%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721095402+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721095402+01'00') /Title (Republic of Drivers: A Cultural History of Automobility in America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4422 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Republic of Drivers: A Cultural History of Automobility in America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cotten Seiler, Associate Professor of American Studies at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written a challenging and ambitious book that is designated to appeal to a range of scholars in Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies, Cultural and Historical Geography, American and Social History, Literature and Literary Criticism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political and Social Theory and Sociology. He aims to examine how driving a car or a private motorised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vehicle has come to be ?part and parcel? of modern American identity. It is a well-known fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans, unless they live in a major metropolitan city such as New York City, have a disability that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impedes driving or are too poor to afford a vehicle are wedded to their cars. Seiler wants to show that driving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has become identified with citizenship and that the United States has become a republic of drivers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the 20th century was drawing to a close, historians and other academicians started to take a greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in researching automobile history, rather than paying so much attention to rail transport and travel. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What was a relative dearth of scholarship, not so much on the production of cars and automotive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurs, but on the use of these vehicles, has more recently turned into a welcome body of books and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles examining a variety of aspects of automobility ranging from car design, to industrial relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through car salesmanship and on to gender and literary and filmic analysis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.956 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.956 88.857 m 407.948 88.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.948 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Relatively little of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, however, has followed the ?cultural turn? and has used critical theory and post-structural analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly because many authors have come from a tradition of labour history, business history or transport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(778)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cotten Seiler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226745633)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Walsh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.9557 89.1715 407.9477 101.0515 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.352 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.352 795.075 m 84.344 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.344 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Certainly all of these historical strands are well aware of the impact of the cultural approach, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have preferred to see this as another tool in their research and writing rather than as the essential and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying basis from which to argue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seiler sets out to write a different narrative. He states that his book?s ?essential questions are cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical and political, not automotive nor technological, nor even psychological, narrowly defined. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects of inquiry are the )] TJ ET BT 156.992 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(affect)] TJ ET BT 183.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(author?s italics\) generated by driving and the instrumentalization of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affect under shifting regimes of liberalism and capitalism in the twentieth century? \(p. 2\). In other words he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wishes to examine how driving has made Americans feel, think and act and to describe ?the way of being in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perceiving the world around us ? organised and reinforced by driving? \(p. 3\). Driving has become a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component of the American character and is an essential part of the modern form of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism. Indeed the image on the book?s cover reflects the all-encompassing mantle of the car for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans because readers are invited to view the road ahead from behind the wheel and at night.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does Seiler make his case? He selects two periods of automotive history for analysis, the pioneer years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1895 through the 1920s and the post-war boom years of the 1950s. Both of these periods witnessed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise in car sales and the development of highway infrastructure and both experienced a crisis in or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renegotiation of individualism. Seiler argues that the first period witnessed the acceptance or more likely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of driving as a way of life. Indeed he suggests that mass automobility had arrived by 1929 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the car was already perceived to be the agent of transforming characteristics for Americans. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer age the automobile had the capacity to give American drivers the ?sensations of agency, self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination, entitlement, privacy, sovereignty, transgression and speed? \(p. 43\). Such features facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishment of automobility as a public good and ensured its growth as an ?apparatus? or an all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did this happen? The advent of strong organisations early in the 20th century threatened the demise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign selfhood, which was deemed to be a key quality of the American character. The new political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy was seemingly tied into co-operation rather than personal independence. Americans needed to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new way of expressing themselves within or against organisations, whether these were the growing power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of government, the tyranny of the factory regulated by scientific management or masculine dominance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public arena. Driving a car could give primarily white middle-class and working-class men a sense of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty in a world of economic abundance. They had the freedom and increasingly the ability to choose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among a range of consumer goods and brands. Driving offered a new means of masculine expression even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it was bound by traffic regulations. For women driving offered the potential of freedom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation from housework. It also suggested fashionability, self-determination and competence. Driving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women might well still be a numerical minority, but there was now an alternative model of femininity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compatible with women?s new political status.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving to the 1950s, Seiler extends his thesis about cars and self-expression. These were the years in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(car registrations rose from 40 million to 62 million and when there was one automobile for every three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persons.