%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930035318+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930035318+01'00') /Title (God?s Executioner: Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4353 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(God?s Executioner: Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The civil wars that engulfed the three kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland in the mid-17th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain a battlefield, and generation after generation they retain a capacity to provoke passionate debate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heated historical controversy. Within this field, however, there is probably no single individual more likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to generate historiographical heat than Oliver Cromwell, utterly convincing analysis of whose complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality continues to elude even the greatest of scholars. And within scholarship on Cromwell and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwellian period there is no more controversial topic than his attitude towards, and activity in, Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s name retains the capacity to inflame passions, and in at least some quarters he has become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synonymous with religiously inspired brutality and atrocity, with something little short of ethnic cleansing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with tyranny and military dictatorship. At the same time, however, he is capable of making the ?top ten? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a 2002 BBC poll of ?greatest Britons?. It was perhaps inevitable, therefore, that the 350th anniversary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s death in 1658 would be commemorated, and that it would revive questions about his reputation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book represents one of the most substantial and very best pieces of history to emerge from this latest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of academia?s penchant for anniversaries. Siochr has produced the finest kind of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history; a work that is both challenging for academic specialists and capable of reaching out to a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience. The book is, on the whole, written in a crisp and concise fashion, and makes an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical contribution without becoming bogged down in historiographical debates. It also benefits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from generous production values, with a number of valuable maps, a detailed chronology \(albeit only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(777)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Siochr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780571218462)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faber and Faber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jason Peacey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7731 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering 1649?53\), and a healthy number of glossy portraits of Siochr?s main protagonists. Perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably, however, such an attempt to traverse the scholarly and popular markets creates certain tensions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it might even be suggested that there are actually two different books here; one a judicious reevaluation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a crucial and contested period of history, and the other a controversial and contentious reading of some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most bloody episodes in English and Irish history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This tension is aparent from the very outset, in terms of the very description of the book on the cover and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title page. The cover, with its reproduction of Robert Alexander Hillingford?s 19th-century portrayal of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense, scowling ?ironside?, reads )] TJ ET BT 203.984 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 422.648 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, something which is then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically sexed-up to become )] TJ ET BT 195.980 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God?s Executioner)] TJ ET BT 288.296 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the title page. The latter hints at a provocative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of Cromwell, but even the former might be considered a misleading guide to the content of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siochr?s book. In reality, this is not a book about Cromwell, or even the Cromwellian period. It is a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Irish aspect of the British civil wars, from 1641 to the mid-1650s, and the Cromwellian massacres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupy amazingly little space. An alternative title might be )] TJ ET BT 320.648 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civil War and Conquest in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 487.652 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would do much more justice to the nature of Irish, as well as three kingdoms history during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, and to what is an immensely important contribution to our understanding of a period which is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only contested, but also amazingly complex.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(this)] TJ ET BT 64.352 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book, Siochr is at his best, guiding readers briskly but not at all simplistically through more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade of blood and politics. He makes intelligible Irish politics, in terms of the relations between gaelic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish, Old English Catholics and New English \(later ?Old Protestant?\) settlers, in terms of the tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between different interests and different policies, and especially in terms of whether or not to strike a deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Charles I, and on what terms. Siochr interweaves military and political history, analysis of factions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and personalities, and events not merely within the three kingdoms but also across continental Europe, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least with a brilliant discussion of the Duke of Lorraine and possible foreign intervention in Irish affairs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a remarkable achievement, based upon a wealth of original research, and genuine expertise. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to say, of course, that Siochr has ?merely? produced the kind of brief and comprehensible narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the kind that generations of students and teachers have needed. Indeed, his book contains an original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation that builds upon recent scholarship \(much of it by Siochr himself\), and one that will not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find universal agreement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, of course, there is the vexed issue of ?nationalism?, and the possibility of detecting nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclinations in Irish politics in the early 1640s. Siochr is surely right to argue that historians have in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past overplayed the division between the Old English and the native Irish, and yet too much interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight may be argued to have been placed upon comments like those made in 1644, to the effect that ?he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is born in Ireland, though his parents and all his ancestors were aliens, nay if his parents are Indians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turks, if converted to Christianity, is an Irishman as fully as if his ancestors were born here for thousands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years? \(p. 33\). This sounds very much like a rhetorical flourish emanating from an attempt to build a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political coalition, of the kind that historians should be wary of accepting at face value. Moreover, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Siochr is careful enough to avoid the pitfalls of interpretations which either make early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irishmen sound too much like modern nationalists, or too quickly dismiss the possibility of ?nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendencies?, he nevertheless insists that it is possible to detect ?a sense of