%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 39 0 R 45 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818070014+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818070014+01'00') /Title (Cities in Modernity: Representations and Productions of Metropolitan Space, 1840-1930) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4260 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cities in Modernity: Representations and Productions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Metropolitan Space, 1840-1930)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Dennis? engaging book is about building bridges, both literal and metaphorical. It begins with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge in New York, Tower Bridge in London and the Bloor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Street Viaduct in Toronto, using them as a means of highlighting the eclectic methodologies and theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to be applied throughout the work. It is his stated aim ?to build bridges connecting cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic interpretations of urbanisation, and between qualitative and quantitative modes of analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract theory and ... empirical studies of 19th- and early 20th-century cities? \(p.3\). As such, this is a bold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to bridge disciplinary approaches to the modernising city. The overall success of this ambitious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project indicates how Dennis has developed far beyond his earlier work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.936 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.936 165.009 m 394.928 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 394.928 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Not only has his field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical geography vastly expanded to include North American cities such as New York, Chicago and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toronto, but he also embraces, and proves highly adept at exploring the cultural and social histories of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities, their places and spaces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis starts by questioning exactly what it was about urban development and the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanisation from the mid 19th to the first third of the 20th century that made it ?modern?. His answers lies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an examination of the relationship between modernising environments and societies in a period that built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon earlier trends and developments to embody a marked shift towards modernity. The central purpose of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(768)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Dennis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521464703)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(438pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Bell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.9357 165.3235 394.9277 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8256 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this richly-textured study is to explore both ?new modes of representing city life, by social commentators ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelists, artists and social scientists? and also ?the planning, construction and use of new type of space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within cities: new streets and public spaces ... new forms of residence ... new types of workplace ... new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces of consumption and recreation... and new forms of connections between these segregated, specialised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces? \(p.1\). As such, this book is representative of the ?spatial turn? that has been adopted amongst urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, a growing appreciation that urban space was not merely a stage upon which historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments were played out, but an active agent in shaping those developments, be they social, cultural or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.672 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.672 695.283 m 97.664 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis? introduction deftly leads us through some of the key theoretical views on both modernity and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space, setting up the seemingly contradictory modernity of Marshall Berman?s ?second phase?, a period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1790s when people simultaneously felt themselves to be ?living in a revolutionary age? while at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time remembering ?worlds that are not modern at all?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.628 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.628 626.259 m 336.620 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.620 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He then progresses onto spatial theorists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose conceptualisations of urban space he subsequently uses as his means of analysing the modern city. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The earlier section of the book is underpinned by Henri Lefebvre?s ideas about ?representations of space?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elite discourses of urban planners and reformers who indicated how space )] TJ ET BT 409.256 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(should)] TJ ET BT 441.260 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be organised, and links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to ?representational spaces?, spaces ?of the imagination ... of subversion and appropriation? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.912 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.912 569.235 m 547.904 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time he employs Michel de Certeau?s dual approaches to the city, the panoptic view from above )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the synoptic view from the street.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.988 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.988 540.723 m 228.980 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.980 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( From above the city appears ordered, and this is examined through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a focus on social reformers, cartographers, and planners who sought to foster a greater sense of control and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationality over spatial practices in this period. Yet he also undertakes a study of the modern city from street-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level; devoid of the ordered abstraction that comes with remote viewing, the modernising city was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of chaos, randomness, energy and liberation. Early chapters explore the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary novelists and artists? reflections on representational spaces could conflict with the orderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views ?from above?. While he views Dickens as a \(predominantly\) panoptic novelist in his approach to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century city, he locates later writers such as Dos Passos as a key example of synoptic perspectives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s. As such Dennis approach is structured around De Certeau?s distinction between ?places? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we map, and ?spaces? which are actualised through the movement of pedestrians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using these differing conceptualisations his chapters reflect ?the contradictions and multiple points of view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that characterise modernity?, highlighting ?the kaleidoscopic, contingent nature of modern urbanism? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(348\). To achieve this effect Dennis undertakes a dazzlingly detailed autopsy of the modern\(ising\) city, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept, a physical locality and process, and as a daily experience. The first part of the book focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the modern city. Dennis nicely highlights the tension between our often conflicting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualisations of the ?modern? and the ?Victorian? city before examining a variety of metaphors that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries used to make sense of their changing urban environment: the city as a body, as a monster, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Babylon. He then explores a variety of developing methods of measuring, mapping, surveying and recording )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban environments and populations, efforts that he reads as both ?performances of governmentality? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?representations of the spaces and peoples that were being surveyed? \(p.53\). Dennis argues that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foucauldian approaches, with their ?panoptic and regulatory tendencies? \(p.79\) are present in 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels and paintings, their emphasis being on how space worked and how it was used.