%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140706065432+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140706065432+01'00') /Title (The Mid-Victorian Generation 1846-1886) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4724 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Mid-Victorian Generation 1846-1886)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nearly one hundred years after the death of Queen Victoria, Victorian history is, on the face of it, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably good shape. Alongside Hitler, the period remains the staple fare of the English and Welsh sixth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form syllabus. In the universities - old and new - British nineteenth-century historians outnumber their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century counterparts by about two to one. The subject boasts two interdisciplinary journals:- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 117.020 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, now in its early forties, and the more recently established )] TJ ET BT 400.640 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journa l of Victorian)] TJ ET BT 504.644 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture)] TJ ET BT 541.316 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as a handful of other journals mainly devoted to literature and the press. Victorian \(and Edwardian\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians lead the field in terms of output - in 1997 \(according to the Royal Historical Society's )] TJ ET BT 496.472 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliography of British & Irish History)] TJ ET BT 222.368 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) some 1,143 books, articles, and chapters in collective volumes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published on British history, 1815-1914 \(not including Ireland or the empire\), compared to 713 for the 1714-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1815 period, and 1,075 for Britain since 1914. In North America, where the lines between Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, social and literary history are more blurred, a similar success story can be told, judging from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities reported in the )] TJ ET BT 153.332 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies Bulletin)] TJ ET BT 277.340 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and from the Victorian studies web-sites based at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities of Alberta, Brown and Indiana. Yet despite its rude health, the Victorian era has not been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of a major synthesis for well over a generation. The best-known and best-selling historian of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian period remains Asa Briggs, whose )] TJ ET BT 250.316 59.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Improvement)] TJ ET BT 347.624 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was first published in 1959, and whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 45.227 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian People)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(77)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Theodore Hoppen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198228349)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(57.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(787pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198228349.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miles Taylor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7732 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the first of his famous trilogy\) appeared as long ago as 1 954. Alongside Briggs the older )] TJ ET BT 467.960 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Best, John Harrison and L.C.B Seaman continue to be reprinted, and two other classics from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same period - W.L. Burn's )] TJ ET BT 163.820 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Equipoise)] TJ ET BT 245.816 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and George Kitson Clark's )] TJ ET BT 378.956 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of Victorian England)] TJ ET BT 519.956 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoy a high reputation. For a subject which in recent years has become so preoccupied by new approaches it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is remarkable that the standard text books remain those of the 1950s and 1960s. It is as though eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century historians still took their cue from J.H. Plumb, or twentieth-century historians from A.J.P. Taylor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given this vacuum, the publication in the spring of 1998 of Professor K. Theodore Hoppen's volume in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Oxford History of England was a welcome development in Victorian historiography. It augured well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a subject in which for thirty years specia list research has crowded out more thematic or interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches. Although the period covered in the book - 1846-86 - is not the whole of the Victorian era, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bulk of it, and it turns out that Professor Hoppen has much to say about developments in the later 1880s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1890s as well. No other volume in the Oxford series will focus so centrally on the Victorian period. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although other new syntheses of Victorian history are in the offing - most notably in the new Penguin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History - )] TJ ET BT 80.012 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mid-Victorian Generation)] TJ ET BT 227.336 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with all the scholarly trappings of a volume in an Oxford history, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the benchmark against which the next few decades of scholarship will be tested. The book has already been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely reviewed, so it seems appropriate to not only consider its merits, but also to assess some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism that it has provoked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those who are wanting a completely new perspective on the Victorian era should be warned straightaway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Professor Hoppen does not see this as his task. In his introduction Professor Hoppen states that he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately avoided a 'single overarchin g thesis' \(p. 3\). This is not to say that the book is not revisionist. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, throughout the volume Professor Hoppen brushes aside many of the contentious and speculative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoints which have flourished in post-war nineteenth-century British historiogra phy. Take his chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on society and the economy. The industrial bourgeoisie do not exist \(chapter 2\) , nor do the labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy \(chapter 3\). The standard of living debate is declared a draw, that is wages went up, but poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality of life persisted for workers until the onset of smaller families later in the nineteenth century \(chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\). The Benthamite state is seen off \(chapter 4\), as are the mid-Victorian boom, the great depression and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurial failure \(chapter 9\). Secularisation is rule d out as a purely twentieth-century phenomenon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter 12\). Even more myths are dispelled in the political chapters. Chartism, Professor Hoppen suggests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was torpedoed almost as soon as it began, by the moral energy of not only Peel and Russell, but, per haps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less plausibly, Melbourne \(pp. 129-31\). The reputations of most of the mid-Victorian political heavyweights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are downsized. The Peelites were 'highly strung athletes too nervous to respond to the starting pistol' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(138\), whilst Russell's Whigs were on their last legs after 1846 \(p. 140\). Their successors fare no better. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palmerston was a triumph, although not as a war leader \(pp. 165-6\), but because he avoided controversy \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199\) and only offended one group at a time \(p. 217\). In the 1860s and 1870s Gladstone - 'energetic surface )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbance and submarine stability' \(p. 601\) - and the policy-less Disraeli \(p. 613\), are revealed as less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic than their rhetoric suggested. Nor is Professor Hoppen very impressed by the big legislative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agendas of the period. Parliamentary reform made very little difference until the mid-1880s, as elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained violent, costly and parochial affairs \(p. 259\). The opening up of the civil service and the overhaul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the army and navy come over as expensive and only partially successful \(pp. 601-4\). Elsewhere sober )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctives are applied to Br itain's external relations. There was no coherence - no 'official mind' - behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial expansion, but there was no retreat from empire either \(pp. 155-8\). In foreign policy Palmerstonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('sleight of hand' \(p. 161\) and Disraelian grand 'gestures' \(p. 620\) blinded Britain from appreciating her loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental power status . Other topics, singled out for special attention by Victorian historians in past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, are similarly scaled down in importance. Although it receives a great deal of attention, Celtic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism is put in its place \(chapters 14-15\). For all their mili tant dissent and linguistic nationalism, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh proved tame Gladstonian liberals \(p. 555\). The Scottish complaint of a dispossessed Highland identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masked what was in fact an integrative and modernising economy north of the border \(p. 543\). Conservat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ive-minded small farmers are shown to have been the dominant force in Irish politics, as opposed to ardent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7831 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home-rulers \(p. 578\). The renowned sexual prudery of the Victorians is put into proper proportion \(p. 324\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Unionism comes over as a damp sq uib \(p. 688\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, revisionism of the hard-headed, no-nonsense variety runs through )] TJ ET BT 428.276 729.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mid-Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Generation)] TJ ET BT 88.676 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is a revisionism which is based on an enormously wide range of reading on Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoppen's part, as well as an even-tempered and judicious handling of the scholarship of so many fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. It is also a revisionism which reflects the concerns of Professor Hoppen's own generation. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Bentley has observed \('Doing it by numbers', )] TJ ET BT 295.304 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 425.300 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 April 1998\) there is at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times in )] TJ ET BT 75.356 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mid-Victorian Generation)] TJ ET BT 222.680 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an over-zealous reverence for the statistical certainties beloved by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative social history of the 1960s and 1970s. And as Jonathan Parry has pointed out \('Bovril and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biscuits', )] TJ ET BT 78.848 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lon don Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 200.840 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13 May 1999\) Professor Hoppen's sceptical treatment of party politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of Britain's place in the wider world bears the hallmark of the 'irreverent' political history of the 1970s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as post-1945 end of empire pessimism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But beyond this kind of piecemeal revisionism admirably scholarly yet iconoclastic in its own way - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Hoppen is reluctant to go. Rather than offering a new view of the period he has opted for what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls 'a series of linked interpretations which do as little violence to the essentially ragged and confused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the past as is compatible with understanding and good sense' \(p. 2\). This posture can be interpreted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a number of ways. It can be seen as a declaration of traditional scholarship. Perhaps all of the past is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ragged and confused', or perhaps the way historians write about it is 'ragged and confused'. In which case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the task of an Oxford history might be to offer a plausible and reliable guide through a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity and variety. This is Peter Mandler's verdict on )] TJ ET BT 315.476 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mid-Victorian Generation)] TJ ET BT 462.800 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 469.796 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(His tory)] TJ ET BT 73.