corporate or national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism?, and ?a shared sense of patriotism between those living in Ireland and the exiles on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continent? \(p. 34\). However, it is surely difficult to extend such analysis very far, given the necessity of also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognising that loyalty was at the same time being professed to the Stuart monarchy, as well as to Rome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, too much emphasis might be argued to have been placed upon role of the papal nuncio, Rinuccini, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in hardening the factional divisions within the confederate Catholic community. Thirdly, even if Siochr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is right to highlight the defects in Ormond?s personality and policy, more probably needs to be done to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justify the idea that Irish fortunes might have been very different with Owen Roe O?Neill in command of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contested though such arguments will obviously remain, they obviously constitute a very serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the scholarly literature, as well as a top quality example of how history can be targeted at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger audience without too many compromises being made in terms of recognising complexity, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7588 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivering uncomfortable truths, not least by recognising that some Catholics served in the New Model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army in the 1650s. There are grounds for arguing, however, that the same rigour and balance is not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained, and that the book occasionally becomes a rather different, and highly contentious treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English attitudes towards Ireland. This emerges to a degree regarding the 1641 rebellion, but much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously in relation to the Cromwellian conquest, and the massacre at Drogheda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways, Siochr?s treatment of the Irish rebellion is incredibly valuable. He makes the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point of distinguishing between the aims and intentions of men like Sir Phelim O?Neill, who initiated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rising, and the actions of the forces which were mobilised in the process. Inspired in part by the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covenanters, O?Neill and his allies were clearly engaged in plotting, in order to ?gain control of the kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and negotiate with the king from a position of strength? \(p. 23\), but only sought a ?limited strike? \(p. 24\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quickly sought to distance themselves from the ?rabble? which committed atrocities against Protestants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This much is evidently true, as is the emphasis upon the way in which the atrocities were aggressively and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleadingly spun to an English audience, who were inundated with cheap pamphlets containing sensational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories, dramatic illustrations, and stastistical estimates regarding the number of Protestants killed that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only wild exaggerations, but literally incapable of being true. Siochr is also perfectly right to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many more people died from exposure to the elements than from murderous attacks \(although their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having done so after being dispossessed and stripped of their clothes scarcely makes such behaviour less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atrocious\), to point out that violence escalated after the military response began to take shape and retaliatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks began to take place, and to stress that as many Catholics as Protestants may have died during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion. Nevertheless, it is hard not to read these passages of Siochr?s book without sensing that, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressing the ?indiscriminate? nature of the anti-Catholic reprisals \(p. 26\), he has failed to do justice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of anti-Protestant violence. He comments upon the existence of ?a number? of atrocities against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers, but fails to indicate that these displayed visceral anti-Protestantism, rather than merely murderous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawlesness. Little room is found for the stories, apparently verified by both sides, of physical and verbal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks upon copies of the vernacular Bible, that most potent symbol of the Protestant reformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where this arguably leads is towards a picture of English attitudes towards the Catholic Irish that is rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricatured, and very much at odds with the subtlety of Siochr?s analysis of Irish politics. Thus, while it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is certainly true that England abounded with ?wild rumours?, and ridiculous stories, and that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate and vicious campaign to exploit the rebellion, and to stir up support for a concerted military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response, and indeed a land grab, it might be too much to argue that popular pamphlets ?fanned hysteria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the English population at large? \(p. 28\), and that ?a gullible public, horrified yet titillated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gruesome tales emanating from Ireland, accepted uncritically these wildly exaggerated stories of death and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutilation? \(p. 29\). If only it were possible to be so confident about the ways in which readers responded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such material, or to make such confident generalisations about public opinion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On these most contentious episodes in a contentious age, every word and sentence requires very careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice and formulation, and Siochr?s argument occasionally becomes rather too bold. This is also true of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cromwellian campaign during 1649?50, where Siochr makes some brilliant observations ? not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to build upon the idea that Drogheda reveals the complexities and difficulties of Cromwell?s character ? at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time as some tendentious readings of evidence. For Siochr, Cromwell was a man who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?uncritically accepted? the horror stories regarding the rebellion, and the claim that the rebellion had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification or back-story \(p. 19\), and who was determined to exact revenge upon the Irish Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, irrespective of their involvement in the rising. It is obviously true that evidence from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depositions relating to 1641 was repackaged and recycled in 1649 \(as it would be in 1652\), as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of developing English policy towards Ireland, and there clearly was a strand within English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant attitudes which held that ?God hath marked out that people for destruction?, as William Hickman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote in 1650 \(p. 63\). The difficulty, however, is in making sense of Cromwell?s own comments, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the evidence relating to Drogheda. What are we to make of Cromwell?s August 1649 proclamation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibiting soldiers from harming civilians, or his willingness to execute soldiers who engaged in pillaging, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the light of the events at Drogheda, and Cromwell?s claim that the episode represented ?the righteous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgment of God upon those barbarous wretches, who have imbrued their hands in so much innocent blood? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 84\)? Which is the real Cromwell? Siochr argues that the latter is more representative of Cromwell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude, and that the former represented ?prudent military practice?, motivated by ?necessity? \(p. 79\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Siochr also concedes that Cromwell was operating within the boundaries of accepted military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice by refusing quarter to a garrison which refused to surrender. There is also some mileage in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that Cromwell sought to use exemplary force prudentially at the start of his campaign, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(nave\) hope that this would undermine the resolve of his enemy, and that he could prevent ?the effusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blood for the future? \(p. 85\). Moreover, Siochr may be too confident about the possibility of separating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fact from fiction, and reality from propaganda, be it parliamentarian or royalist? \(p. 83\), and some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most disturbing evidence of atrocities ? the apparent killing of Sir Arthur Aston by soldiers under Daniel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axtel )] TJ ET BT 63.680 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(after)] TJ ET BT 86.348 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( quarter had been given ? comes from highly problematic sources, and does not directly implicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As such, we are surely left with something of a puzzle. The nature of this mystery is not whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign involved brutality, because that much is certain, and there is of course the evidence that unarmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians were killed in Drogheda. There must be some doubt over whether Cromwell himself wrote the list )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those killed, with its now famous comment that ?many inhabitants? lost their lives, but no doubt at all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such evidence came from within Cromwell?s camp, and was willingly published by sources close to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English government. Nor does the mystery involve whether or not the Cromwellian campaign revealed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigotry, because that much is plain too, from the pens of Cromwell and others. But what remains unclear is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether or not Cromwell was personally conflicted, and Siochr himself presents the evidence ? not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?remorse and regret? expressed regarding Drogheda \(p. 85\), and the claim not to want to meddle with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciences ? with which to construct such an interpretation. And this would, of course, fit very neatly with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much else that we now think about the man, as a result of the work of John Morrill and Blair Worden. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also unclear is whether or not the broader Cromwellian campaign was ever so simple as to be characterised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?a war of extermination? \(p. 85\), in which ?the accepted military conventions did not apply in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholic Irish? \(p. 88\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There might be more mileage in arguing that the Cromwellian campaign reflected a complex mixture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military necessity and political prudence, which of course pulled Cromwell and his forces in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions, as well as a large degree of anti-Catholic bigotry, which was both a matter of conviction and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical weapon for mobilising soldiers. Cromwell?s response to the declaration in which the Irish bishops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed that the New Model Army intended to ?extirpate the Catholic religion? from Ireland, and to do so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the ?massacring or banishment of the Catholic inhabitants? \(p. 107\), arguably revealed all three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of this mixture. Cromwell insisted that Irishmen who laid down their arms could enjoy the liberties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Englishmen, that those who refused faced ?utmost severity?, and that justice and fairness was something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had been ?endeavoured?, if not always achieved \(p. 117\). This complexity is in many ways precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Siochr identifies in the period after 1650. Although he perhaps underestimates the degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reticence about the conquest in radical and sectarian thought, and rashly proclams that ?the vast majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion in England enthusiastically supported the enterprise? \(p. 64\), he nevertheless emphasises the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different visions displayed by different factions and different individuals, whether in terms of Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleetwood and Henry Cromwell, or Vincent Gookin and Richard Lawrence. The policy of transplantation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the brutal treatment of Catholic clerics, was genuinely terrible, but it did not secure complete support in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English and Protestant circles, and there genuinely appear to have been some Englishmen who believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism, and particularly the Catholic church, was much more of a problem than Irishmen in general, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if others, most obviously within the army, were apparently incapable of making such distinctions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What would have made this excellent book a really great work, therefore, would have been a truly consistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of the standards of scrupulous, judicious, open-minded and balanced scholarship that Siochr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets for himself, and demonstrates in the vast bulk of his analysis. On the most frightening episodes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish theatre of war complexity sometimes gives way to overly crude characterisations of English attitudes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which bring out the undoubted brutality and bigotry of the age, while perhaps failing to recognise the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which men like Cromwell were conflicted, and demonstrating more than merely virulent anti-Catholicism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More broadly, it might have been worth supplementing a highly valuable appreciation of the Irish rebellion, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1897 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which reveals its inherent comprehensibility, if not exactly inevitability, with a more vivid religious back-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story, which would help readers to recognise that visceral intolerance and hatred ? like military atrocities ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed on both sides, and already had a long heritage by 1641.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/aug/24/history)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 711.795 m 295.016 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irish history)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.theirishstory.com/2010/08/29/book-review-god%E2%80%99s-executioner/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 454.640 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.640 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/777)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3755)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/aug/24/history)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.theirishstory.com/2010/08/29/book-review-god%E2%80%99s-executioner/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 712.1095 295.0157 723.9895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/aug/24/history) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 683.5975 454.6397 695.4775 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.theirishstory.com/2010/08/29/book-review-god’s-executioner/) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/777) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000005059 00000 n 0000005168 00000 n 0000005278 00000 n 0000005387 00000 n 0000008948 00000 n 0000009076 00000 n 0000009160 00000 n 0000009225 00000 n 0000017009 00000 n 0000017074 00000 n 0000024715 00000 n 0000024780 00000 n 0000032382 00000 n 0000032480 00000 n 0000034430 00000 n 0000034557 00000 n 0000034660 00000 n 0000034787 00000 n 0000034911 00000 n 0000035039 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35134 %%EOF