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book examines the production of new kinds of space, taking us on a tour of multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlapping sites of urban modernity. These include a focus on the changing metropolitan streets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioning who or what they were for, considering the way they were ?practised places?, sites with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous different functions and meanings for different groups. There is also an examination of ?home? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented by suburbia, block or tenement dwelling, and apartment or mansion flat habitation. Set against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this ?private? space is an examination of the changing workplace, particularly the emergence of the office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(block and, from the 1880s, the skyscraper. Continuing in the ?public? realm there is a skilful analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of the department store as a locale for both consumption and culture \(and the consumption of culture\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the previous emphasis on male urban planners and architects, and the predominantly male gaze of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social investigators, novelists and artists, the latter chapters of the book incorporate considerable reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon female agency and experience in the modernising city. \(Given its ambitious breadth, Dennis admits )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.6717 695.5975 97.6637 707.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.6277 626.5735 336.6197 638.4535 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.9117 569.5495 547.9037 581.4295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.9877 541.0375 228.9797 552.9175 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7944 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he is not able to give space to a consideration of the urban experience of other subaltern groups such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the young, elderly, poor and ?alien?\). The book concludes with a consideration of the increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networked nature of the modern city, be it via sewers, telegraph, telephone or intra-city rail systems, Dennis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using this idea of interconnectedness to pull his various themes and conclusions together. In short, indicative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the thoroughness with which he dissects the modernising city, its practices and meanings, Dennis engages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with both ?private? and ?public? spaces, though these are by no means firmly bounded divides in a study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that generally remains faithful to the complex and frequently contradictory nature of modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study is based upon three principal cities - London, New York and Toronto - although there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of a pecking order amongst them. While London has a strong presence throughout, New York, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago and Toronto are included or omitted as suits the flow of the argument. The book?s emphasis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly on a top down analysis, a consideration of urban modernity from the perspective of the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle classes. Dennis initially demonstrates a clear appreciation of how potentially unrepresentative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelists and artists could be in their insights into the experience of urban modernisation. Yet the point was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes sacrificed in the second half of the book when, in his effort to juxtapose seemingly mismatched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources as a way of building interdisciplinary bridges, accounts of fictional characters such as Mrs Dalloway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were blended uncritically with factual information to illustrate aspects of urban geographical models such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CBDs \(central business districts\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this makes one a little wary of openly accepting Dennis? efforts to synthesise quantitative and qualitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches it nevertheless indicates that this is a diverse and comprehensive compendium of material on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and approaches to 19th- and early 20th-century western cities. In terms of the city as a physical place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis? analysis shifts effortlessly from the heights of Chicago?s early skyscrapers to the sewers beneath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckingham Palace. In terms of academic disciplines it smoothly navigates between architectural, financial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and cultural histories, synthesizing perspectives drawn from geography, sociology and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies. Ideas and arguments are supported throughout by an abundance of primary material drawn from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps, paintings, photographs, illustrations, advertisements, and statistical charts. While many of the selected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelists and artists may be familiar to urban cultural historians, it is far rarer to find them so skilfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enmeshed alongside maps that show the development of streets or data on the characteristic residents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London flats and New York apartments at the turn of the 20th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.956 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.956 386.163 m 386.948 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.948 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dennis? principal achievement lies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his impressive erudition and skilled handling of such a breadth of material and theory. Concise chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions illustrate how their focus leads forward to subsequent investigations or gives renewed emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to aspects of the city explored in previous chapters. It is this controlled shifting back and forth, the multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layering of meanings given to urban sites and practices, that helps enhance Dennis? masterful survey. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through his convincing juggling of urban cultural discourses and detailed quantitative analysis he clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that it was not just the place itself, the changing physical features or processes of the city that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied modernity, but also the spatial practices that occurred within such a transforming environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis?s overarching point is that his various cities ?had more in common with one another than they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from one another? \(p. 349\), that all had ?broadly similar responses to the ambiguities of modernity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrespective of local variation? \(p. 25\). While amply supported throughout the book this rather reductionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective jars in a work that otherwise shows itself to be highly attuned to the ambiguities and apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxes that were generated out of the experience of urban modernisation. In part this position seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arise from valid criticisms of previous approaches to the modern city. The book rightly takes issue with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berman for imposing ?a teleological framework in which different cities stood for different phases in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unified whole? \(p.348\). At the same time its fluid use of London, New York, Chicago, Canberra, Toronto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Montreal allows it to avoid Asa Brigg?s approach whereby a different city represented the archetypal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of a particular decade in the 19th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.932 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.932 131.811 m 302.924 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.924 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet this artificially-imposed schema is replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the implicit suggestion that all followed a similar path that resulted in a homogenous experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban modernity, or at least similar responses to that experience. At the very least, such an argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminishes the potential value of drawing upon Toronto to compare with more familiar cities such as London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and New York. While Dennis might be right to emphasise the importance of general similarities over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifics such as ?different histories of immigration, different urban politics, or different modes of providing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.9557 386.4775 386.9477 398.3575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.9317 132.1255 302.9237 144.0055 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7474 