%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 51 0 R 68 0 R 99 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140920073733+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140920073733+01'00') /Title (The Blasphemies of Thomas Aikenhead. Boundaries of Belief on the Eve of the Enlightenment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4633 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Blasphemies of Thomas Aikenhead. Boundaries of Belief on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eve of the Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Graham?s work is the first book length study of the life and unfortunate death of Edinburgh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university student Thomas Aikenhead. It builds on the important article length study of Michael Hunter first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1992.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.020 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.020 236.289 m 137.012 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.012 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Taking the model approach of the case-study of individual heterodoxy beautifully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiated by Ginzburg?s study of Menocchio, Seaver?s exploration of the mind of Nehemiah Wallington, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recently Hessayon?s imaginative reconstruction of the mentalit of Thomas Tany, Graham aims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place Aikenhead?s blasphemy and execution in the various legal, confessional and political contexts of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th-century Edinburgh.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.000 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.000 179.265 m 165.992 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 165.992 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The last person to be executed for blasphemy in Britain, Aikenhead was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punished for articulating his educated scepticism about commonplace Protestant doctrine and convictions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wrong places ? in the public spaces of coffee-houses and drinking dens. Since the 19th century when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macaulay?s whiggery commemorated Aikenhead as a martyr to reason, Aikenhead?s case has been a marker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the persecuting tendencies of the confessional state: a victim of bigoted priests. As Graham shows by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the reportage of the trial and execution in newspapers such as the )] TJ ET BT 398.936 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Post Man)] TJ ET BT 445.268 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 468.596 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Post Boy)] TJ ET BT 511.592 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, news of the brutal punishment whipped up both clergymen and the heterodox to read providential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political meaning into his death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late 1690s was a time of profound political and religious instability ? the new Williamite regime, keen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(781)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Graham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780748634262)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(174pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justin Champion)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.0197 236.6035 137.0117 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.9997 179.5795 165.9917 191.4595 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8139 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to discipline and restrain the threat of international and domestic ?popery?, had relinquished \(at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporarily\) the ambition of Godly conformity. In England the Church of England ? in particular those foot-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers in the reborn Lower House of Convocation ? following the model of Atterbury were equally keen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restate their vision of a social order underpinned by )] TJ ET BT 284.300 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de jure divino)] TJ ET BT 350.960 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( principles. For much of the decade John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locke had cause to defend the values of toleration and ?reasonableness? against the assaults of churchmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all hues, who insisted in their different ways, that it was the duty of the Godly magistrate and priest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrain vice, immorality and blasphemy. Men like Jean Gailhard called down the judgement of God upon all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissidents: punishment by death was an act of Christian piety, forbearance of heterodoxy was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unforgiveable sin. In Scotland the sense of religious crisis was if anything even more profound. As Graham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishes, those rigorous Presbyterian ministers such as George Meldrum involved in the pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aikenhead equally saw it as their Godly duty to hound young girls to death for playing on Sundays. One did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not need to be an articulate atheist to suffer the deadly consequences of upsetting the Godly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham?s study emplots Thomas Aikenhead into an excellent reconstruction of the routines of religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university life in the university and city of Edinburgh. He also locates the troubles Aikenhead faced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader moral panic of the 1690s. This is detailed and archivally informed historical writing ? exploiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish, judicial, ecclesiastical and private papers Graham delivers a textured sense of the tense atmosphere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riven by a bustling and intellectually robust university and the assumptions of a civic society which assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rightness of divine punishment for public sins. Fear of atheism was rendered more sensitive by anxieties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the political instability of the new order and the varieties of challenges to the ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment. This account literally allows us to retrace Aikenhead?s footsteps to the gallows \(see Figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.1 ?Thomas Aikenhead?s final journey? p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aikenhead was very much \(in this account\) the wrong person in the wrong place. As Hunter pointed out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his earlier article Aikenhead?s case was not the first example of heterodoxy to be put before the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privy council in October and November of 1696. In early October 1696, John Fraser, a bookkeeper to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant Alexander Innes was charged with maintaining that ?there was no God to whom men