%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818141434+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818141434+01'00') /Title (Guilty Money: The City of London in Victorian and Edwardian Culture, 1815?1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4229 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Guilty Money: The City of London in Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Culture, 1815?1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appearing in the suitably Victorian-sounding imprint of Pickering and Chatto, as a volume in its ?Financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History? series, the financial historian Ranald C. Michie?s )] TJ ET BT 317.312 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guilty Money)] TJ ET BT 382.964 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ought to be timely work, given its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject matter. As ancient financial institutions crumble, national economies falter, and global capitalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences a collective wobble, a work that studies the City of London in its formative period appears to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfectly timed. As a monograph designed to explore the fictional representations of the City and high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finance in the Victorian and Edwardian periods, the study might also have been timely in harnessing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of digitised primary resources \(digitised national and regional newspapers, periodicals, and electronic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions of canonical and non-canonical works of literature\). It has never been so easy to study literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations from this era, so that the industry of a past scholarship in which a combination of stamina, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high boredom threshold and serendipity uncovered the material, is now superseded by the Google search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engine, and the more technically adventurous can now contemplate sophisticated ?data mining? of texts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the virtues of this work is that it brings to the reader a mass of obscure works of fiction featuring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City, or City-located characters. That this act of literary excavation is a labour of love performed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Michie, is made clear in his somewhat defensive preface, where he describes it as a ?product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsession and rejection? \(p. ix\). It is only natural that having devoted his career to studying the City as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(771)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 June, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranald Michie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781851968923)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickering and Chatto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Gregory)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8720 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?actually? functioned, he should be intrigued by what novelists ? in the age of the realist novel ? made of it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what this body of literature \(with short stories and other works of fiction\) says about the society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of the period, in its attitude to commerce, finance, and the getting and losing of wealth. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential themes such as anxiety about the worship of Mammon, the pursuit of respectability \(by shabby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genteel clerks and anglicised Jews\), the impact of ?character? \(whether individual or racial\), ?passion versus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prose?; and with such major events as the railway mania of the 1840s or the collapse of Overend and Gurney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1866, the subject is unquestionably important for students of British history over the long 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether Michie has uncovered amid these ?romances of financial fraud and city crime?, hitherto forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary gems is never made clear, since we rarely get any comments on the raciness or otherwise of the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined, so we are left to wonder if Emma Robinson, author of )] TJ ET BT 348.632 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The City Banker )] TJ ET BT 430.292 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1856\), for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be rescued by Virago from the enormous condescension of posterity. What of )] TJ ET BT 444.608 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ye Outside Fools!)] TJ ET BT 531.272 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the splendidly named Erasmus Pinto ? whose actual name was Latham Smith? Michie has certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovered some curios, such as the novel )] TJ ET BT 235.976 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ye Vampyres)] TJ ET BT 298.964 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( written by ?the Spectre? in 1875. And the fraudulent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies that feature in many of the works considered, certainly shows the novelists to have been inventive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their absurdities, from the Atlantis recovery scheme of Thorne?s and Custances?s )] TJ ET BT 440.936 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sharks)] TJ ET BT 473.600 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1904\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flooding of the Sahara in Rider Haggard?s )] TJ ET BT 240.308 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yellow God )] TJ ET BT 299.648 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1909\). Clearly many an author hoped that tales of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic gambles in the financial jungle would prove to be commercial, but Michie has not found any one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who aspired to be a George Eliot of the counting house or a Margaret Oliphant of the square mile \(he misses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that Oliphant?s )] TJ ET BT 148.664 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hester: A Story of Contemporary Life)] TJ ET BT 330.320 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 1883, features a female head of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bank\). Given the non-residential nature of the City as it developed, it is hard to imagine how a novel of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City could have competed with richly textured and closely observed novels in other settings. Nor was there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any attempt to create, it seems, a fictionalised ?hero of finance?, or eulogistic popular group biography in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vein of Samuel Smiles? )] TJ ET BT 150.680 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives of the Engineers )] TJ ET BT 260.672 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1867\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only truly great writers \(depending on one?s estimation\) who emerged from a brief City background and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, not until the end of the period, were Kenneth Grahame and P.G. Wodehouse. It would be interesting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascertain how many Victorian novelists did have a City background. With their plots centred on ruthless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financiers controlling the fate of nations the more far-fetched of these novels might be seen as the ancestors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conspiracy-driven airport novels. These were potboilers concerned with power, sudden reversals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortune, sallow-skinned villains, and snobbery. Did readers who consumed sensationalist accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City expect the reality to be sober?