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public services? \(p.25\) the significance of broader factors are downplayed. Developments in mid-late 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century London and New York frequently seem interchangeable and even though Toronto lagged a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation behind in these experiences, the chronological, typographical and cultural diversities are largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hammered out in favour of their relative commonalities. In terms of representations of urban spaces there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps needed to be greater consideration of the way in which those who produced those representations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were working within set narratives and with fairly formulaic tropes, a language of description and a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking about the modernising city that shuttled back and forth across the Atlantic, encouraging conforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions that obscured differing realities. The later focus on the production of urban space was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly more successful in teasing out contrasts. The chapters on the development of ?flats? in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?apartments? in New York drew interesting comparisons between modernising British and North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American cities. Nor is Dennis completely unaware of this issue. Recognising that he has ?implied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental similarities between these cities? he does stress that ?at different times, the current of influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flows more strongly in one direction than the other ? from Britain to America in the 19th century, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America to Britain in the 1900s and especially the 1920s? \(p.320\). He also nicely notes how ?Toronto shifts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being a British city on North American soil to an American city in the British Empire? \(p.320\). Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations suggest inherent differences between urbanisation in Britain, the United States and Canada. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These differences could have been teased out further to add nuances to his overall thesis of similarity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having comprehensively illustrated the contradictions and tensions within the modernising city in general, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have arguably made the study even richer if there had been a more rigorous use of a contrastive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet overall, the scope and ambition of the book must to be applauded. Dennis clearly demonstrates how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the modernising city, like concepts of modernity itself, embodied ?contradictory impulses ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxes of order and diversity? \(p.349\). As he notes, ?The challenge of working with the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity is that it forces us to make sense of the messiness? \(p.26\) and he admirably accept that that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messiness cannot \(and should not\) be neatly tidied up. His densely textured interpretation of what made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities in this period ?modern? illustrates the diverse way in which increasingly planned and engineered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments seemed to encourage greater transgressions and the formation of unintended individual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective identities. At the same time there are valuable insights and reminders for the cultural historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book, not least with regard to our more favoured sources of contemporary art and literature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis astutely remarks that ?cities of the imagination became more real than real cities. Victorian London )] TJ ET BT 551.588 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickens? London or Dore?s London; we are surprised, and sceptical of our data, if the evidence of archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research contradicts what we have imagined through reading Dickens? novels or viewing Dore?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations? \(p.86?7\). Such an observation shows the benefits of inter-disciplinary studies of this quality; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires a \(historical\) geographer to remind cultural historians to be mindful of their own approaches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices and sources, which can never be a bad thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this book is intended as a bridge to other cities beyond our over familiar focus on 19th-century London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, more importantly, as a bridge to understanding how other scholars approach the issues of urbanisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and modernity, then it is a solidly constructed edifice. Through his thorough and thought-provoking analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis invited historians of the 19th- and early 20th-century city to appreciate how historical geographers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work \(and vice versa\), and in doing so provides an extremely good example of the potential inherent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely inter-disciplinary approaches. Dennis? important book is a bridge that allows urban scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregated by academic disciplines to journey to new destinations. All those interested in the modernising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city would do well to cross it and see the views from the other side.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.819 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Dennis, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English)] TJ ET BT 181.676 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century: a Social Geography)] TJ ET BT 492.668 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 92.547 m 149.000 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, Lynda Nead,)] TJ ET BT 209.972 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Victorian Babylon: People, Streets and Images in Nineteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 100.688 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.656 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.656 64.035 m 255.644 64.035 l S endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 92.8615 148.9997 104.7415 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 201.6557 64.3495 255.6437 76.2295 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 4139 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall Berman, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(All that is Solid Melts into Air: the Experience of Modernity)] TJ ET BT 441.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988\), p. 17.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 118.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henri Lefebvre, )] TJ ET BT 143.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Production of Space)] TJ ET BT 262.640 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(translator D. Nicholson-Smith\) \(Oxford, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.276 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.276 766.563 m 551.264 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel de Certeau, )] TJ ET BT 158.660 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Practice of Everyday Life)] TJ ET BT 302.636 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.948 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.948 752.307 m 443.936 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example David Frisby, )] TJ ET BT 213.992 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cityscapes of Modernity)] TJ ET BT 331.316 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2001\) and Alan Robinson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining London 1770?1900)] TJ ET BT 210.020 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.680 723.795 m 366.668 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asa Briggs, )] TJ ET BT 123.680 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Cities)] TJ ET BT 200.024 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harmondsworth, 1968\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.004 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.004 709.539 m 375.992 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cercles)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cercles.com/review/r40/dennisrichard.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 297.644 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 300.644 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 627.653 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http://www.cercles.com/review/r40/dennisrichard.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.179 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/victorian_studies/v051/51.3.pike.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=22794)] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 781.1335 118.0037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.2757 766.8775 551.2637 778.7575 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.9477 752.6215 443.9357 764.5015 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.6797 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