or dissimilar, areas such as the East End were. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, given the uniquely extensive nature of the Bridewell evidence, this may be impossible. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer may be to push Griffiths? extensive quantitative evidence further. The tables in the appendix could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been made more helpful by presenting the numbers in percentage form rather than in raw numbers so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relative proportional importance of the different categories considered could be more easily examined. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also, much of the data, for example, the labels recorded in the courtbooks, would have benefited from being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented graphically. The ?People in Place? project has shown the potential of extensive quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of systematic records to illuminate the social worlds of early modern London.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.964 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.964 86.787 m 462.956 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.956 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of scale ? by the mid 17th century, London?s population had risen to around 375,000, meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the totals in the tables are actually quite low in terms of proportion of the city?s population ? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.2717 286.6855 401.2637 298.5655 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.3237 201.1495 283.3157 213.0295 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.9637 87.1015 462.9557 98.9815 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 6528 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when recidivists are taken into account. For example, the 541 vagrants prosecuted in the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1653-7 \(table 4a, p. 456\) represents around 0.15 per cent of the total population of London. However, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clear ambiguity of early modern London, the historian should beware of applying to pat or sweeping a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion based on purely statistically evidence without considering why and how this evidence was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collected, as Griffiths clearly does. The value of the Bridewell evidence lies in its intimate stories of the tens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of thousands of footloose individuals drawn to London, who whilst being damned by the city fathers, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless vital to growth of the city. )] TJ ET BT 221.336 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lost Londons)] TJ ET BT 286.352 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a significant portrayal of a major aspect of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of the early modern metropolis, but it should be viewed alongside the proponents of stability, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than entirely supplanting them ? ?London with all its ?small worlds? has many histories? \(p. 434\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Boulton?s study of wages in London over the 17th century reveals that London wages were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher than elsewhere in the nation, with daily rates for labourers doubling from 12 pence per day in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1600 to 24 pence by the early 18th century, well above the rate of inflation. J. P. Boulton, ?Wage )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour in seventeenth-century London?, )] TJ ET BT 258.308 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 382.952 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 49 \(1996\), 268?90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.272 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.272 572.739 m 534.260 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. L. Beier, ?Social problems in Elizabethan London?, )] TJ ET BT 333.644 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History)] TJ ET BT 505.976 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9 \(1978\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 544.227 m 139.004 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. B. Elliott, ?Single women in the London marriage market: age, status and mobility 1598-1619?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marriage and Society: Studies in the Social History of Marriage)] TJ ET BT 373.664 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. B. Outhwaite \(London, 1981\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 99.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 501.459 m 145.004 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. F. Field, ?Reactions and responses to the Great Fire: London and England in the later seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? \(Newcastle Univ. Ph.D. thesis, 2008\), chapters 1 and 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.288 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.288 472.947 m 428.276 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. A. P. Finlay and B. Shearer, ?Population growth and suburban expansion?, in A. L. )] TJ ET BT 480.980 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London 1500-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1700: the Making of the Metropolis)] TJ ET BT 235.004 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Beier and R. A. P. Finlay \(London and New York, 1986\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 430.179 m 133.004 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. Harding )] TJ ET BT 121.004 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 142.004 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 148.004 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People in Place: Families, Households and Housing in Early Modern London)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 401.667 m 196.328 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sehepunkte)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sehepunkte.de/2010/11/16539.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 346.899 m 261.020 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.020 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/02/ehr.cep239.short)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 318.387 m 377.984 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 380.984 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 315.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 297.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 297.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/767)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 295.881 m 322.316 295.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 270.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3745)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.sehepunkte.de/2010/11/16539.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.704 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/02/ehr.cep239.short)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.2717 573.0535 534.2597 584.9335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 544.5415 139.0037 556.4215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 501.7735 145.0037 513.6535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.2877 473.2615 428.2757 485.1415 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.0157 430.4935 133.0037 442.3735 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 401.9815 196.3277 413.8615 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 347.2135 261.0197 359.0935 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.sehepunkte.de/2010/11/16539.html) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 318.7015 377.9837 330.5815 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/02/ehr.cep239.short) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 296.1955 322.3157 308.0755 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/767) >> endobj xref 0 58 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000579 00000 n 0000000682 00000 n 0000005594 00000 n 0000005703 00000 n 0000005813 00000 n 0000005922 00000 n 0000009483 00000 n 0000009611 00000 n 0000009695 00000 n 0000009724 00000 n 0000009852 00000 n 0000009888 00000 n 0000009917 00000 n 0000010043 00000 n 0000010079 00000 n 0000010108 00000 n 0000010234 00000 n 0000010270 00000 n 0000010335 00000 n 0000018126 00000 n 0000018191 00000 n 0000021389 00000 n 0000021487 00000 n 0000029988 00000 n 0000030018 00000 n 0000030146 00000 n 0000030182 00000 n 0000030212 00000 n 0000030340 00000 n 0000030376 00000 n 0000030406 00000 n 0000030532 00000 n 0000030568 00000 n 0000030708 00000 n 0000037289 00000 n 0000037417 00000 n 0000037472 00000 n 0000037599 00000 n 0000037654 00000 n 0000037781 00000 n 0000037836 00000 n 0000037964 00000 n 0000038019 00000 n 0000038146 00000 n 0000038201 00000 n 0000038329 00000 n 0000038384 00000 n 0000038511 00000 n 0000038606 00000 n 0000038733 00000 n 0000038856 00000 n 0000038984 00000 n trailer << /Size 58 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39079 %%EOF