%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629144053+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629144053+01'00') /Title (War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4103 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reading the introduction to this book one may be forgiven for thinking that the title is somewhat misleading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a volume given to the examination of ?the processes of the making and breaking of peace treaties and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truces?, rather than to war \(p. 1\). However, though this is not a book that is concerned with the role of war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a traditional sense, it does do something far more important: it recognises that war and peace are two sides of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same coin. In doing so, all of the essays in this volume, to a greater or lesser extent, focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution that treaties, truces and negotiations made to political development, showing the legal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical and ideological framework as well as the more pragmatic limitations of military and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning in Ancient Greece, P. J. Rhodes investigates the various kinds of ambiguity found in treaties from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Greek world of the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Through an analysis of a number of agreements, Rhodes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the extent to which ?a treaty meant what its participants wanted it to mean?, while nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressing that these agreements did matter, particularly when they were reinforced by oaths \(p. 11\). He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the role of language in treaties, arguing that ?different states on different occasions? used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguous expressions with the intention of interpreting them to their own advantage \(pp. 24, 27\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This emphasis on realism and )] TJ ET BT 179.672 49.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 229.676 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is aptly followed up by Eduard Rung?s essay on Graeco-Persian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(776)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip de Souza)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John France)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521817035)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(260pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenny Benham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7321 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations from the 6th to the 4th century BC. Here, Rung examines how in this period diplomacy was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred by both the Greek states and the Persian kings in order to maintain a balance of power. This was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic and constantly evolving response to political circumstances from two sides whose capacities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct confrontations were reduced by numerous internal problems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to practices in the western Mediterranean, J. W. Rich aims to set out ?a novel conception of the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of treaties of alliance in the extension of Roman dominance in Italy? by showing that the orthodox view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all non-colonial Italian allies were tied to Rome by treaties is too simplistic \(p. 75\). Traditionally, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed that the Romans used two treaties of alliance ? the equal treaty \()] TJ ET BT 385.616 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(foedus aequum)] TJ ET BT 457.940 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the unequal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treaty \()] TJ ET BT 68.336 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(foedus iniquum)] TJ ET BT 142.004 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) ? but Rich shows that there was ?considerable diversity, ranging from specially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured nations to those whose treaty terms were harshly unequal? \(p. 59\). Rich concludes that while some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Italian allies may have been bound to the Romans by treaty, others may simply have been tied to them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through )] TJ ET BT 74.348 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(deditio)] TJ ET BT 107.684 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(an act of surrender\) or capture and subsequent restitution \(p. 70\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leaving practical diplomacy behind, Philip de Souza?s article investigates the role of the Roman emperor as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a maker of both war and peace. Through an analysis of the works of a number of well-known Latin writers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Souza explores the ideology and expectations on successive emperors from Augustus to Constantine as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful war leaders, fighting just wars in order to bring peace to Rome and her provinces. Achieving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success in performing this role was a delicate balancing act for the emperors, who frequently came under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure from the established aristocratic elite demanding victories, while at the same time having to appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to those in the provinces for whom peace, order and justice were more important.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving into late antiquity, A. D. Lee focuses on the mechanics of treaty making and on the strategies by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the late Roman empire dealt with its neighbours at a time when it was being seriously threatened to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the north \(by Germanic tribes\) and to the east \(by Persia\). Lee argues that dealings with these different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies had certain distinctive and individual features, notably the use of written treaties in dealings with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persia, yet, there were also some shared broader features. Hostages, for instance, feature in the empire?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with both its northern and Persian neighbours, even though they had quite different roles. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements with northern peoples, hostages were usually handed over as a guarantee for an extended period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while in Roman-Persian relations they served only ?as short-term guarantees until the implementation of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement? \(p. 116\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Staying in the same period, Michael Whitby explores the role of good faith and trust in Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy. Whitby shows how in this period diplomatic structures emerged between Rome and Persia so as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to facilitate more regular and formal contacts. Between these two established powers there were tangible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefits to appear to be trustworthy, but Whitby argues that the Romans did not expect their European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?barbarian?