%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826080905+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826080905+01'00') /Title (African or American? Black Identity in New York City, 1784-1861) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5178 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(African or American? Black Identity in New York City, 1784-1861)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In March 2008, candidate Barack Obama made a speech in Philadelphia articulating his own views on race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the politics of the presidential campaign. In it, he stated that ?at various stages in the campaign, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators have deemed me either ?too black? or ?not black enough?.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.592 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.592 257.673 m 405.584 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 405.584 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Clearly, issues of political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial identity for African Americans are still both highly relevant and highly contentious today. This makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leslie Alexander?s tightly knit narrative of the development of two broad African American political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities an important contribution to the growing historiography. It joins such recent titles such as James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sidbury?s )] TJ ET BT 85.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Becoming African in America)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.996 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.996 200.649 m 244.988 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.988 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Patrick Rael?s )] TJ ET BT 322.976 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Identity and Black Protest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antebellum North)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.684 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.684 186.393 m 136.676 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.676 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Leslie Harris?s )] TJ ET BT 235.316 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1626-1863)] TJ ET BT 86.012 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.012 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.012 172.137 m 103.004 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.004 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Alexander describes the purpose of her research as examining the conflict between ?moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uplift? and African heritage and emigration in the development of political activism and nascent Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalism in New York City. She uses political activists? speeches from throughout the period, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing newspaper discourses, as her primary way into the politics of the black community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into seven chapters with a preface and epilogue. The first six chapters are organized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically, covering important political and antislavery developments in the city and wider country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander begins the first chapter in the wake of the American Revolution, tracing the roots of Pan-African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Black Nationalist theories to the African Society, black churches, and traditions such as parades and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(770)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leslie Alexander)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780252033360)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Illinois Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronwen Everill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.5917 257.9875 405.5837 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.9957 200.9635 244.9877 212.8435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.6837 186.7075 136.6757 198.5875 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.0117 172.4515 103.0037 184.3315 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7510 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burials. The African Society emerged in 1808, founded by the leading black activists in New York City, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the Reverend Peter Williams, Jr., John Teasman, elder William Hamilton, Henry Sipkins and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epiphany Davis. Although not overtly a political group ? it operated primarily as a mutual aid society ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander deftly shows how this organization came to be ?the most outspoken advocates for Black social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political rights in New York City? \(p. 14\). These leaders in the African Society continually argued for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black political and racial unity, although they differed about the methods for achieving this. Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines these differences in a set of speeches given at events in 1808 and 1809. These, she believes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent the genesis of the ?divide that shaped political debates among free Blacks for the remainder of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? \(p. 21\). The African Society leaders struggled between the extremes of unifying the community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under their common African heritage, or seeking to ?morally uplift? the community in order to prove to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white society their worthiness for freedom and political participation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The practical responses to these two ideologies become African or Haitian emigration on the one hand, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the other, commitment to winning black citizenship through education, demonstrations of patriotism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the War of 1812, the development of black cultural institutions such as the African Theatre, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued growth of the African Society and its auxiliary institutions. Chapter two looks at the period from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1810 to 1826. During this period, ?institution building, in particular, was a critical part of the [African] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society?s program? \(p. 46\) of creating a sense of black community in New York City and countering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endemic racism. Alexander details the rise and fall of the African Theatre, which was both popular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financially successful but faced the wrath of an angry white New York, forcing it to close in 1822. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black schools were protested by white New Yorkers who objected to the development of these parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. The constant racism and injustice, despite African American sacrifices during the War of 1812, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove some leaders to consider alternatives to remaining in America. Reverend Williams supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration to Sierra Leone along the lines proposed by Massachusetts merchant Paul Cuffe, or to Haiti as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solicited by Haitian President John Pierre Boyer. In this period, the divide between the two forms of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity was mutable: while the African Society sought to support the creation of a unified identity through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational, philanthropic and business development \(?moral uplift?\), it also ?continued to flaunt its African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heritage? with traditional parades marking important anniversaries \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These parades become the catalyst for a major rift in the black community in the wake of New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation. Chapter three is set in the period 1827?9, looking at the response to New York emancipation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the rise of the colonization movement. Parades feature heavily in this chapter, as the debate over how to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriately celebrate New York emancipation led to conflict between celebrating in a ?solemn proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner? \(p. 55\) \(the view of the ?moral uplift? camp\) or celebrating in the ?distinctly African fashion? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(57\) of parading. Although there appears to be a clear divide in the columns of John Russwurm?s newspaper, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom?s Journal, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the African Society?s moral uplift and ?the vast majority of Black New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yorkers? \(p. 55\) who supported parading, in fact Alexander points out that African Society leader William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton refers to his congregation as both ?citizens? of the United States and ?sons of Afric? [sic] \(p. 59\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as members of the African Society lead the parade despite their editorial stand against it. Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that the debate over parades did not end with the 1827 celebrations but continued over the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two years, with the ?moral uplift? camp eventually trumping ?African heritage? through a combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing white opposition, dissatisfaction with the realities of emancipation, and, as Alexander argues, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of the American Colonization Society \(ACS\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tying together the issue of parades and colonization, Alexander argues that in these crucial years the black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership ?reflexively defended their right to American citizenship and, in so doing, took a definitive step )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward embracing moral uplift as a strategy to obtain their goals? \(p. 54\) rejecting any remnant back-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa arguments endorsed by the ACS or its supporters in the black community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four is set in the 1830s and examines budding abolitionism. Alexander argues that opposition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ACS caused the re-emergence of the two strains of black activism in the form of Canadian emigration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by Reverend Peter Williams, Jr., or early abolitionism, favoured by William Hamilton and Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Bell. The Colored Convention movement of the early 1830s sought to reconcile the divergent halves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider African American political leadership, ?but dissension over strategy and ego-driven posturing also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7613 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented the Colored Conventions from maintaining a unified agenda? \(p. 95\). The failure of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement saw the rise of biracial alliances with William Lloyd Garrison?s abolition movement. Here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander turns to the broader black community in New York to show the impact of an anti-abolition riot in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1834. Beyond the damage and death caused by the riot, Alexander argues that this was a turning point in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political activism because it marked the end of Reverend Williams? political career \(he was asked to refrain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from political activity by his Bishop after the riots\) and the beginning of unified black abolition activity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York in the form of the Committee of Vigilance and similar groups that sought to prevent fugitive slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.562 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kidnapping in the city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The focus on abolitionism is continued in chapter five, which runs through the 1840s. Responding to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division in the national abolition movement ? William Lloyd Garrison?s non-resistance and anticlericalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led Arthur and Lewis Tappan to create their own political abolition movement ? the black leadership in New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York once again called for unity. Just as in previous decades, leaders struggled over which approach would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be practical for achieving suffrage in New York and the recognition of their citizenship. In this case the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(options were political non-resistance \(?moral uplift?\) or the fight for suffrage through the establishment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate black political conventions. With a new generation of leaders in Charles Ray, Henry Highland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garnet and James McCune Smith, Alexander argues that the tensions that defined the earlier movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted, as black New Yorkers continued to struggle with activist identification. The political struggle for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and unity was manifested in the divide between Frederick Douglass, who supported continued moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suasion and distrusted political antislavery, and Henry Highland Garnet, who became a staunch advocate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the abolitionist Liberty Party and led New York?s black suffrage movement. As in earlier eras, the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders seem to defy hard categorization, calling for political action while simultaneously shaping their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message in terms of moral uplift \(p. 109\) or endorsing political action while personally preferring moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uplift, as activist Charles Reason did \(p. 111\). This explains the ultimate decision amongst the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership to ?articulate a brand of Black Nationalism and move forward as a unified people? \(p. 119\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of the failures of the Liberty Party in national elections in the late 1840s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six is the last of the chronological chapters, examining the heightening of tensions in the 1850s in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lead up to the Civil War. The passage of the Fugitive Slave Act with the Compromise of 1850 saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African American liberty reach an all-time low. Not only were all African Americans now vulnerable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave catchers, but protecting them from kidnapping was deemed illegal. The )] TJ ET BT 406.952 385.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dred Scot v. Sandford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Supreme Court decision in 1857 further reduced African American rights, as all slaves were deemed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property, not people. Heightening sectional tensions also saw white New Yorkers turn on the black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community as they blamed them for destabilizing the Union. In the wake of all of this misery, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander writes that ?Black leaders emerged triumphant in the sense that they overcame ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes that had stymied their movement in previous decades and managed to build a unified Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition? \(p. 122\). This coalition emerged out of institutions such as the Committee of Thirteen, a group set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to oppose the Fugitive Slave Act; state conventions; and public meetings that sought to defend the rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of black New Yorkers to ride the streetcars. In a series of cases foreshadowing the Montgomery Bus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boycotts of the 20th century, Elizabeth Jennings, Sarah Adams, and Reverend J. W. C. Pennington refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to get down from segregated streetcars, eventually forcing the desegregation of the streetcars through a New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York State Supreme Court case in 1858. However, the difficulties of this decade forced a return to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument for a back-to-Africa approach, and coinciding with the independence of Liberia in 1847, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were willing to give emigration a second chance. Thus the ?African heritage? side of the debate finally re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged in the political sphere as the Liberian Agriculture and Emigration Society was founded, Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Highland Garnet endorsed Liberian emigration, and a national movement by Martin Delany to immigrate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa was established. Tensions between Garnet and the anti-emigrationists James McCune Smith, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick Douglass, and George Downing dominated the debates of the late 1850s. Here again, in response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to continued and persistent oppression in America, Alexander?s question of ?African or American?? comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the political forefront. While Alexander acknowledges that some chose to emigrate, she emphasizes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even in the face of these struggles, ?what emerged from these conflicts was the Black community?