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( vol. 18, Pt. 1, 1999\), namely that it is 'hard to imagine how else but traditionally such a textbook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be written'. It is also hard to imagine, amidst a dense and constantly changing field, how durable such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a text-book will prove to be. As Do nald Read tartly observed \()] TJ ET BT 336.968 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 462.968 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 14, February, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\), 'Ensor never went into a second edition in sixty years: Hoppen will need revision every five'. Or is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Hoppen saying that the mid-Victorian period, or indeed hi s allotted time-span of 1846-86, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniquely or especially 'ragged and confused'. This seems to be nearer the mark. He writes in the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages of the striking contradictions between the peace and understanding exemplified in the 1851 Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition and the outbreak of rabid anti-popery the same year, or the fact that the 'Liberal ascendancy' was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the firm foundations of an opposing political party:- the Peelite Conservatives. In which case there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been an argument when the new serie s was conceived several years ago for selecting an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative time period in which there were less contradictions. For example, the volume might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed the original Oxford series:- Woodward's 1815-70, or Ensor's 1870-1914, or, perhaps 1850-1900, s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ince, as Duncan Bythell has noted \()] TJ ET BT 204.320 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 328.964 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 52, May, 1999\) many of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments \(politics aside\) in Professor Hoppen's story take place after 1886, notably fertility decline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic climacteric, and, one might add, the impact of evolutionism \(most of the key figures cited are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all from the later 1880s and 1890s, i.e.: Pearson, Kidd, Galton, Hardy\). But perhaps the weightiest charge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(made, by implication, by both Dr Parry and Professor Bentley\) against this piece meal approach is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burden of writing an authoritative Oxford history has prevented Professor Hoppen from tearing from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leash and offering a wholly new interpretation rather than a resume of three decades of research. Text-books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need not be straitjackets. Paul Langford's eighteenth-century volume in the Oxford series - )] TJ ET BT 471.428 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Polite and)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commercial People)] TJ ET BT 129.668 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\) - has been commended for the freshness and originality of its interpretation, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it has provoked disagreement. And other recent histories of the Hanoverian era, notably Wilfrid Prest's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albion Ascendant)] TJ ET BT 119.012 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\) and Frank O'Gorman's )] TJ ET BT 268.304 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Long)] TJ ET BT 316.976 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 410.636 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\) are very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation-led, for better or for worse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem is not so much Professor Hoppen's caution or circumspection, as other reviewers have )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7779 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested, as the lack of any obvious paradigm by which mid-Victorian Britain might be readily understood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is relatively easy for eighteenth-century Bri tish historians to wade into contentious issues, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverberations of recent revisionist work such as Jonathan Clark's )] TJ ET BT 351.776 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 426.104 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1985\), John Brewer's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sinews of Power)] TJ ET BT 114.020 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\) and Linda Colley's )] TJ ET BT 245.168 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons)] TJ ET BT 280.508 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992\) are still being felt. By way of contrast, whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of Victorian Britain differ loudly over method and approach - witness the older skirmishes over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class, or 'high politics', or the more recent anxiety over the 'linguistic turn' - there has always been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising lack of debate over what were the dynamic forces or larger thematic issues in the period. To his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit Professor Hoppen does try to impose some fairly loose organising themes on his material. But they do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not work part icularly well. His 'linked interpretations' are threefold:- 'established industrialism' \(factory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing life had come to stay\); 'multiple national identities' \(the separate traditions of England, Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and Ireland\); and the 'interlocking spheres' of public culture. 