\) neighbours to be as reliable as the Persians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Holmes continues the investigation into Byzantine practices through a discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic relations between Byzantium and the Islamic world during the 10th and 11th centuries, arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it can reveal much about frontier governance in this period. Holmes argues that Byzantine rule in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East has often been represented as being founded on a principle of ?persecution of non-Greek Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations by a rigid and unresponsive administration run from Constantinople? \(p. 146\). Refuting this, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using the 969 treaty of Aleppo as her model, Holmes shows that the Byzantines were often very flexible in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their relations with Muslims, deploying tribute agreements and ?gradual absorption of local administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political structures? \(p. 156\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using a comparative approach, John France investigates the conduct of combatants attacking castles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortified sites showing how though it is too early to speak of the ?Laws of War? in the 12th century, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were nevertheless unwritten rules guiding the actions of warring sides. France argues that in the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West, ?despite occasional acts of brutality?, the principals in wars usually extended mercy to one another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because wars were controlled by aristocratic elites who had links and ties of loyalty with other similar elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 161\). In the Latin East, however, France concedes that wars between men of different religions tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a bitter edge. Yet, in both the East and the West, ?practical military necessity usually obliged all sides )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7120 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to support the conventions of surrender? \(p. 171\). For instance, it was usually understood that besieged could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiate better terms the earlier they gave in and, similarly, that ?any fortress that held out to the end was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its attackers? mercy? \(p. 172\). Thus, France?s study shows that attacks on castles and fortified sites may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have dominated medieval warfare, but they presented such formidable problems for both attackers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defenders that both sides were often pre-disposed to negotiations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two essays in this collection deal with events in the Medieval West. Richard Abels turns to a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed problem with wider implications, namely how peace was made between a settled kingdom and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluid and changing group of raiders; the Vikings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.652 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.652 683.283 m 282.644 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.644 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He argues that dealing with these enemies presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular problems for kings because of a conceptual difference in what constituted peace and because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viking chieftains ?were not usually territorial kings and their forces were not a people? \(p. 179\). Making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace with one chieftain and his men did not, hence, guard against attacks by another Viking band. Abels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that peacemaking with such foes could only be successful after a demonstration of military strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and when Viking leaders sought to redefine themselves as territorial rulers. The point is aptly proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through an analysis of agreements concluded between Anglo-Saxon rulers and Vikings between the 9th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 11th centuries. ?In short?, Abels concludes, ?when Viking leaders had something to gain from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making and keeping peace with English rulers, they did so? \(p. 192\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Esther Pascua?s piece on 12th-century peacemaking between kings in the medieval West traces the process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of centralisation of royal power and the role played by war and negotiations in that development. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the practices of the nobility and their ?principal strategy? of ?multiple services to different kings? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 202\), arguing that in such a political environment, agreements ?were tools to define political equality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to subordinate the nobility to political and territorial frameworks? \(p. 210\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War and peace are familiar terms to historians, yet secondary literature is still skewed in favour of the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these concepts. As a book dealing firmly with both of these topics, this volume will make a welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the secondary literature. Indeed, there is much to commend in this collection of essays. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are clearly written, arranged in a logical manner and there is a good bibliography. Certainly, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest features of the book is the fact that each article can be easily followed by non-specialists on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject or the period. This feature is also one of the most interesting aspects of the volume, and, I suspect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of its more enduring characteristics, for there is a wealth of material here for the historian to ponder, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will allow him or her to compare and contrast practices across a long time period and a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical area. For instance, the investigations by Rung and Lee into the mechanics of diplomacy will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal to historians of the Medieval West not just those of Ancient Greece and late antiquity. Similarly, de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Souza?s article surveying Latin writings on the ideology of war and peace is of great interest to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular historian of 12th-century Europe. These are just three examples from a volume with 11 fine essays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some examples, see Ryan Lavelle, ?Towards a political contextualization of peacemaking and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace agreements in Anglo-Saxon England?, in )] TJ ET BT 294.968 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace and Negotiation: Strategies for Coexistence in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Middle Ages and the Renaissance)] TJ ET BT 243.656 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. Wolfthal \(Turnhout, 2000\); R. Abels, ?King Alfred?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace-making strategies with the Vikings?, )] TJ ET BT 273.980 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Haskins Society Journal)] TJ ET BT 390.632 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 \(1991\); Niels Lund, ?Peace and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-peace in the Viking Age: Ottar in Biarmaland, the Rus in Byzantium, and Danes and Norwegians )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England?, )] TJ ET BT 127.676 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Conference, Larkollen, Norway, 1985)] TJ ET BT 467.324 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. E. Knirk )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oslo, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.676 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.676 151.827 m 181.664 151.827 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 136.495 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 118.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/776)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 117.321 m 322.316 117.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 92.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3754)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.6517 683.5975 282.6437 695.4775 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.6757 152.1415 181.6637 164.0215 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 117.6355 322.3157 129.5155 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/776) >> endobj xref 0 25 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004778 00000 n 0000004887 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005106 00000 n 0000008667 00000 n 0000008795 00000 n 0000008879 00000 n 0000008944 00000 n 0000016318 00000 n 0000016416 00000 n 0000023589 00000 n 0000023619 00000 n 0000023747 00000 n 0000023783 00000 n 0000023911 00000 n 0000023966 00000 n 0000024094 00000 n trailer << /Size 25 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24189 %%EOF