%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141222160159+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141222160159+00'00') /Title (Solidarity Without the State? Business and the Shaping of the Swiss Welfare State, 1890?2000) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4276 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Solidarity Without the State? Business and the Shaping of the Swiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Welfare State, 1890?2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until recently, the mixed economies of the welfare state in general and of social insurance in particular were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a neglected issue in social and economic history. The historiography of the welfare state concentrated mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the public side of social policies, namely on the development of social insurance, neglecting the parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds of commercial and mutual insurance. This blind eye is the consequence of a disciplinary dichotomy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of insurance is traditionally divided between the disciplines of social or labour history on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side, concentrating on the history of the welfare state or the mutual insurance of the working class, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic or business history on the other side, dealing, albeit often very marginally, with the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial insurance. Under this disciplinary framework, welfare state history usually told the story of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public institutions of social security, leaving out the interdependencies between public and private insurance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the 1990s, this )] TJ ET BT 136.352 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(etatistic)] TJ ET BT 174.356 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( approach to the history of the welfare state has been increasingly challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by an emerging scholarship that combines the perspectives of private and public insurance into a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex picture of mixed welfare systems. The groundwork for this new field of research was prepared by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comparative welfare studies of the 1980s, such as Peter Flora?s collaborative project on the growth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western European welfare states, and the consequential need to explain the fundamental variations between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national systems of social insurance. Among the seminal findings of recent research is that the national-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(779)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthieu Leimgruber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521875400)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(330pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Lengwiler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8565 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific relations between the state and the private sector, more specifically between the institutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, mutual and commercial insurance, are key factors in explaining the variations among the welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems of Western countries. This is the conclusion of a whole series of recent studies \(often inspired by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Baldwin?s path-breaking )] TJ ET BT 184.988 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Social Solidarity)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.336 752.307 m 334.328 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 334.328 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), such as those on the two-tiered system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British old-age provision by John Macnicol and Pat Thane )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.324 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.324 738.051 m 349.316 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.316 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the works on the role of commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurers in the history of health insurance and of old-age insurance in the USA by Jennifer Klein and Jacob )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hacker )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.660 709.539 m 85.652 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 85.652 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the analyses of significant local and occupational social policies in the history of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state by Paul Dutton or Timothy Smith.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.676 695.283 m 276.668 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most prominent countries in the current political debates about mixed welfare economies is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Switzerland. It has several typical two-tier \(or even three pillar\) insurance systems, notably in health and old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age insurance, which have been seen as relatively lean and sustainable. Since the 1980s, the )] TJ ET BT 477.248 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swiss model)] TJ ET BT 536.252 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often been cited as a blueprint for welfare reforms, and has been recommended by international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development \(OECD\) and the World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bank.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However until recently the history of the Swiss welfare state has attracted hardly any scholarly interest. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research lacuna has now been closed by this work by Matthieu Leimgruber, a historian currently at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Geneva, who examines in his dissertation the history of old-age insurance in Switzerland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of its famous three pillar principle. The book, aptly titled )] TJ ET BT 382.628 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Solidarity Without the State? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Business and the Shaping of the Swiss Welfare State, 1890?2000)] TJ ET BT 344.684 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, offers the first thorough historical account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a central part of the Swiss welfare state. The public old-age insurance, the so-called AHV \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung)] TJ ET BT 225.992 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or old-age and survivor insurance\) is indeed the most popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution of the Swiss welfare state and seen as a crown jewel of the social insurance system, comparable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British National Health Service or the German )] TJ ET BT 277.976 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rentenversicherung)] TJ ET BT 373.952 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(public old-age insurance\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument of the study is convincingly structured. It starts with analysing the role of the Swiss model in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent political debates about welfare reforms, explaining how this laggard turned out to be a pioneer. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laggard because the referendum feature of the Swiss political system guaranteed that every major decision in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formation of the welfare state had to be accepted in a popular vote ? a crucial barrier in a fiscally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative country with a strong federalist tradition and a variety of minorities critical of centralised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventionist policies. Hence the basic paradox of the history of the Swiss welfare state. Since the 1880s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel to the first Bismackian welfare state legislation, the radical and liberal political elites of the Swiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confederation strongly supported the full adoption of the German system of social insurance ? in this sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Switzerland was part of the European avant-garde in the development of social insurances. However, when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to implementing their ambitious goals, the elites of the Confederation were confronted with a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeats at the ballot box, beginning with the first big project in social insurance, a combined law for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accident and sickness insurance, which was clearly defeated when first submitted to a referendum in 1900.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old-age insurance met a similar fate, as Leimgruber?s book elaborately explains. The argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishes three periods in the development of Swiss old-age insurance. The first period includes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years between 1890 and the beginning of the First World War, the formative period of Swiss welfare history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or in the authors? words, the years of )] TJ ET BT 214.976 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dress rehearsal )] TJ ET BT 292.304 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the later periods. These years brought the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ballot defeats and clearly showed that the construction of a social insurance system was a difficult, intricate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project. Thus since the 1890s, the political elites in Switzerland opted for a step-by-step strategy. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social insurance would include social protection against accidents and sickness, whereas the scheme for old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age insurance was scheduled for a later period, after this initial protection had been implemented. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment was delayed by the First World War, following the successful establishment of the national accident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurance after the second vote on that project in 1912.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second period in Leimgruber?s narrative is that from the First World War to the eve of the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War in 1938. Leimgruber speaks of a )] TJ ET BT 249.632 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(foundational )] TJ ET BT 313.976 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era for the later system of old-age insurance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although old-age insurance, after the end of the First World War, featured prominently on the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, the establishment of the planned system proved to be more difficult than expected. The first step was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.3357 752.6215 334.3277 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.3237 738.3655 349.3157 750.2455 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.6597 709.8535 85.6517 721.7335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.6757 695.5975 276.6677 707.4775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still successful. In 1925, the electorate accepted a new constitutional article granting the federal authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right to legislate in the field of old-age insurance. The second, more important step however failed. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1931, a year already marked by the spread of the Great Depression, voters clearly defeated the law for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed old-age insurance at the ballot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book argues that this blockade for the statutory insurance scheme did not amount to a complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standstill. Since the First World War, the political authorities had pursued a complementary policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confronted with the obstacles for implementing a statutory insurance scheme, the national government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided to support the establishment of private forms of old-age insurance, notably occupational pension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemes, through a policy of tax exemptions. This policy proved hugely successful. During the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, many enterprises invested part of their wartime profits in corporate welfare funds. After the war, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federal tax exemptions were prolonged and the system of occupational pensions continued to grow in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-war period. From the mid 1920s, it was clear that the planned statutory scheme for old-age insurance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have to take into account this parallel system of occupational pensions, for example by integrating it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a two-tier insurance model. That was the situation in 1931, when the first law for statutory old-age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurance was defeated. The demise of the public insurance scheme opened the door for a further expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of occupational pensions, in particular during the Second World War. At the same time, the plans for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national old-age insurance were postponed again ? this time for nearly two decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third period, between 1938 and 1948, is seen by Leimgruber as the decisive moment for the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Swiss model of old-age insurance. As in the First World War, the buoyant wartime economy initiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a boom for the occupational pension funds. But this time, the war also offered a window of opportunity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishment of a new public insurance system. Immediately after the war broke out, the government set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a compensation system for military personnel to pay for their lost salaries. Financed by payroll taxes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(equally paid by workers and employers\), the compensation system represented a social contract between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workforce and the soldiers. It quickly grew into the biggest branch of the Swiss social insurance system. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And after the turning point of the war in the winter of 1942?3, it became clear that the system would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulate greater reserves than the insured soldiers would need. Thus, the political establishment sought a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of transforming the system of wage compensation into a different branch of the welfare state. As old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age insurance was undisputedly the number one priority of the political elites, the decision to transform the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wage compensation scheme into a new national old-age insurance scheme was taken quickly. Finally in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1948, the statutory old-age insurance, the AHV, began to operate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Leimgruber points out in his longest and most convincing chapter on the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wartime and post-war expansion of the Swiss welfare state was a far cry from the Beveridge-inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms in Britain or the establishment of the )] TJ ET BT 253.328 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(scurit sociale )] TJ ET BT 331.316 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France. The Swiss reform differed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other countries in two respects. First, the expansion was limited to old-age insurance; a systematic reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including sickness insurance and family allowances failed because of the resistance of entrenched interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups such as the national medical association or the employers? associations. Second, the new statutory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old-age insurance was designed from its beginnings as an institution complementary to the system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational pensions. That was the result of the intense lobbying activities of the association of pension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funds and of the private life insurance industry against any project of an expanded public insurance scheme. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eventually, the state pensions, paid out by the AHV, hardly reached the level of subsistence. The basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pension by the state only made sense when combined with an occupational pension that normally reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the previous level of income. This was the moment when the concept of a )] TJ ET BT 390.956 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(two-pillar model )] TJ ET BT 474.296 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of old-age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision officially came into being.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth period outlined by Leimgruber covers the first decades of the post-war era, reaching from 1948 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1972. This era is marked by a consolidation of the two-pillar solution and its extension by a third pillar, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which consisted of a gradual rise of tax-exempted individual annuity insurances. Thus at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period examined by the book, in 1972, the Swiss voters accepted a new constitutional article that canonised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Swiss system of old-age provision and codified it as the )] TJ ET BT 322.328 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(three-pillar model.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is only the core argument of a well-written study that offers a fascinating, often thrilling insight into the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 3917 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested policies of old-age provision in Switzerland. Another advantage of the book is that it amply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualises the Swiss case by side-glances at other countries, notably Britain and the United States. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of Leimgruber is required reading for everyone interested in the fragmentations of modern welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems and in answering the question of how this complex story can be understood in history and the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sciences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Baldwin, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Social Solidarity: Class Bases of the European Welfare State )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1875?1975)] TJ ET BT 118.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 632.019 m 269.324 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Macnicol, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Retirement in Britain, 1878?1948)] TJ ET BT 376.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1990\); Pat Thane, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old-age in English History: Past Experiences, Present Issues)] TJ ET BT 359.312 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.960 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.960 603.507 m 494.948 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Klein, )] TJ ET BT 138.332 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(For All These Rights. Business, Labor, and the Shaping of America?s Public-Private )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Welfare State \(Princeton, 2003\); Jacob Hacker, Health at Risk: America's Ailing Health System ? and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How to Heal It)] TJ ET BT 135.680 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.988 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.988 560.739 m 283.976 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Dutton, )] TJ ET BT 127.688 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of the French Welfare State: the Struggle for Social Reform in France, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914?1947)] TJ ET BT 118.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2002\); Timothy B. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 311.696 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France in Crisis: Welfare, Inequality, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Globalization since 1980)] TJ ET BT 184.688 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.008 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.008 517.971 m 335.996 517.971 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 502.639 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 484.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 484.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/779)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 483.465 m 322.316 483.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3757)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3357 632.3335 269.3237 644.2135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.9597 603.8215 494.9477 615.7015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.9877 561.0535 283.9757 572.9335 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 282.0077 518.2855 335.9957 530.1655 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 483.7795 322.3157 495.6595 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/779) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005114 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000005333 00000 n 0000008894 00000 n 0000009022 00000 n 0000009106 00000 n 0000009211 00000 n 0000017829 00000 n 0000017859 00000 n 0000017987 00000 n 0000018023 00000 n 0000018053 00000 n 0000018181 00000 n 0000018217 00000 n 0000018247 00000 n 0000018373 00000 n 0000018409 00000 n 0000018439 00000 n 0000018567 00000 n 0000018603 00000 n 0000018668 00000 n 0000026175 00000 n 0000026287 00000 n 0000030257 00000 n 0000030385 00000 n 0000030440 00000 n 0000030568 00000 n 0000030623 00000 n 0000030751 00000 n 0000030806 00000 n 0000030934 00000 n 0000030989 00000 n 0000031117 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31212 %%EOF