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michie?s study comes in the wake of such studies as James Taylor?s )] TJ ET BT 366.632 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creating Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 464.984 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Margot C. Finn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 150.356 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Barbara Weiss?s )] TJ ET BT 259.988 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hell of the English)] TJ ET BT 371.324 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1986\), and the special issue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading journal in studies of 19th-century culture, )] TJ ET BT 274.652 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 357.656 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on investors \(2002\) ? but these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars invoked but not sufficiently engaged with by Michie and a reference to argument by the ?likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson? is imprecise. There is no engagement, either, with the essays in the new edited collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Literature and Finance)] TJ ET BT 194.348 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which its editor Frank O? Gorman situates within a new scholarship of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?capitalist criticism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.004 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.004 245.859 m 149.996 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.996 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Michie?s study is professedly not a work of literary criticism or cultural history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for he is rather seeking to ?establish ? the place occupied by a financial centre in the culture of a nation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the degree to which that changed over time?. The economy?s relationship to British culture is the theme, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the conclusions that are reached are often rather strange: thus, ?by the mid-1850s? we learn that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?economy drove culture rather than the reverse? and the conception seems to be that ?culture? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?economy? are at times driven by separate impulses whereas many Victorians would have deplored the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the cash nexus and pursuit of Mammon showed that the culture was not distinct from the City.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The context of the history of the City, ?from community to business district, from commerce to finance, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from domestic to global? as one would expect given Professor Michie?s expertise, is provided with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assurance. The narrative of a zone increasingly given over to activities involving not commerce but credit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and capital, and which, from the 1870s onwards was accordingly judged on the basis of its functions, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly made. By the Edwardian period, the City was a global centre of finance which could be viewed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?alien? to the wider British culture, despite its significance for the Empire. Much of the book is spent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveying the content of the novels dealing substantially with the City, although works which allude to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.0037 246.1735 149.9957 258.0535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City in passing are also mentioned. The plots are summarised at length ? surely at greater length than many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them enjoyed in the press of the period, and usually at greater length than their convoluted and ludicrous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plots or aesthetic worth merit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the work is hampered by a number of conceptual and presentational problems. The work shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signs of incomplete proof reading, with titles appearing without italics, odd hyphenation, misspellings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such words as ?Lord Macaulay?, ?press?, sentences whose grammatical sense has been impaired by missing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, incomplete quotation marks, text which should be block quotation, and incomplete bibliographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail \(who, for instance, published )] TJ ET BT 206.324 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commercial Tales and Sketches)] TJ ET BT 359.972 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1864?\). Set in a small font, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too many unwieldy paragraphs which go on for over a page, adding to a sense in which the material ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually the plot of obscure novels ? overwhelms and drowns any analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are points of lesser importance when compared with some lapses in scholarship. Having set up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of the inquiry with such a cursory discussion of ?culture? \(defined at p. 7 as ?the collective ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and values of the population at a particular moment in time? and ?the prevailing collective culture?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the relationship between the ?reality? of the City and fictional representation \(?a reflection of the time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it was written and an influence upon those who read it?\), )] TJ ET BT 341.624 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guilty Money)] TJ ET BT 407.276 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thereafter fails to engage with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scholarly studies of Victorian finance in works of fiction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It also fails to situate the City within the wider society in any depth. We read, for instance, of the ?culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envy? and ?mistrust of money that was made through manipulating money itself?, and numerous instances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of prejudice about money-lending are cited, but informed discussion about the values of this Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(evangelical or otherwise\) nation is avoided. As O? Gorman notes in )] TJ ET BT 366.620 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Literature and Finance)] TJ ET BT 526.952 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first part of the 19th century, writers ?habitually associated financial reward with moral virtue?