%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930111409+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930111409+01'00') /Title (Parties at War. Political Organisation in Second World War Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4222 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Parties at War. Political Organisation in Second World War Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Thorpe?s monograph is a wide-ranging, meticulously researched study of political organisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain during the Second World War, one that makes an important contribution to the historiography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. As Thorpe points out in his introduction, the ?high politics? of the period from 1939 to 1945 have for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most part been extensively covered by scholars, with much previously published work on events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues such as the downfall of Neville Chamberlain, the internal workings of the Churchill coalition, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of leadership and policy as experienced by the major parties. ?Low politics?, by contrast, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been less well served. Although there has perhaps been rather more of substance in this area than Thorpe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows \(stretching back to the pioneering work a generation ago of Angus Calder on the short-lived Common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wealth party\), he is right to say ? notwithstanding the exception of John Ramsden?s study of wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatism ? that party organisation in particular has remained a significant gap in the literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In seeking to plug that gap, Thorpe starts out with two main assumptions, the first more implied than openly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared. He asserts early on that despite ?many common assumptions, the history of political organisation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not an old-fashioned subject that has been repeatedly covered? \(p. 8\). The somewhat defensive tone here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to reflect a concern that political history has in recent times too readily followed on behind a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernist agenda that concerns itself primarily with discourse, rhetoric and meaning. The nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for party organisation ? minute books, annual reports, account books and so on ? does not generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(780)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Thorpe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199272730)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Jefferys)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7374 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lend itself to fashionable ?new? political history. And yet, as Thorpe points out, unlike 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, historians of the 19th century have long recognised the centrality of local sources in looking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret and draw important inferences for the workings of politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s second starting point is that if organisational history is to fulfil its potential, it must be multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layered in conception and execution. He is on strong grounds in noting that assertions about party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation in the war years \(and, it might be added, for other periods\), are frequently made on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flimsy evidence, or at best on the back of what can be gleaned through the records of prominent individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or national headquarters. For a more complete picture, he argues, regional and constituency records must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also be taken into account, and with this in mind Thorpe has undertaken a prodigious amount of research to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpin his study. In preparing the book he travelled to consult some 30 regional collections, and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituency level he looked at the papers of 106 divisional or borough Labour parties, 96 Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations and 26 Liberal associations. In an age when primary sources are increasingly drawn with speed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ease from the internet, the author has every reason to feel justified in claiming that his hard-earned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence base ?is sufficiently large to allow serious historical conclusions to be drawn? \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of the book follows on from this concern with breadth. Rather than looking at political parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in isolation \(another characteristic of much previous writing\), Thorpe tries to see organisation in the round )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by making as many direct comparisons between parties as possible. The first three chapters relate mainly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders and officials in the Conservative, Labour and Liberal parties. He begins with the ?view from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre?, assessing how the war impacted on the headquarters? operations of the respective parties. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by assessment of the relationship between MPs at Westminster and the constituencies \(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fresh material on prospective candidates\), and an overview of the role of constituency agents, charting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing patterns across the parties from a general reduction early in the war to a modest recovery as the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hostilities came into view. In the remainder of the book, attention turns more directly to grassroots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists, looking at levels of party membership across the board before separate chapters are devoted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form, nature and changing extent of activity \(and inactivity\) in local Tory, Labour and Liberal ranks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of his central arguments, Thorpe takes issue with the orthodoxy that party organisation \(especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Conservative side\) went into abeyance during the war years. The intensity of global conflict was such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this period might have posed a fundamental threat to the primacy of parties as a cornerstone of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy. Aside from the need for compromises to be made when the major parties committed themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Churchill?s coalition administration, local parties faced enormous practical difficulties in maintaining a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence at a time of huge upheaval and disruption. This established the context for a widely-discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?movement away from party? in the early war years, when mainstream candidates were at the mercy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent candidates at parliamentary by-elections; Conservatives, Labour and Liberal activists were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barred from competing at these under the terms of an electoral truce. Smaller parties such as the Communists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found their memberships rising sharply and new forces, notably Common Wealth, sprung up to challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the old order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essence of Thorpe?s case is that a major factor in the rolling back of the ?movement away from party? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the end of the war was the residual strength of the established parties. Despite all the handicaps ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the undoubted fall in memberships during 1940?2 ? attachment to party remained he claims both deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and broader than hitherto acknowledged. Falling membership was primarily due to practical problems, not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lessening of ideological zeal. Parties were important in serving social as well as political functions \(many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joined for the social opportunities on offer\), but at the same time many activists were spurred on by partisan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment, whatever the dictates of coalition. The cumulative evidence points to an important finding: ?At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grassroots level, the overwhelming majority of constituency-level bodies that had entered the war did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go out of existence. This was due to pressure from headquarters and regional-level bodies, but also to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious commitment of thousands of voluntary party workers up and down Britain. Their continuing hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work with the minutiae of grassroots politics was at the core of the survival of the three parties? \(p. 283\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the part played by organisational factors in Attlee?s electoral landslide of 1945, Thorpe argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Labour had a certain edge not because ? as Conservatives came to believe ? it had superior numbers on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5369 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the home front while Tory activists were mostly away on war duty, but rather because its more ritualised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures prompted greater continuity, as shown by persistence in chasing up membership fees. Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also spurred to greater activity by the heightened threat it felt in some areas to its core support from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communists or from Common Wealth. While the ?myth? of Labour exploiting wartime circumstances to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfairly seize the advantage was one that Conservatives rallied behind, Thorpe is reluctant to ascribe too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much importance to organisation in explaining the outcome of the 1945 election. He restricts himself to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saying that organisation was not a primary factor, but that ?at constituency level, Labour was closer to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?normal? state than were the Conservatives? \(p. 283\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In broad terms, the conclusions of )] TJ ET BT 200.324 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parties at War)] TJ ET BT 270.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are beyond dispute. What the author calls his ?detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical engagement? with the sources shows that predictions about the demise of party have too often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored the extent to which local organisations were ?rooted in the political soil of twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain? \(p.288\). This point is confirmed by the speed with which ? uniquely in the modern period ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative and Labour parties expanded rapidly at the same time after 1945, both building from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime base to reach a peak of membership by the early 1950s. Although it?s difficult to be precise with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures, the proportion of people belonging to a political party by 1950 was about double that of the inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war period. Yet in looking to put parties back in their rightful place as the bedrock of democracy, there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger of exaggerating just how deep rooted they were within British society as a whole. The Attlee years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked the closest Labour ever came to being a mass movement, but even at its pinnacle it represented only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a small fraction of the party?s electorate: a membership total around the million mark in 1951 amounted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only six per cent of those who voted Labour at the general election in that year. Even in flourishing local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties, of whatever persuasion, only a minority of members were consistently active. In spite of impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth, parties still had glaring weaknesses ? the size and effectiveness of constituency Labour parties, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, varied enormously between and within regions and localities ? and much of the electorate at large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained disengaged from political concerns. Only about one in ten adults during the 1940s expressed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious interest in politics, and substantial numbers ? up to half the population ? admitted to having no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest at all. Andrew Thorpe?s work definitively establishes that parties emerged stronger, not weaker, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the war years, but in the midst of widespread apathy and indifference, they were not part of a dynamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or flourishing political culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/517/1575.full)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 317.139 m 315.008 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.008 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 313.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 296.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 296.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/780)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 294.633 m 322.316 294.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3758)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/517/1575.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 317.4535 315.0077 329.3335 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/517/1575.full) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 294.9475 322.3157 306.8275 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/780) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000004918 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000005137 00000 n 0000005246 00000 n 0000008807 00000 n 0000008935 00000 n 0000009019 00000 n 0000009084 00000 n 0000016511 00000 n 0000016602 00000 n 0000022024 00000 n 0000022151 00000 n 0000022259 00000 n 0000022387 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 22482 %%EOF