'Established industrialism' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively undermined by chapters 2-3, in which it emerges that industrial enterprises remained small, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the middle class lived in non-industrial towns, and the typical worker remained an artisan, craftsman or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic servant, and not a textile worker. 'Multiple national identities' sounds fashionable, but is disarmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat by Professor Hoppen's revelation that in 1841 80.2% of the British and 55.7% of the UK )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population lived in Eng land, and by 1901 that had increased to 82.5 and 73.6 respectively \(p. 513\). In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, put Ireland on one side \(which in most respects Professor Hoppen is quite right not to do\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('multiple national identities' refers to under a fifth of the popu lation. Whither the English regions, asks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duncan Bythell, and wherefore English patriotism, wonders Jonathan Parry, and with good cause. Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('interlocking spheres' of public culture is rather undone by Professor Hoppen carefully showing in chapter 10 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just how separately leisure, family life and illness were experienced by different people in different regions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and from different social groups. Moreover, in chapter 11 it becomes clear that middle-class taste drove the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing commercialisation of publishing, painting and architecture, yet we are also told of the forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hack writers, producers of penny dreadfuls and gallows speeches who sold in their hundreds of thousands to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a largely working-class readership. Not much interlocking going on there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other themes are notable by their absence from Professor Hoppen's book, and consideration of some of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have made for a more interpretative account. Apart from evolution, the intellectual history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period is ignored, so the widely differe nt verdicts of, for example, Maurice Cowling and Stefan Collini, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature of Victorian 'public doctrine' cannot be addressed. There is not much on the religious impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social thought, so the influential reformulation of 'laissez-faire' which the work of Boyd Hilton and Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiener has produced goes almost unnoticed. Monarchy and empire \(that is, the effect of empire on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan culture\) get formal consideration, but are denied the extended attention that the arguments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine and John M. Mackenzie would suggest they deserve. Although Professor Hoppen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimises the idea of the state, its effective substitute, the voluntary sector \(friendly societies and trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions, philanthropy, and local government, especially in London, where t he pace of collectivism was so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much faster\), is not treated in detail. And the workings of Lords and Commons \(we now know more about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the representative system and the legislative process in the eighteenth century than in the nineteenth\) are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealt with as political narrative rather than problems in their own right. No doubt reasons can be given for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these issues not being included in this volume in more detail, but it would be interesting to know where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Hoppen stands in relation to those historians who have recently attempted to construct an single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arch over the Victorians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is Michael Bentley right? Has Professor Hoppen left the 'mid-Victorians more complicated than he found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them'. Not really. As Professor Bentley suggests elsewhere in his review, )] TJ ET BT 388.124 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mid-Victorian Generation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounts to a comprehensive, fair and i ndispensable review of the last thirty years of scholarly work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Professor Hoppen has rendered an older complex historiography more intelligible. The book will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly take its place alongside those other vital tools of the Victorian speciali st:- H.J. Hanham's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliography of)] TJ ET BT 112.688 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British History, 1851-1914)] TJ ET BT 242.360 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978\) and the )] TJ ET BT 318.344 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals )] TJ ET BT 515.984 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1966-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(89\). But Professor Hoppen has left the Victorians pretty much as Briggs, Burn \(whose sub-title Professor )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1313 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoppe n has taken as his own\), Kitson Clark and others found them in the 1960s - cushioned by prosperity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and national security, a society stabilised by a faith in British institutions and a common moral code, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only troubled by the dangers of democracy and imperial anxiety in the last quarter of the century. Only time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will tell whe ther or not the next generation wishes to leave the mid-Victorians in the same state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/77)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 316.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/936)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 316.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/77) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000005406 00000 n 0000005515 00000 n 0000005625 00000 n 0000005734 00000 n 0000009295 00000 n 0000009423 00000 n 0000009507 00000 n 0000009572 00000 n 0000017357 00000 n 0000017422 00000 n 0000025306 00000 n 0000025371 00000 n 0000033203 00000 n 0000033287 00000 n 0000034653 00000 n 0000034781 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34875 %%EOF