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.584 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.584 473.955 m 524.576 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surprisingly, there is no mention in )] TJ ET BT 207.020 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guilty Money)] TJ ET BT 272.672 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Boyd Hilton?s classic work on the ?Age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atonement?. Christian Socialism is not deemed worthy of mention when it comes to discussing Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingsley?s controversial novel )] TJ ET BT 185.660 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yeast)] TJ ET BT 211.664 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(and the reception of this work is not indicated\), though we get a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of Jesus campaigning to restore ?traditional doctrines?. A theme that runs through many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels is the impecunious peer, and the ability of money to break through barriers of exclusivity, but debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the decadent aristocracy and fears about the nouveau riche could have been more substantially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referenced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the elementary level of providing the reader with biographies of the writers considered and ? more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly ? some sense of the )] TJ ET BT 189.332 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reception)] TJ ET BT 234.656 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of their works, the study does not deliver the required information. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly there were authors whose metier was the City. John Oxenham?s name crops up on a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasions but we learn nothing about him \(his real name was William Dunkerley\). Edward Phillips )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oppenheim?s novels are discussed, but we learn almost nothing in Michie?s study, of the phenomenal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success in his hands, of the ?genre of romantic intrigue in high places? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.956 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.956 276.627 m 389.948 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.948 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and I suspect that the publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of two novels on financial themes in one year owed more to the author?s lack of inspiration and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive productivity, than to a desire to reflect the fact that the City ?was now such an established feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British life?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The City was a masculine world, as a clever but female character like Marguerite Wade ? unable to forge a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career for herself in the City ? in Hugh Stowell Scott?s )] TJ ET BT 300.308 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roden?s Corner)] TJ ET BT 379.304 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, found. Scott, who wrote as ?Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seton Merriman?, had spurned the career with Lloyd?s of London which his father had planned. Among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few female writers who appear in Michie?s study, the popular religious novelist Grace Pettman, with her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?feminist? character Margaret St Leonard in the novella )] TJ ET BT 305.276 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Study in Gold)] TJ ET BT 371.276 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1912\) perhaps warranted more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. Charlotte Riddell, we learn, attracted a loyal following for her novels of the City in the 1860s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, in an interesting quotation Michie makes from her novel )] TJ ET BT 330.980 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austin Friars)] TJ ET BT 395.324 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1870\) she point out that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of writers who have undertaken to portray business know nothing on earth about it?. A novelist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who depended on her literary earnings to support a bankrupt husband, she seems to be the closest we get to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an apologist for the City and commercial men ? and of course this is not the City as it had developed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900s.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.5837 474.2695 524.5757 486.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.9557 276.9415 389.9477 288.8215 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8229 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. W. M. Reynolds? political radicalism is not mentioned when referring to his )] TJ ET BT 417.980 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mysteries of London)] TJ ET BT 516.644 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it may have had a bearing on how the City was depicted in this early Victorian serial. The novelist and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic Sir Walter Besant?s beliefs are never discussed. Almost buried at the end of a gargantuan paragraph is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the observation, apropos of Besant?s )] TJ ET BT 213.320 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beyond the Dreams of Avarice)] TJ ET BT 360.620 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1895\), that this work ?was not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack on the City but a general criticism of the materialistic aspects of contemporary society, ?this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degenerate age?, in which money could buy everything apart from a happy family life and spiritual peace?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We learn in passing that the prolific Annie Swan?s novels fulfilled a ?moral purpose? and then that her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books were presented to Sunday School children though clearly she was not doing anything original in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(didactic role since Mrs Henry Wood had lectured her readers on ?speculative public schemes?. It might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been mentioned that Charles Lever was Irish given the plot of )] TJ ET BT 333.632 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Davenport Dunn)] TJ ET BT 414.620 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. C. C. Turner and A. H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beavan are quoted without explanations about who they were. Nor do the non-literary figures fare well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either, we learn next to nothing about the City financier John Sadlier or Baron Grant?s Emma Silver Mine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scheme of 1871 for instance, though Jabez Balfour receives more attention. Norman Angell gets a mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but his name is misspelled in the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More importantly, the possibilities of interesting connections between the financial and literary market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places are missed, although the market-orientation of the novelist is gestured towards \(might not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disgruntled attitude to mushroom wealth displayed by so many authors, stem from the poor returns to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made from being a writer?