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.676 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.676 233.859 m 87.668 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.668 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In order to keep pace with the abundance of vehicles, the federal government authorised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building of the interstate highway network \(1956\), giving Americans not only a modern route for trans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental mobility, but also an express route. For Seiler this massive expenditure and the consolidation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new level of automobility can be perceived as an American response to the Cold War struggle between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism and communism. Here was a conflict between two irreconcilable political ideologies; the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States was committed to the freedom of the individual and the Soviet Union was based on the centrality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collective will. Some Western European countries were also experimenting with socialism. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans and their government the ensuing ideological struggle required a re-formulation of and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupation with individualism and the ?vitality of American individualistic virtues? \(p. 70\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of the interstate system was not exclusively a result of Cold War anxieties, but it was a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalyst. Driving on these super highways could distinguish Americans from Soviets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Driving could also be a counterbalance to the managerial culture that had been consolidated by the triumph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American industrial capitalism during the Second World War and the following years. Bureaucracy and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3517 795.3895 84.3437 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.6757 234.1735 87.6677 246.0535 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7445 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic communities had come to dominate both business management and political life and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual, whether a white, blue or pink collar worker, was increasingly required to conform in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeed or to survive. American consumers were also persuaded into conformist quiescence by a barrage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising, even though this differentiated between brands of goods and services. Driving, however, could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaffirm autonomous individuality. It was capable of re-fashioning this key quality of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality to fit in with the modern corporate model of organisation. Drivers might be constrained by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniform traffic regulations and find that access to interstate highways was limited, but they were free to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express themselves in flexible ways within these porous boundaries. There was an element of freedom on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(road which offset ?the organization man?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The peculiar combination of flexibility and coercion for American drivers leads Seiler into some interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemmas connected to citizenry. The 1950s may not have been well known as an era of civil rights in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same way as the following decade, but the roots of the equality struggle were visible, perhaps more so for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African Americans than for women and ethnic minorities. Seiler recognises the black American pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal automobility by devoting a chapter to examining the risks, perils and pleasures of African Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when driving and owning a car. As fitting with his cultural approach to history he uses midcentury travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides published between 1936 and 1957 as an entry point to demonstrating how racial attitudes and policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted. These texts provide insights into the complex and often contradictory language and ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black Americans traversed the public space of the road and joined the expanding culture of automobility. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discrimination, violence and intimidation sit side by side with greater access to both vehicles and the roads, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially beyond the confines of the American South. It was impossible to deny access to increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standardised spaces like interstate highways and black Americans behind the wheel could approach first-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class citizenship, if driving was a requirement for that status.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women were seemingly not offered this type of first class citizenship because driving was still perceived to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a masculine activity despite the rising numbers of female drivers. In the 1950s anxieties about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminisation of American culture, the decline of rugged masculine traits and the perceived transformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American society into a matriarchy suggested that men could and should continue to claim authority and self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression through their motor vehicles. Suburban women might need access to the family vehicle in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to run the modern household efficiently, but they were deemed at best to be timid drivers. More likely they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were inept drivers who should not be trusted behind the wheel and they continued to be the butt of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humour. It didn?t matter that women were safer drivers; cars really belonged to men and driving was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of expressing tough masculine characteristics. It will remain for a cultural analysis of the later years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 20th century to examine how the substantial increase in registered female drivers, women?s financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to buy their own vehicles and the female presence in automobile manufacturing has altered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered perceptions of good American citizenship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic)] TJ ET BT 76.676 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( of Drivers)] TJ ET BT 128.672 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is essentially a history of an important aspect of American thought and culture. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(automobile and more particularly the act of driving is the vital ingredient of change which allows the re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulation of key national characteristics, most notably individualism and self-reliance in an age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, bureaucracy and global politics. Mobility is also another indispensable component of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamism and democracy and the changing face of motoring offers new and inventive ways of considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it is to be an American. In surveying, amalgamating and moving on from a vast array of sources Seiler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has suggested many thoughtful pathways for considering American notions about the self and the social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political community. He draws as much, if not more, from theoretical and philosophical writings as he does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from automotive texts and archives. As such he offers a treatise that will be read and used more by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and cultural historians and those in the interdisciplinary area of American Studies rather than by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transport and business historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the book is well researched and executed and will doubtless be received as offering a clever and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced argument, it is not always easily digestible. Readers need to be fully conversant with both theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and empirical materials drawn from diverse disciplines in order to engage fully with the narrative. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pity. There is a potentially large general, let alone academic audience for a volume which discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans? love affair with the car and how automobile use became so crucial to American identity. Many )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7133 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans and many who live elsewhere who are concerned about the prospect or the possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following American trends could profitably read this volume. But they may become discouraged by the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural language and the assumption that everyone respects critical theory. Some historians may also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question the decision to use two particular periods of automobility from which to argue and whether indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass automobility had arrived by 1929. Nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 292.652 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic)] TJ ET BT 335.312 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( of Drivers)] TJ ET BT 387.308 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is likely to become compulsory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading for anyone researching automotive history and may well become a major text for American Studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students who are trained to think in interdisciplinary ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author does not wish to respond to this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Virginia Scharff, )] TJ ET BT 235.304 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taking the Wheel. Women and the Coming of the Motor Age)] TJ ET BT 525.608 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1991\); David Gartman, )] TJ ET BT 209.324 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Auto Opium. A Social History of American Automobile Design)] TJ ET BT 510.308 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1994\); Ruth Milkman, )] TJ ET BT 205.352 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Farewell to the Factory: Auto Workers in the Late Twentieth Centur y)] TJ ET BT 542.336 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, 1997\); Kathleen Franz, )] TJ ET BT 231.308 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tinkering. Consumers Reinvent the Early Automobile)] TJ ET BT 488.624 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\); Tom McCarthy, )] TJ ET BT 178.676 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Auto Mania. Cars Consumers and the Environment)] TJ ET BT 425.672 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, 2007\) and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven M. Gelber, )] TJ ET BT 155.000 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horse Trading in the Age of Cars. Men in the Marketplace)] TJ ET BT 437.312 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.304 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.304 546.483 m 556.964 546.483 l S BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 532.227 m 90.344 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notable exceptions are Deborah Clarke, )] TJ ET BT 259.292 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Driving Women. Fiction and Automobile Culture in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth- Century America)] TJ ET BT 200.672 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore 2007\) and Georgine Clarsen, )] TJ ET BT 400.304 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eat My Dust. Early Women )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Motorists)] TJ ET BT 110.024 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, 2008\). Work on tourism, especially if grounded in sociology, has been much )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more willing to engage with modernist cultural approaches. See, for example, )] TJ ET BT 439.952 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tourism Mobilities)] TJ ET BT 531.632 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Places to Play, Places in Play)] TJ ET BT 208.664 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Mimi Sheller and John Urry \( London, 2004\) and essays in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Being Elsewhere: Tourism, Consumer Culture and Identity in Modern Europe and North America)] TJ ET BT 534.992 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shelley Baranowski and Ellen Furlough \(Ann Arbor, 2001\). See also John Walton, ?Transport, travel, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism and mobility: a cultural turn?, )] TJ ET BT 252.680 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Transport History)] TJ ET BT 392.360 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 27 \( 2006\), 129?34. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.680 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.680 418.179 m 546.668 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For statistics on automobile registrations and drivers see United States Department of Transportation, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Federal Highway Administration, )] TJ ET BT 228.668 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Highway Statistics. Summary to 1995)] TJ ET BT 409.004 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Washington DC. 1997\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FHWA-PL-97-007 and )] TJ ET BT 178.664 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Highway Statistics 2000)] TJ ET BT 295.340 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Washington DC, 2001\) FHWA-PL-01-1011.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.316 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.316 375.411 m 557.312 375.411 l S BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 361.155 m 78.008 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_studies/summary/v050/50.1.mccarthy.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 306.387 m 427.676 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.676 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 277.875 m 270.668 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 274.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 256.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 256.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/778)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 255.369 m 322.316 255.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3756)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_studies/summary/v050/50.1.mccarthy.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=405114)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.3037 546.7975 556.9637 558.6775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 532.5415 90.3437 544.4215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.6797 418.4935 546.6677 430.3735 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.3157 375.7255 557.3117 387.6055 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 361.4695 78.0077 373.3495 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 306.7015 427.6757 318.5815 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_studies/summary/v050/50.1.mccarthy.html) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 278.1895 270.6677 290.0695 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=405114) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 255.6835 322.3157 267.5635 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/778) >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005132 00000 n 0000005241 00000 n 0000005351 00000 n 0000005460 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000009233 00000 n 0000009262 00000 n 0000009389 00000 n 0000009425 00000 n 0000009516 00000 n 0000017221 00000 n 0000017251 00000 n 0000017377 00000 n 0000017413 00000 n 0000017443 00000 n 0000017569 00000 n 0000017605 00000 n 0000017670 00000 n 0000025168 00000 n 0000025301 00000 n 0000032487 00000 n 0000032615 00000 n 0000032670 00000 n 0000032796 00000 n 0000032851 00000 n 0000032979 00000 n 0000033034 00000 n 0000033162 00000 n 0000033217 00000 n 0000033343 00000 n 0000033398 00000 n 0000033525 00000 n 0000033654 00000 n 0000033781 00000 n 0000033897 00000 n 0000034025 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34120 %%EOF