%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828163143+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828163143+01'00') /Title (The Gangs of Manchester: The Story of the Scuttlers, Britain?s First Youth Cult) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4479 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Gangs of Manchester: The Story of the Scuttlers, Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(First Youth Cult)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gangs of Manchester )] TJ ET BT 161.336 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a welcome and timely contribution to the growing literature on the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth. Davies? book is a study of the rise and fall of the ?scuttler? street fighting gangs of Manchester from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid to late 19th century. It paints a powerful picture of the harsh urban environment in which the young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women who joined these gangs lived and worked. Davies provides insight into the fear and concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that scuttlers provoked in the adult population, and the methods used by the police, the magistracy and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers to attempt to counteract the gangs. Scuttlers were previously studied by Geoffrey Pearson in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of hooliganism in the 19th century )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.680 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.680 179.265 m 245.672 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.672 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but )] TJ ET BT 270.008 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gangs of Manchester )] TJ ET BT 397.328 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a refreshing, in-depth study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the phenomenon. The result is a book which places a particular youth movement within its broader social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and spatial contexts, and which also has much to contribute to current debates and concerns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies opens the book with an account of the development of slums in Manchester in the early to mid 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, as thousands came from around the British Isles to find work in the booming factories. Despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive wealth generated by factory owners, the Manchester working classes endured long hours for low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wages, poor housing and equally poor diets. Yet, as Davies notes, this did not discourage a real lust for life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was manifested on the streets of Ancoats and other slum districts. Music halls, pubs, gin shops and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like did a roaring trade, which was supplemented by a lively street culture of young and old congregating on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(769)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Davies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781903854815)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milo Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preston)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Bradley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.6797 179.5795 245.6717 191.4595 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 5863 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the streets to talk, drink, gamble and fight. Davies argues that fighting had its own specific social functions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and codes. A fair fight was a legitimate means of resolving a dispute in public, and the police did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate unless the fight went sour. To a point, scuttling had its [sub]cultural roots within this vibrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parent culture and its performative aspects of street life and fighting. This concept of deviant youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcultures as arising from deviant working class adult cultures was originally developed in the 1950s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s by sociologists such as John Barron Mays, David Downes, Terence Morris and Madeleine Kerr.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.928 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.928 723.795 m 540.920 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With Morris in particular, this was tied in with a notion that place was an important variable in shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social behaviours and norms. This view was also reflected in Jerry White?s study of Campbell Bunk, ?worst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street in North London?, which discussed the slide into delinquency, whereby young people were drawn into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime through exposure to family and neighbours who presented deviant behaviour as ?normal?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.928 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.928 666.771 m 510.920 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gangs of Manchester )] TJ ET BT 161.336 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a valuable contribution to this literature through its rigorous use of court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records and newspaper accounts to build up a vivid picture of life in the slums of Manchester, the excitement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the call of the gangs, and their appeal to young people. The book also speaks to a much longer heritage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of linking place and space with criminality, stretching back from the reportage of Dickens, Mayhew and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, as well as the impressionistic police diaries of Charles Booth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.652 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.652 595.491 m 378.644 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies has identified the trigger point for scuttling as arising from the reception of the Franco-Prussian War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the schoolboys of Ancoats. Young boys re-created the battles on the streets of Ancoats, using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories of Catholic French and Protestant Prussian to reflect their own allegiances between Irish Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and English Protestant. This game quickly evolved into a widespread vogue for street battles, beginning with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the so-called Rochdale Road War of 1870. This initial flurry of street fighting laid the ground for the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex phenomenon of scuttling. The battle lines between Catholic and Protestant reflected the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiances and identities created by the geographical and social boundaries created by streets, canals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets and the like, as well as the clustering of different religious and ethnic groups. The gangs developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong group identities which gained power through calls to local allegiances and bonds of friendship, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flagged through careful dress. The gangs had a distinctive dress code of long ?donkey? fringes, neckerchiefs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed clogs and caps tilted back on the head. The clothes and accessories immediately identified the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scuttler as such, but also had their violent functions, as the scuttlers? belts, with their large buckles, doubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up as weapons in fights. Whilst the fashions were common to all scuttler groups, place was the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive influence in the shaping of scuttler identity and relationships between gangs. Gangs were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with particular streets or districts, and gangs assiduously policed their territory. Gang members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept a wary eye out for young men straying into their area; being in the wrong place at the wrong time could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to violence. It was not just young men that these rules of place applied to. Gangs expected young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women from their area to court young men from the same; this was a frequent cause of violence between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gangs from Ancoats and Angel Meadow in 1886. Yet young women were not always passive ?molls? ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies points out, they often encouraged the male gang members in fights and also participated in violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts themselves.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.9277 724.1095 540.9197 735.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.9277 667.0855 510.9197 678.9655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.6517 595.8055 378.6437 607.6855 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8103 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The gangs were variously admired, feared and loathed by the communities around them. The gangs were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent and volatile. Fists, feet, knives, buckles, stones and even paving stones were used as weapons. Fights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often resulted in serious injury and even death. As Davies draws out, violence between gangs and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gangs and bystanders, could erupt for the smallest of reasons. Passers-by could find themselves on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving end for bumping into a scuttler or for appearing affluent or vulnerable; doing a good turn ? such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returning a lost cap ? or intervening to break up a fight between scuttlers were rewarded with violence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Others suffered damage to their property, or had to adjust their daily lives to avoid coming into conflict with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scuttlers. The presence of scuttlers on the streets created fear amongst the adult population, who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wary of how the simmering threat of violence could erupt at any time. Outrage and anxieties were expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and time again in letters to newspapers following incidents and cases going to court. This tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the teenaged gang and the neighbourhood is a vital one. Davies successfully manages to marry the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of locality for the gangs with the impact it had upon the wider community. Gang territory was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked out by the urban landscape and the ways in which it was experienced, through flows of foot traffic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and points of connection. Yet the young gang members applied different meanings to the street, by using it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a place for out-and-out battle, thus turning a space for transit into a place for fighting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scuttling was a temporary phase in the lives of the young men and women attached to gangs. Davies draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out tantalising points about the relationship between home lives and the street. Although the young scuttlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were seen as being wild and undisciplined, Davies points out that many grew up in strict homes and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected to contribute to the family income. Before marriage, the family home was a place of constraint and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility. Davies notes that, when scuttlers were brought to court, mothers rather than fathers attended. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mothers came to plead for their sons? good character, partly as fathers were at work, but also because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could attempt to convince the judges that sending their sons to prison would reduce the family income. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touches upon the gendered power dynamics of the disciplining of young people, and the negotiation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with external bodies such as schools, the police and the courts. Yet the stakes rose once the young men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married and found themselves running their own homes. A prison sentence for scuttling could literally put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s wife and small children in the workhouse, and the temptations of street fighting had to be balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the cost to the family unit. Although we understand more about the slide )] TJ ET BT 421.652 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(into)] TJ ET BT 440.324 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( delinquency in the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, from such classic texts as )] TJ ET BT 200.984 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Campbell Bunk )] TJ ET BT 278.312 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 298.640 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Delinquent Solution)] TJ ET BT 415.976 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as well as more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminological studies, the slide out of delinquency is somewhat clearer \(young men grow out of deviant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviours\) if the specifics are less well researched. In this way, )] TJ ET BT 345.596 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gangs of Manchester )] TJ ET BT 472.916 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical counterpart to recent criminological research, such as Andrew Rutherford?s )] TJ ET BT 448.244 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growing Out of Crime.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 329.139 m 48.008 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies also draws out some of the continuities within debates about how young people are treated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, the police and the courts. The publication of )] TJ ET BT 276.980 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gangs of Manchester )] TJ ET BT 404.300 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincided with the centenary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1908 Children Act. This Act introduced dedicated juvenile courts in England and Wales, regulated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sale of tobacco and alcohol to minors, and also prevented the young from being sent to prison, amongst other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things. In many ways, much of Davies? discussion of the introduction of lads? clubs and the decline of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scuttler ties in with the development of this Act. Some of the individuals mentioned by Davies ? such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles E. B. Russell ? used their experience of club work in the 1890s on the streets of Manchester to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inform their work in the evolution of the juvenile justice system. As Davies points out, part of the solution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scuttling was to provide the young men with other outlets for their energies. Although much of this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tinged with a missionary attempt to bring the young back into religious ways, club sporting and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities offered the bonds of loyalty, friendship and allegiance without the same demands of violence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies argues that one of the nails in the coffin of the scuttler was the rise of the youth club movement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst another was the growing popularity in the 1880s and 1890s of association football.