\). We learn that there was often an overlap between novelists and playwrights in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel and subject matter \()] TJ ET BT 178.652 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foul Play)] TJ ET BT 226.316 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was written by Charles Reade and the dramatist Dion Boucicault, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and produced as a play in two different versions; Boucicault also published a successful play about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of an American financial institution in 1857, )] TJ ET BT 292.988 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Poor of New York)] TJ ET BT 400.328 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, not noted by Michie\), but we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not get a sense of audiences, or the relative speed in which plays or books could be produced. Was it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheaper to see a play about speculation than to purchase or borrow a three volume novel? Reviews in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national and provincial press, and the quarterlies and other periodicals \(where, after all, as Michie indicates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the novels were first serialised\), would have enriched our understanding of how particular themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were treated by critics ? the success of works is rarely alluded to and too often ?the public? are invoked with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little evidence. Repeatedly we read of the ?impression conveyed?, but when is this: for Michie, or for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries? On one occasion we have the question-begging statement that the City was at the mercy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?fickle mood swings driven by newspaper headlines?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the handling of the literary outputs, Michie adopts the curious posture of treating the dialogue as ?reported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversations?, though ?clearly contrived and structured?, for ?[n]owhere else is it possible to recapture the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual dialogue of the Victorian era?. At one point he even writes of George Gissing?s )] TJ ET BT 451.256 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whirlpool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1897\), that a ?conversation is reported between two of the main characters?. They become for him the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent of serial evidence of sufficient continuity and depth to monitor changing cultural values, ?proxy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the beliefs and attitudes of their own generation?. Perhaps, but one does not get an indication here that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelists borrowed ideas and recycled plots, rather than simply acted as registers of changing public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes at particular moments: the methodological problems in collecting a mass of material by a disparate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of varyingly talented writers across a century are not attended to. Michie is also embarrassed, it seems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that novels are not collections of facts, which must be sought ?from other sources uncorrupted by the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertain?, a statement which shows that he has neglected the )] TJ ET BT 330.956 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(didactic)] TJ ET BT 369.620 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( role that Besant?s and others? novels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played. He has the odd notion that ?literary specialists? remain fixated on the ?few giants of the past? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies that the literary scholar ?reads meaning into what is being said?, unlike the historian, and seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine a fairly unproblematic relationship between ?the literary world and the real world? in Victorian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian novels since their authors drew on ?real life?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the summaries are curious, for instance the potted account of )] TJ ET BT 372.284 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dombey and Son)] TJ ET BT 454.268 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention Dickens?s irony in the passage quoted, ?The earth was made for Dombey and Son to trade in?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ends with the banal comment on the ruined Dombey, ?there is no suggestion that he was not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honourable man and that the business that he undertook was not of importance ? British culture had taken on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(board the fact that Britain was the greatest trading nation in the world, and that much was owed to City )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants for this success?. We get an unnecessary summary of )] TJ ET BT 344.936 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Ideal Husband)] TJ ET BT 432.260 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. When it comes to other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8925 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great novelists, it seems curious that we have no mention of their aims \(as far as literary scholars and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own records can suggest\): for instance, why did Conrad write his work )] TJ ET BT 376.952 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chance)] TJ ET BT 413.612 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1914? Is there really no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material on H. G. Wells which could enlighten us about the interplay between his Fabian socialism \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gets no mention from Michie\) and his novelistic depiction of capitalism? And, thinking of Fabian Socialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did G. B .S. discuss the City or depict financiers in any of his plays?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interesting themes certainly emerge in relation to the interplay between the real financial scandals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraudsters, and fiction. The ?railway king? George Hudson provided one larger than life character who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictionalised, with Robert Bell?s )] TJ ET BT 192.344 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ladder of Gold)] TJ ET BT 287.348 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1850 being an example. There are fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glimpses of the fictive nature of company prospectuses ? clearly cooked up, according to the novelists, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involving a finely judged typography of fraud. Michie reminds the reader of the specialised press which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed around the City and high finance, and the growth of knowledge about City activities through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of literacy ? a subject studied recently by Mary Poovey.