%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140918050415+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140918050415+01'00') /Title (Sex and the Gender Revolution: Volume One: Heterosexuality and the Third Gender in Enlightenment London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3975 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sex and the Gender Revolution: Volume One: Heterosexuality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Third Gender in Enlightenment London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the first aspects of the history of gender to be extensively researched has been, unsurprisingly, sex. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent meeting ground of the sexes, historians have shown how attitudes towards and practices of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercourse reveal fundamental cu ltural assumptions about gender difference. But it is not only heterosexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity that is relevant. Even before gender became a popular subject among historians, Randolph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trumbach's work on male homosexuality in eighteenth-century London contributed the important insight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that beliefs about homosexuality are a constituent part of understandings of gender difference. This book, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first of two volumes \(the second will examine 'the origins of modern western homosexuality'\), develops his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments with material amassed during more than twenty years of research. It appears at a propitious but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably contentious time, for sex in the eighteenth century is a hot topic, and this book will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compete with several other recent and forthcoming public ations on prostitution, illegitimacy, and sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main argument of the book will be familiar to those who have read Trumbach's earlier articles. Around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1700, stimulated by 'the emergence of individualism and equality', a 'new regime of sexual relations for men' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(78)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Randolph Trumbach)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226812908)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(528pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.press.uchicago.edu/presssite/metadata.epl?mode=synopsis&bookkey=43233)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago and London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert B. Shoemaker)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed. Those men who had sex w ith other men or boys became marginalised and labelled as 'sodomites' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the 'third gender'\), and all other men assumed an exclusively heterosexual identity, with their sexuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by the need to prove that they did not desire other men, while maintain ing their superiority over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women despite experiencing greater intimacy with them. This change had important consequences for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extramarital sex in London: seeking to affirm their heterosexual masculine status, men resorted to prostitutes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in greater numbers , as 'a new, heterosexually inspired prostitution' developed, and it led to high rates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimate births and the spread of venereal disease. Violence towards women, both in the form of rape and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife beating, although not new, was also encouraged by these changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next generation these patterns were both reinforced and somewhat modified by the growing influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sentimental, romantic and domestic ideas among the middle and upper classes. Attitudes and the practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of prostitution changed as prostitutes came to be seen more as a separate class of women, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimentalised, and became the targets of attempts to reform rather than punish them. Some men became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more faithful to their wives, and some became less violent. Nonetheless most men, driven by t he need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove their heterosexual identity, continued to consort with prostitutes, thereby facilitating the spread of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venereal disease to a substantial proportion of the population. Influenced by romantic ideas, elite wives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(started to form adulterous l iaisons with men, either servants or friends of their husbands, whom they met in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their homes. 'By 1750 the entire system that this book has described was fully established'. \(427\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious web of arguments, and they are supported by extensive research in legal records \(of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consistory Court, Quarter Sessions, and the Old Bailey\), notably depositions, examinations and accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trials; the records of charitable i nstitutions \(the Foundling and Lock Hospitals\); printed literature including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets and newspapers; and letters and diaries. As such, this book provides the most extensive and richly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented treatment of eighteenth-century sexual behaviour ever p ublished. The sources are effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to shed light on a wide range of subjects, including \(in addition to those discussed elsewhere in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review\) the changing ideological basis of male libertinism; the geography of London's brothels; the origin s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Foundling, Lock and Magdalen Hospitals; the shift in the significance of adultery from an issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public concern to a domestic tragedy; attempts to cure venereal disease \(notably the belief that men could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cured by having sex with prepubesce nt women\); contrasting courtship and illegitimacy patterns found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four metropolitan parishes; changing attitudes towards infanticide; the central role played by male violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in courtship and seduction; the various strategies for marital dissolution i n different social classes; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of marital violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In assessing the overall argument, two questions need to be asked. First, has Trumbach convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented the changes that he says took place? And second, has he correctly identified the causes of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes? Trumbach certainly has identifie d many important transformations in sexual attitudes. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing condemnation of any form of homosexuality and the concurrent development of a homosexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subculture in early eighteenth-century London were documented in his previous articles \(and will be covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in volume 2\) and they have been confirmed by other research. Similarly, the arguments concerning changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards prostitution, and towards female sexual immorality more generally, with the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in female sexual passivity and the tendency to treat prostitutes as victims, fit in well with the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other historians. The analysis of defamation cases convincingly shows that women continued to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned about defending their sexual reputations longer than men, thus provi ding evidence of the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerance of male heterosexual promiscuity. The overall decline of defamation cases may reflect the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief that women's sexuality was too delicate a matter to be discussed in public, though the argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistor y court judges and lawyers discouraged prosecutions is not substantiated. The increasing influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of romantic ideas on the lives of the upper and middle classes, documented in divorce cases, is also unlikely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prove controversial. But the arguments con cerning the changing nature of prostitution and illegitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are less convincing. Here we come up against a fundamental problem that confronts historians of a subject as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal as sexuality, the limitations of the evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is