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But whilst it can be argued that these liberal, reformist moves had a positive impact on reducing scuttling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies also points out that this was accompanied by more aggressive policing and harsher prison sentences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On occasion, the police found it difficult and dangerous to effectively prevent and control outbreaks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scuttler violence. They changed their tactics and methods of detection in order to achieve this. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistracy also increasingly looked at the popular view of scuttling incidents and used punitive sentences as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 329.4535 48.0077 341.3335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8010 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a means of taking gang members off the streets as well as conveying a message that scuttling would not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerated by the broader community. Prison sentences certainly had a disruptive influence on gang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership, but were not always a deterrent to scuttlers. Davies draws out the relationship between public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outrage and the shaping of sentencing patterns, linking this also with the sensibilities of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrates. In his discussion of the calls for flogging for scuttlers, Davies subtly draws out the tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the prescription of particular punishments and public or magisterial demands for reform. Flogging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was only applicable in cases of robbery with violence, which the scuttlers rarely, if ever, committed. Yet a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain branch of the public wished to see flogging as a punishment for scuttlers, using violence as a means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of beating scuttling out of the system. Davies has identified two distinctive trends in youth justice, which co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist even if one predominates at any one particular time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gangs of Manchester)] TJ ET BT 158.336 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published in September 2008, after a summer of intense media interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so-called ?gang violence? on the streets of London and other major cities. Davies draws out a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points about youth gangs in the 19th century which nevertheless have important resonances for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of current problems. The gangs were not participating in thefts or any form of organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime, but rather the gang was a forum for finding friendship and a group identity. Much of their violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was directed at other gangs straying into their territory, in a similar fashion to so-called postcode wars in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21st century. The scuttler violence was heavily physical, using fists and knives, with reputations won and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost on the outcomes of fights. These aspects find their parallels in a number of subsequent youth cults, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly suggesting that group violence has a particular role in the social development of young men, if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations of this need to be explored amongst all social classes. Whilst we should not rush to view all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth cults together as being essentially the same regardless of geography and point in time, Davies has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilfully drawn out the continuities of youthful ? and especially male ? behaviour in modern society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Pearson, )] TJ ET BT 154.316 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears)] TJ ET BT 357.296 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.620 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.620 391.923 m 492.608 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See John Barron Mays, )] TJ ET BT 179.000 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Education and the Urban Child )] TJ ET BT 334.004 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Liverpool, 1968\), David Downes, )] TJ ET BT 502.976 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Delinquent Solution: A Study in Subcultural Theory)] TJ ET BT 312.680 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1966\). Terence Morris, )] TJ ET BT 477.308 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Criminal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Area: A Study in Social Ecology )] TJ ET BT 221.996 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1957\) and Madeleine Kerr, )] TJ ET BT 402.284 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The People of Ship Street)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1958\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 334.899 m 196.328 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerry White, )] TJ ET BT 126.332 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Campbell)] TJ ET BT 173.000 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Bunk: the Worst Street in North London)] TJ ET BT 368.000 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.324 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.324 320.643 m 503.312 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the Booth Metropolitan Police Notebooks, see the Charles Booth Online Archive at the London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School of Economics <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.444 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://booth.lse.ac.uk/>)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.444 292.131 m 287.552 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.552 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 304.544 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed June 3 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.508 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.508 292.131 m 475.496 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Rutherford, )] TJ ET BT 164.324 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growing Out of Crime: The New Era )] TJ ET BT 346.664 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Winchester, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.304 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.304 277.875 m 496.292 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/4029760/The-Gangs-of-Manchester-the-Story-of-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 223.107 m 560.252 223.107 l S BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scuttlers-Britains-First-Youth-Cult-by-Andrew-Davies-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 208.851 m 360.308 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.308 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 205.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 187.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 187.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/769)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 186.345 m 322.316 186.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 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