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.960 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.960 626.259 m 352.952 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.952 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The plots of the novels studied by Michie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often feature, it seems, the figure of the corrupt financial journalist. Rightly, we read much of the company )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoter, but what of the )] TJ ET BT 159.332 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(literary)] TJ ET BT 195.332 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( promoter, also guilty of puffing up his product?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The interplay too, between theatrical and visual representations on the one hand, and novels on the other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also emerges. This ought to have been developed ? with more space devoted to analysing the response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Powell Frith?s works, )] TJ ET BT 184.352 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Road to Ruin)] TJ ET BT 247.688 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1878\) and )] TJ ET BT 306.008 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Race for Wealth)] TJ ET BT 404.996 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1880\), for instance, than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing us with ten pages of )] TJ ET BT 182.672 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Mammon)] TJ ET BT 272.660 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published by a brother of the popular religious novelist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Silas Hocking in 1912. After all, Frith?s figures of widow and clergyman caught in the fraudster?s web were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clichs of the genre, and Michie finds an echo of )] TJ ET BT 270.956 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Race)] TJ ET BT 315.944 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in literary work by Montagu Williams. In fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frith?s authorial intentions are given more space than any of the novelists get, presumably because his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography allows Michie to ascertain what the artist planned. The stock character of the ruined old maid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or parson had visual as well as literary form. The South Sea Bubble was famously depicted by Frith?s friend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. M. Ward in a Hogarthian ?A scene in Change Alley in 1720?, exhibited in 1847. The opening up, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digitisation, of satirical journals or comic magazines such as )] TJ ET BT 326.648 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 357.308 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 363.308 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fun)] TJ ET BT 382.640 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which Michie notes, published a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of cartoons completing Frith?s )] TJ ET BT 214.328 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race for Wealth)] TJ ET BT 292.316 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 302.312 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ally Soper?s Half Holiday)] TJ ET BT 429.308 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, etc., will provide a mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of visual representation \(and text\) to enrich the study of the City in Victorian culture. The lack of illustration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not a minor point, although Michie states that ?finance only rarely lends itself to visual display? since it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely that some of the novels would have had illustrations, but this facet is not considered. The )] TJ ET BT 494.312 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(melodramatic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emplotment is not analysed by Michie and the relationship between these potboilers and sensational stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plays is not really examined. Some work on the plays of the period \(with some consideration to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censorship which operated at the time\) would have been worthwhile. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By adopting a relentlessly chronological approach, the book becomes repetitious as the strategy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveying the plots of novels and short stories produces, not a sense of the subtly shifting or evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(littrateur?s approach to the City \(as Michie claims, and a point which I will return to\) but the vigour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype and hackneyed plot. A thematic approach would have been more useful to the reader, thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting analysis of the Jewish speculator, the down-at-heel son of a peer, or the role of religion, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clich of suicide. The plots themselves vary so little, apparently, that one wonders with what groans editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received the latest City novel, with its tales of fraudulent stocks and stock villains. As the humorist F. C. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anstey says, in )] TJ ET BT 110.012 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vice Versa)] TJ ET BT 162.332 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1882\), in a telling quotation from Michie, habitual readers would expect ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrival of a faithful cashier with news of irretrievable ruin, or a mysterious and cynical stranger threatening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disclosures of a disgraceful kind?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is hard, of course, to assess what impact the novels had, in the absence of detailed evidence about reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response. Michie suggests that Gissing?s novel )] TJ ET BT 263.000 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whirlpool)] TJ ET BT 332.672 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( enhanced ?fears about the risks involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment? and suspicions about the City but this is just a hunch. Essentially, the literary works are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilised to illustrate an interpretation which Michie has developed in which moments of acceptance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value of the City?s activities bubble up occasionally out of the general ignorance or hostility towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial world. Thus the railway mania and gold boom exert, in Michie?s reading, an impact on novels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are then marshalled to convey an impression of what the ?public? thought about the City in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods. We are told that a level of acceptance was enjoyed by the City in the period 1870 to the early 1890s, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.9597 626.5735 352.9517 638.4535 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 6841 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as evidenced by novels. We learn that the gold boom altered this in the mid-1890s. But it seems more likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?a view of the City as a centre of wasteful speculation akin to gambling? \(said to be reawakened in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1850s\) is in fact enduring, and that what is expressed is, as he occasionally acknowledges, deep-rooted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices and ?underlying antagonism?, about the Jewish presence in the City, for example. One thing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is striking if not surprising, from Michie?s account of the novels and stories, is the endemic anti-Semitism ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although he makes nothing of the irony of Edward VII?s philo-Semitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work concludes with a glance at novels published during and after the Great War. Here too, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to resort to plot prcis rather than analysis is not avoided. Some key points about the contrasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of manufacturing and industry in novels are made here, when they really ought to have been made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the start in the context of tackling the ?Weiner debate?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 112.676 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creating Capitalism: Joint-Stock Enterprise in British Politics and Culture, 1800?1870 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Woodbridge, 2006\), )] TJ ET BT 167.996 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Literature and Finance)] TJ ET BT 328.328 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. F. O?Gorman \(Oxford, 2007\), M. C. Finn, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit: Personal Debt in English Culture, 1740?1914 )] TJ ET BT 411.692 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2003\), B. Weiss, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hell of the English: Bankruptcy and the Victorian Novel )] TJ ET BT 358.664 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lewisburg, PA, 1986\), and the essays )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing under the theme ?Victorian Investments? in )] TJ ET BT 326.960 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 409.964 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 45, 1 \(Autumn 2002\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michie?s book presumably came out too late for him to cite the recently published article by Garrett )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziegler, ?The City of London, real and unreal?, )] TJ ET BT 294.296 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 377.300 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 49, 3 \(Spring 2007\), pp. 431?55, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it discusses a theme of )] TJ ET BT 220.004 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guilty Gold)] TJ ET BT 277.004 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the transformation of the City from, in Ziegler?s words, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?a place of lived and affective experience into a metaphor for commerce and a repository of public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labor? \(p. 431\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.996 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.996 460.947 m 191.984 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O? Gorman, )] TJ ET BT 126.332 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Literature and Finance)] TJ ET BT 286.664 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 13. See also C. Herbert, ?Filthy Lucre: Victorian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Money?, )] TJ ET BT 150.656 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 233.660 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 44, 2 \(Winter 2002\), pp. 185?213.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.304 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.304 432.435 m 454.292 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The phrase is William A. S. Sarjeant?s, ?Edward Phillips Oppenheim \(1866?1946\)?, )] TJ ET BT 472.964 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 227.024 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University Press, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.668 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.668 403.923 m 441.656 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Poovey, ?Writing about finance in Victorian England: disclosure and secrecy in the culture of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment?, )] TJ ET BT 128.012 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 211.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 45, 1 \(Autumn 2002\), pp. 17?41.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.672 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.672 375.411 m 425.660 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EH.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/guilty-money-city-london-victorian-and-edwardian-culture-1815-1914)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 320.643 m 504.944 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.944 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v053/53.1.ferguson.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 292.131 m 423.692 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.692 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 288.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 271.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 271.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/771)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 269.625 m 322.316 269.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 244.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3749)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/guilty-money-city-london-victorian-and-edwardian-culture-1815-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v053/53.1.ferguson.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.9957 461.2615 191.9837 473.1415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.3037 432.7495 454.2917 444.6295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.6677 404.2375 441.6557 416.1175 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.6717 375.7255 425.6597 387.6055 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 320.9575 504.9437 332.8375 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/guilty-money-city-london-victorian-and-edwardian-culture-1815-1914) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 292.4455 423.6917 304.3255 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v053/53.1.ferguson.html) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 269.9395 322.3157 281.8195 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/771) >> endobj xref 0 50 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000004958 00000 n 0000005067 00000 n 0000005177 00000 n 0000005286 00000 n 0000008847 00000 n 0000008975 00000 n 0000009059 00000 n 0000009143 00000 n 0000017916 00000 n 0000017946 00000 n 0000018074 00000 n 0000018110 00000 n 0000018201 00000 n 0000026275 00000 n 0000026305 00000 n 0000026433 00000 n 0000026469 00000 n 0000026499 00000 n 0000026627 00000 n 0000026663 00000 n 0000026728 00000 n 0000035010 00000 n 0000035094 00000 n 0000044072 00000 n 0000044102 00000 n 0000044230 00000 n 0000044266 00000 n 0000044392 00000 n 0000051286 00000 n 0000051414 00000 n 0000051469 00000 n 0000051597 00000 n 0000051652 00000 n 0000051780 00000 n 0000051835 00000 n 0000051963 00000 n 0000052018 00000 n 0000052145 00000 n 0000052290 00000 n 0000052417 00000 n 0000052547 00000 n 0000052675 00000 n trailer << /Size 50 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 52770 %%EOF