plenty of evidence of )] TJ ET BT 180.644 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(concern )] TJ ET BT 222.296 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the growth of prostitution, especially streetwalking, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century London, but Trumbach fails to consider whether elite discourses, or the records of law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement, can satisfactorily docum ent changing patterns of activity in the world's oldest profession. It is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7726 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not convincing to argue from such evidence that there was 'a new, heterosexually inspired prostitution' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. This would certainly come as a surprise to histo rians of sixteenth- and seventeenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century London, and in any case demands an explicit comparison with prostitution in the earlier period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is not attempted. The arguments about the changing character of prostitution during the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, that it developed as a subculture separated from conventional life, are based on similarly thin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, such as the patterns of sureties prostitutes presented when bound over by recognisance \(women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became less likely to be bailed by members of their own families\). Since the recognisance was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common method of prosecuting prostitutes \(most were punished with a commitment to a house of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correction\), this evidence must be of limited relevance, especially since we know so little about the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sureties were chosen and approved by justices of the peace, and how what constituted an acceptable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surety might have changed over the course of the century. Trumbach is more cautious when arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased levels of illegitimacy were another consequ ence of the new male heterosexual identity, but here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too there is danger in reading the examinations of the mothers of bastard children too literally, and failing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make allowances for the fact women may have constructed stories for their examiners which , by portraying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as helpless victims, maximised their chances of obtaining help.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In assessing whether Trumbach has correctly identified the causes of changes in heterosexual behaviour we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to his central point, that the root cause of 'the new male heterosexuality' was the emergence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('third gender', the sodomite, in the ear ly eighteenth century. But here at the core of his argument there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of a vacuum, since, with the exception of some prosecutions for sodomitical assault and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blackmail in the Quarter Sessions and Old Bailey records, there is very little direct e vidence to support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention that heterosexual men's attitudes towards sex in the eighteenth century were fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by their fear of being labelled a 'sodomite'. Of course there is plenty of evidence of increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility towards male ho mosexuals, but this is not sufficient to prove the central contention that men's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct towards their wives, mistresses and prostitutes was entirely shaped by this fear; that this is why, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, men consorted with prostitutes. Here we come up aga inst some significant limitations of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. First, it is explicitly a study of )] TJ ET BT 213.368 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(extramarital)] TJ ET BT 273.368 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sexual relations, not simply because such behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced the best evidence, but also because Trumbach alleges that 'the history of modern male het )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erosexuality is substantially a history of extramarital relations'. \(13\) By failing to consider men's sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct with their wives \(except where it involved violence\) Trumbach has ignored in a book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexuality the vast majority of the heterosex ual activity which actually took place in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Second, by locating the source of all change in a shift in attitudes towards, and practices of, male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality, he has largely ignored female sexuality, except when portraying poor wom en as the victims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the new male heterosexuality. Because, there was not, until at least the 1770s, a lesbian subculture against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to define themselves, he argues that most eighteenth-century women 'did not have an exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexual identity', \(429\) and hence he sees little need to examine their sexuality. The one change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified, that some elite women, influenced by romanticism, experienced in adulterous affairs 'a second, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper sexual awakening' than their first sexual experience with the ir husbands, \(423\) comes close to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepting uncritically later eighteenth- and nineteenth-century stereotypes that women were sexually passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until aroused by their husbands, 'since the majority of women would probably not have masturbated before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their f irst intercourse with their husbands'. \(395\) One can't help wondering whether the evidence can really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support such a statement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is thus a frustrating book. On the one hand, Trumbach has developed the important insight that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of homosexuality, heterosexuality, and gender are intricately interrelated, an insight which, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the approach adopted by most gender historians, identifies important changes in masculine as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminine behaviour. On the other hand, by viewing all eighteenth-century sexuality through this one lens, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has failed to examine other important forces which shaped ideas and practices in London, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing understandings of the body and the shift from a belief that women were the most lustful sex to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposite; the impact of urbanisation and the spread of print culture on the ways sexual knowledge was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffused, interrupting ch annels of information traditionally controlled by women; a growing distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between public and private life which marginalised public discussions of sex, especially female sex, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushed them behind closed doors; and the impact of early industrialis ation on traditional courtship patterns, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1541 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging earlier marriages but also destabilising them. Most of these changes served to encourage male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexual initiative at the expense of women, but not necessarily as a result of fears of homosexuality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the new courtship patterns, as well as the adoption of the romantic ideals discussed by Trumbach, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed some London women the chance to take the initiative in their relationships, a point illustrated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several of the case studies in this boo k. This is an important and complex subject, unsuited to an essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monocausal argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/78)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 316.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 316.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/78) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000606 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000004715 00000 n 0000004824 00000 n 0000004934 00000 n 0000005043 00000 n 0000008604 00000 n 0000008732 00000 n 0000008816 00000 n 0000008881 00000 n 0000016495 00000 n 0000016560 00000 n 0000024339 00000 n 0000024423 00000 n 0000026017 00000 n 0000026145 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26239 %%EOF