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to stay in the United States and agitate for its rights? \(p. 153\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven deviates from chronology to conduct a case study of Seneca Village, which existed from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7567 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1825?57. This chapter sets up Seneca Village as a microcosm of African American experience more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally in New York City, revealing the strategies of land purchase, institution building, and individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to community. The chapter features maps and illustrations of the community, detailed census )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data, and an examination of individual contributions to the community, as well as an argument for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(village?s importance as a symbol of success for those who chose to remain in America and gain suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the holding of property. The importance of churches and schools as community institutions is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined in detail. It is unfortunate that this episode is featured separately because it would have made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nice contribution to the overall narrative by stepping back from the purely political, top-down approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(featured in the rest of the book. Although perhaps spending too much time revealing a ?conspiracy? by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mayor to raze Seneca Village and construct Central Park, this chapter features excellent research on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase and development of a true black community in New York, with all of the cultural, social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political institution building that encompassed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strengths of this book are its adherence to its institutional focus, presentation of an exciting new case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of Seneca Village, and attention to the dynamism of African American politics in an age when formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political participation was nearly impossible. Alexander very neatly traces the trajectory of certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals as they emerge from their civic roles as pastors, teachers, and newspaper publishers to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly minted political figures. The rise and fall of their often overlooked early political groups ? the Colored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conventions, the New York Association for the Political Improvement of the People of Color, the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reform Board of Disenfranchised Commissioners, the National Council of the Colored People ? reflects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Alexander argues is the indestructible, but often politically divided, commitment to freedom, justice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and equality \(p. xx\). The level of detail given to both the successful and unsuccessful political movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helps to illustrate the challenges these leaders faced from both wider American society and within the black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activist community itself. Alexander also makes excellent use of a variety of interesting sources, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on Seneca Village was fresh and provided a new focus for the story. This case study gives the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sense of the parallel and equal development of culture, society, and politics in black New York.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite Alexander?s careful treatment of her political sources, there are times when it seems that she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading reality where there is only rhetoric. Part of the reason for her title, )] TJ ET BT 391.928 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(African or American?)] TJ ET BT 497.252 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the black community of New York was divided over issues of personal and group identification, leadership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and community coherence, as Alexander perceptively demonstrates in the first three chapters. However, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the weaknesses of this title and the frame for her argument proves to be that she wraps up this particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate over identity \(African or American\) through what she describes as a unified response to the rise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Colonization Society \(rather simplistically dismissed as ?evil? \(p. 77\)\). After this period, until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration is reintroduced as a possibility by the leadership in the 1850s, it is unclear what makes up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?African heritage? side of the debate, other than persistence in identifying with other people of African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descent within America. Only on the eve of the Civil War does Alexander return to the issue of African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heritage, pointing out that the black leadership ?may have been startled to notice that members of the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class had never fully abandoned African cultural practices? \(p. 138\). By using the rise of the ACS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a moment of clear break between the African and American arguments, Alexander does a disservice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued interest in Africa and African heritage that she admits \(later\) persisted throughout the period in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-political realm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This demonstrates the weaknesses of the political approach, which precludes what would be of enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value to this study: incorporating the perspectives of average New Yorkers. Alexander regularly identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissension and debate amongst the political leadership, but when writing about average people, groups black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Yorkers as a cohesive entity that acted uniformly, generalizing about their feelings and intentions \(?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black community began to publicly distance itself from Africa? \(p. 75\); ?the Black community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated its strength and resolve? \(p. 88\); ?Black New Yorkers refused to surrender? \(p. 135\); ?Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Yorkers were united in their decision to remain in the United States? \(p. 146\)\). If this was truly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, why did the political leadership constantly have to call for unity and action? While the framing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dichotomy of ?moral uplift? versus ?African heritage? may have been an overarching theme of African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American societal identification, there are many examples cited by Alexander that do not fit into these )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 4141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories, and even more cases where there was an apparent disconnect between political leadership and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general feeling of the majority of black New Yorkers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, while Alexander provides a generally fresh take on the cultural and social foundations of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York City?s African American political activism, her analysis highlights the need for further research on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how individual African Americans reconciled these dichotomies, provided to them by their political leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and white society, with the realities of their everyday lives. In the meantime, Alexander?s work elegantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the understanding of from where ? culturally, socially, and politically ? these rhetorical dichotomies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged and how they moulded political thinking and shaped the development of broad political identities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Huffington Post)] TJ ET BT 161.360 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18 March 2008 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.448 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.448 617.763 m 304.436 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Sidbury, )] TJ ET BT 140.348 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Becoming African in America: Race and Nation in the Early Black Atlantic)] TJ ET BT 501.980 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 589.251 m 149.000 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Rael, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Identity and Black Protest in the Antebellum North)] TJ ET BT 403.652 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.980 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.980 574.995 m 553.640 574.995 l S BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 560.739 m 90.344 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leslie Harris, )] TJ ET BT 132.332 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626?1863)] TJ ET BT 494.984 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 532.227 m 149.000 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_the_early_republic/summary/v032/32.2.capers.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 477.459 m 476.324 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.324 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 474.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 456.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 456.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/770)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 454.953 m 322.316 454.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 429.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3748)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_the_early_republic/summary/v032/32.2.capers.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.4477 618.0775 304.4357 629.9575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 589.5655 148.9997 601.4455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.9797 575.3095 553.6397 587.1895 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 561.0535 90.3437 572.9335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << 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