owed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverence worship and obedience so much talked off? and more to the point that the beliefs in establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion was made to ?freighten folks and to keep them in order? \(p. 61\). The origins of the accusation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fraser claimed, had been prompted by a misunderstanding between himself and his landlord and landlady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over discussion of the impious views advanced by the dead freethinker Charles Blount in his )] TJ ET BT 481.628 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oracles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reason)] TJ ET BT 69.344 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1693\). Clearly receiving expert legal advice, Fraser called in all the support he could draw on in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercantile and Presbyterian community ? it was his first offence, he was repentant. Certainly the punishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meted out by the Privy Council ? imprisoning him in the tollbooth in sackcloth until the following February )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? did not preserve his reputation, but it did his life. Unlike Aikenhead, who displayed both obstinacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated hostility, Fraser avoided the fatal consequence for expressing his beliefs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.596 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.596 300.627 m 440.588 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reconstructing the specific nature and identity of Aikenhead?s views is complex ? the fragmentary nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extant records of the trial, including depositions of compromised witnesses like fellow student Mungo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Craig, render difficult an appreciation of his sceptical account of orthodox doctrinal and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions. Certainly his ?practical atheism? alienated the most powerful interests and resonated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the anxieties about propitiating a vengeful God by fasts and civil punishments. Aikenhead?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions \(as recorded in multiple voices in the Justiciary Court papers and later in the printed edition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State trials)] TJ ET BT 86.360 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) suggest he advanced forms of anti-Trinitarianism, an hostility to divine revelation and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturalistic materialism all of which combined refuted the conventional understandings of the divine origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Christian religion, treated beliefs in God as delusional, and promoted a fundamental anticlericalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although working with the combined archival records of the trial, Aikenhead?s various defence papers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent newspaper reports, Graham does not pause to consider the nature of the sources in detail \(he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefers to cite the material reproduced in the printed edition rather than the ?original? manuscripts\). Indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preservation of the records of the trial itself is a compelling and significant story ? much of the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is most readily available in the 19th-century printed edition of the )] TJ ET BT 352.316 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Trials.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.996 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.996 77.043 m 424.988 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.988 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( After Macaulay \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham explores in his later chapter\), Aikenhead?s story became one that underscored the bigotry of the pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightened world. Much of the text reproduced in that 19th-century edition was drawn from papers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.5957 300.9415 440.5877 312.8215 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.9957 77.3575 424.9877 89.2375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originally owned by John Locke and currently held in the Bodleian at MS. Locke b. 4. The fact that Locke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved and commented on the material suggests the anxieties surrounding the case resonated around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles. Some of these materials ? the indictment, and in particular Aikenhead?s ?Cygnea Cantio? \(last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dying swan song statement\) ? are extant in duplicate copies in collections in Oxford, London and Edinburgh. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locke?s collection was concerned not just with the trial but the broader issue of the licensing of the press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and censorship including a number of papers directly concerned with the Licensing Act of 1662 and a copy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and revisions of a draft bill for the better regulating of printing for 1695.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The papers related to the Scottish trial were supplied by James Johnstoun; some of these were endorsed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locke.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.004 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.004 669.027 m 80.996 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 80.996 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Multiple copies of the ?Indictmt:? with corrections and endorsements by Locke and copies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitions by Aikenhead to the Judiciary and the privy Council were reproduced alongside the depositions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses against the accused. There is evidence that some of this material was circulated amongst a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Scottish circle in the period ? Aikenhead?s ?Cygnea cantio? is extant in two copies and was refuted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over a decade later by his sometime friend Thomas Halyburton in his )] TJ ET BT 369.296 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Natural Religion Insufficient)] TJ ET BT 507.308 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.308 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.308 612.003 m 524.300 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunter has noted that some of the material printed in the )] TJ ET BT 308.312 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Trials)] TJ ET BT 363.992 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is inaccurate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.304 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.304 597.747 m 444.296 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.296 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is a great shame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham did not take the opportunity to reproduce a critical and collated edition of this archive which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open up the material to further study and discussion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.656 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.656 569.235 m 299.648 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham?s account also opens up the issue of the authenticity of the accusations against Aikenhead. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of the reliability of trial records for assessing motive and intention for both prosecutors and accused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a distinguished historical pedigree.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.328 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.328 514.467 m 234.320 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 234.320 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the continent the tradition of inquisitorial prosecution has left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian with a substantial corpus of material for exploring heterodoxy, even if such evidence needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautious handling. The evidence remaining for British cases is slender ? the various heresy and blasphemy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trials in the 16th century are matched by the examples of Edward Wightman, Bartholomew Legate, Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Best and still later James Naylor.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.668 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.668 457.443 m 212.660 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.660 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In most of these cases the drive for conviction and exemplary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction overrode any concern to explore the theological dimensions of the heterodox belief. The very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that a case had come to trial ensured that the judicial process almost by necessity resulted in conviction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thrust of Graham?s argument confirms this ? given the nature of Aikenhead?s aggressive disposition, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half hearted repentance and the context of providential ire whipped up by the Kirk, there was very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt about the outcome of the trial. This raises a tough question. Does the case tell us more about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerant nature of the persecutory society of the period, and less about the precise heterodoxy he advanced? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words was Aikenhead a singular and unfortunate victim of his times, or was he emblematic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper cultural changes which were unpicking the common values of contemporaries? The evidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of the trial \(the gathering of testimony from his friends and fellow students, and the brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procession to capital punishment\) suggests there was little Aikenhead could do to defend himself. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps makes his final statement of heterodoxy so remarkable: when the game was up he returned to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own beliefs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The origin of these remarkably offensive ideas was, as one contemporary put it, the young man?s intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter with ?ill books which corrupt and ensnare curious fancies?. As Hunter established and Graham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has further explored, Aikenhead absorbed a variety of non-orthodox ideas through reading and exchanging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?atheisticall books?. In his defence petition Aikenhead represented himself as a young man in search of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainty ? it was ?a principle innate and co-natural to every man to have an insatiable inclination to truth?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a consequence of his ?doubtings and inquisitions? he had been forced to ?to reject the authoritys and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimonys, both of my parents and others?. As he explained these rational enquiries convinced him that ?I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found my education altogether wrong?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.980 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.980 160.323 m 242.972 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.972 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Aikenhead presents himself as a constructive sceptic, not freed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from all constraint by his reason, but applying it to achieve ?good and sufficient grounds whereon I might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safely build my faith?. Key Christian doctrines ? the nature of God?s government of the world, the Trinity ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puzzled and vexed him: indeed concerning the Trinity he commented ?that the more I thought [on it] the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further I was from it?. Aikenhead?s sorrowful conclusion was not that he was convinced by such doctrinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters, but that he must not expect such ?certainty, either in natural or supernatural things as I would have?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This picture of the earnest, distracted, sincere mind in pursuit of certainty fits well with Locke?s defence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rights of conscience ? although \(of course\) he excluded ?athiests? from tolerance. The trial account of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.0037 669.3415 80.9957 681.2215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.3077 612.3175 524.2997 624.1975 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.3037 598.0615 444.2957 609.9415 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.6557 569.5495 299.6477 581.4295 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.3277 514.7815 234.3197 526.6615 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.6677 457.7575 212.6597 469.6375 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.9797 160.6375 242.9717 172.5175 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R 66 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 8666 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aikenhead?s beliefs are spun in a somewhat different way. Derived from testimonies extracted from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student and town associates they present a much more aggressive and corrosive articulation of unbelief. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Legally charged with cursing God and denying revelation and the Trinity, the accusations of heterodoxy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were much more profound. According to the overview of the trial transcript Aikenhead?s expressions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woven into one system of impiety which saw scripture dismissed as ?Ezra?s fables? and ?a rapsidie of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feigned and ill-invented nonsense, patched up partly of poeticall fictions and extravagant chimeras?; Jesus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Moses regarded as were political ?impostors? ? and Mahomet privileged as a more effective legislator. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miracles were ?pranks?. Moses and Jesus exploited a common training in Egyptian magic to manipulate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid imaginations of ?ignorant blockish fisher fellows?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each of the separate depositions of Adam Mitchell, John Neilsons, John Potter, Patrick Midletoune and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mungo Craig contributed elements and variations on this overview. The adjectives and phrases recorded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe Aikenhead?s delivery ? ?scoff?, ?curse?, ?a scorning and jeering manner?, and ?ridicule? ? were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar. Many of the phrases were identical \(driven either by the legal crime, or perhaps by collusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts\), some were different ? for example, Mungo Craig ?heard him revile the books of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Testament and call them the books of the impostor Jesus Christ?; Midletoune reported ?that about the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of August last, about eight o?clock at night, going by the Tron kirk, he hard him \(being cold\) say that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wished to be in the place Ezra called hell, to warm himself there?; Neilson said Aikenhead thought of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory nature of the Trinity as the same as a ?squaire triangle?. These different remarks did not make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it into the final version of the indictment. Potter?s contribution ? recorded as ?nihil novit? \(nothing new, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing to add\) ? is perhaps the most telling in allowing us to think about how the trial was co-ordinated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce core themes of his assault on the scriptures, the status of Christ and public religion. Undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prosecution needed to make its strongest case to ensure conviction, but historians are rightly cautious of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking such evidence as indicative of a coherent worldview.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunter and Graham agree that the textual sources for this unbelief was a canon of reasonably available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wicked works. Books by Hobbes, Spinoza, Blount and others might readily provide arguments which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapted to oral debate and conversation ? certainly Hobbes and Blount provided their own witty and scoffing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions against mystery and delusion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.008 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.008 400.419 m 263.000 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.000 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Contemporaries like John Toland were publishing even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more provocative material in the late 1690s. Many of Aikenhead?s views can be seen to draw from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libertine, deistical and heterodox tradition. There is however a more radical seam which does not receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much consideration in this book. The most noticeable lacunae in Graham?s book is that it does not engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the historiography of the early and radical ?enlightenment? delivered powerfully initially by Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob and more recently in revised form by Jonathan Israel?s volumes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.276 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.276 329.139 m 394.268 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 394.268 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Graham does give sensitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the variety of contemporary labels attached to dissidence in the period. He also points to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectory of some of the positions in the later Scottish Enlightenment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.000 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.000 300.627 m 390.992 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the textual traditions that this research unearthed to view was the existence of a powerful materialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of religious belief underpinning the so-called ?three impostors? treatises. Whether derived from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin manuscript \()] TJ ET BT 122.672 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Tribus Impostoribus)] TJ ET BT 237.344 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) which we now know thanks to the work of Winfried Schrder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was composed in the 1690s in a similar university environment to Edinburgh but in Germany, or the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition \()] TJ ET BT 81.680 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Trait des Trois Imposteurs)] TJ ET BT 229.688 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) which we can date \(according to the findings of Silvia Berti\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1710s ? there was a European wide scribal exchange of clandestine works which suggested all three great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religions and leaders were political impostors exploiting popular credulity for their own ends.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.960 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.960 188.835 m 502.952 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aikenhead?s repeated use of the language of imposture and delusion ? combined with the remarks about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moses and Jesus learning the tricks of delusion in Egypt suggest that either he was drawing on similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions, or \(less likely\) had access to some of this clandestine material. As Berti and others have shown, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French treatises exploited material from a variety of classical sources \(Tacitus in particular\) to deliver the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of Moses the Egyptian trained impostor. Recent research suggests that readers in the British Isles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more familiar with the three impostors thesis than has been commonly accepted. Rumours of a text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with such a title were evident in the 1670s; Charles Blount alluded to the issue in his edition of Philostratus? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Apollonius)] TJ ET BT 120.032 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1680\); literary journals in the 1710s were delivering ?reviews? of such works to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan readers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.992 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.992 60.531 m 155.984 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 155.984 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The clandestine texts themselves were )] TJ ET BT 345.944 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bricolages)] TJ ET BT 396.608 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of ancient and early modern )] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.0077 400.7335 262.9997 412.6135 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.2757 329.4535 394.2677 341.3335 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.9997 300.9415 390.9917 312.8215 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.9597 189.1495 502.9517 201.0295 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.9917 60.8455 155.9837 72.7255 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R ] /Contents 69 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Length 10050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impiety, most significantly derived from Spinoza and Hobbes, so it is a possibility that Aikenhead?s impious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and outbursts are evidence of a similar type of irreligious reading to those going on in clandestine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental milieux. As studies of Toland, another product of Edinburgh University, have suggested there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was both social and intellectual permeability between these shores and Europe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.612 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.612 752.307 m 433.604 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aikenhead then may then have broader significance than simply casting light on the brutality of a Kirk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated culture. As Graham shows towards the end of the trial Aikenhead tried to distance himself from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he called the ?raging spirit of atheism which hath taken such a footing in Brittain, both in practice and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession?. He was unsuccessful and paid with his life. The monograph has made an excellent contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contextualising both the possibilities and consequences of articulating dissident ideas in an anxious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional culture. The moral panic which drove his trial to its fatal conclusion also resulted in increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveillance of intellectual dissidence in the university and town ? the General Assembly initiated a register )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of students with a view to ensuring their piety. Graham establishes quite how high the stakes were for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who stepped outside commonplace Christian culture: it also explains why men like John Locke, and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more so Isaac Newton were concerned to preserve their inner heterodoxies from the prying eyes of priests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See M. C. W Hunter ??Aikenhead the atheist?: the context and consequences of articulate irreligion in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late seventeenth century?, in )] TJ ET BT 221.312 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 469.304 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. C. W. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunter and D. Wootton \(Oxford, 1992\) pp. 221?54, subsequently expanded and revised in )] TJ ET BT 500.276 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Shape of Orthodoxy: Intellectual Change in Late Seventeenth-Century Britain.)] TJ ET BT 459.308 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 475.203 m 149.000 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Ginzburg, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cheese and the Worms: the Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller)] TJ ET BT 467.312 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1980\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Seaver )] TJ ET BT 112.340 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wallington?s World: a Puritan Artisan in Seventeenth-Century London)] TJ ET BT 455.336 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1985\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessayon )] TJ ET BT 113.672 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Gold Tried in the Fire?: the Prophet TheaurauJohn Tany and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 2007\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.336 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.336 418.179 m 209.324 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Hunter, ?Aikenhead? pp. 322?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.636 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.636 403.923 m 293.624 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Complete Collection of State Trials)] TJ ET BT 244.364 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. Cobbett, T. B. Howell )] TJ ET BT 394.688 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 415.688 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(34 vols., London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1809?28\), xiii, pp. 917?40 \(item no. 401\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.004 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.004 375.411 m 318.992 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So for instance the letter from Johnstoun has in Locke?s hand ?Aikenhead 96/7 The Acts agt )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blasphemie?. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.008 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.008 346.899 m 185.996 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See MS Locke b. 4 fols. 99?101, 103?5 and Harleian MS 6846 fols. 400?1. Thomas Halyburton )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Natural Religion Insufficient; and Reveal?d Necessary to Man?s Happiness in his Present State: or, a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rational Enquiry into the Principles of the Modern Deists )] TJ ET BT 345.680 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 1714\) pp. 119?23.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.664 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.664 304.131 m 547.652 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunter [p. 313 footnote 17; p. 316 footnote 28], comparing records in the Scottish Records Office )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([SRO JC26/78/1/12 with col. 922 and col. 933; SRO JC/78/1/11 and JC2/19 \(Book of Adjournment\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with cols. 917?20] notes the omission of a significant phrases [?atheisticall books, & did frequently )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presse upon me to repeat?] and other singular words.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.624 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.624 247.107 m 371.612 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volumes of the )] TJ ET BT 160.004 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Trials)] TJ ET BT 215.684 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are available on various open access databases. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.944 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.944 232.851 m 501.932 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlo Ginzburg ?Checking the evidence: the judge and the historian? )] TJ ET BT 398.624 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Critical Inquiry)] TJ ET BT 474.296 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18 \(1991\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(79?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 204.339 m 150.332 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See I. 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